Taiwanese Americans

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Taiwanese Americans
Total population
193,365 [1] - 900,595 [2]
0.06%-0.3% of the U.S. population (2017)
Regions with significant populations
Los Angeles metropolitan area, New York City metropolitan area, San Francisco Bay Area, Greater Boston, Philadelphia metropolitan area, Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, Seattle metropolitan area, Chicago, Dallas, Houston
Languages
American English, Chinese ( Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka)
Religion
Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Chinese Americans, Hong Kong Americans, Hoklo Americans, Hakka Americans, Overseas Taiwanese, Overseas Chinese

Taiwanese Americans ( Chinese: 臺灣裔美國人) are Americans who carry full or partial ancestry from Taiwan. This includes American-born citizens who descend from migrants from Taiwan. [3] Depending on political views concerning Chinese unification and America's role in this, some Taiwanese-Americans see themselves as a subgroup in the larger Chinese-American community, while others see themselves as a distinct group.

Taiwan functions as a de facto independent country, officially known as the Republic of China (not to be confused with the People's Republic of China, a United Nations member state which claims Taiwan as its 23rd province). Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations and is recognized by 15 de jure countries. The United States treats Taiwan as an entity with undetermined status, not recognizing it as a country nor a province of China, whilst still treating Taiwan as an independent country in many unofficial regards. The United States maintains unofficial relations with Taiwan via the " Taiwan Relations Act" and a quasi- embassy called " American Institute in Taiwan". The TRA and US official documents refer to Taiwan as 'Taiwan,' without any designation as 'province of China.'

As of the 2010 U.S. Census, 49% of Taiwanese Americans lived in the state of California. New York and Texas have the second and third largest Taiwanese American populations, respectively. [1] Famous Taiwanese Americans include Jeremy Lin, Constance Wu, Steve Chen, Andrew Yang, Joy Burke and Elaine Chao.

Immigration history

Constance Wu began her career in the theater, before her breakthrough role as Jessica Huang in the ABC comedy series Fresh Off the Boat.

Prior to the 1950s, emigration from Taiwan (ROC) (then called Formosa), was negligible. [4] In 1949, the Chinese Communist Party took control of mainland China, and 2 million refugees, predominantly from the Republic of China (ROC) Nationalist government, military, and business community, fled to Taiwan. From 1949 up until 1979, the United States recognized the Kuomintang-led ROC as the sole legitimate government of China. As a result, immigration from Taiwan was counted under within the same quota for both mainland China and Taiwan. However, because the People's Republic of China (PRC) banned emigration to the United States until 1977, the quota for immigrants from China was almost exclusively filled by immigrants from Taiwan. After the National Origins system was relaxed and repealed by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and 1965, many Taiwanese people came to the United States, forming the first wave of Taiwanese immigration. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 created a system in which persons with professional skills and family ties in the United States were given preferential status, regardless of the nation of origin.

In 1979, the United States broke diplomatic relations with the ROC, while the Taiwan Relations Act gave Taiwan a separate immigration quota from that of the PRC.

Before the late 1960s, immigrants from Taiwan to the United States tended to be " mainland Chinese" who had immigrated to Taiwan with the Kuomintang (KMT) after the fall of mainland China to the Communists. Later immigrants tended to increasingly be Taiwanese benshengren, or Han Taiwanese whose ancestors had already lived in Taiwan before 1949.

Socioeconomics

Education

Taiwanese culture places a high value on education, and many Taiwanese Americans are very highly educated and hold advanced degrees from numerous prestigious universities around the United States. Several distinguished academics, including Nobel Prize winners, are Taiwanese Americans. [5] [6] [7]

Financial and socioeconomic opportunities offered by the United States have lifted many Taiwanese Americans out of poverty, joining the ranks of the America's middle and upper middle class. Estimates indicate that a disproportionate percentage of Taiwanese students attend elite universities despite constituting less than 0.5% of the U.S. population. Taiwanese Americans and Indian Americans have the highest education attainment level in the United States, surpassing any other ethnic group in the country, according to U.S Census Bureau data released in 2010. According to the 2010 Labor Statistics from U.S. Census Bureau, 73.6% of all Taiwanese Americans have attained a bachelor's or high degree (compared to 28.2% nationally and 49.9% for all Asian American groups). 80.0% of Taiwanese American men attained a bachelor's degree and 68.3% of Taiwanese American women attained a bachelor's degree. 39.1% of all Taiwanese in the United States possess a master's, doctorate or other professional degree, which is nearly four times the national average. [8] [9]

Bachelor's Degree or Higher Educational Attainment [10]
Ethnicity Percent of Population
Taiwanese 73.6%
Indian 71%
Chinese 51.8%
Japanese 47.4%
Non-Hispanic White 29.5%
Vietnamese 25.2%
General US Population 28.2%

Employment

Many Taiwanese Americans work as white collar professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in management, professional and related occupations such as engineering, medicine, investment banking, law, and academia. 66.2% of Taiwanese Americans work in many white collar professions compared to 35.9% for the general American population and 48.1% for Asian Americans. 71.3% of Taiwanese men and 60.4% of Taiwanese women work in management, professional, and related occupations. They also hold some of the lowest unemployment rates in the nation with a figure of 4.3% compared to a national rate of 6.9%. [9] Some of the prominent technology companies in the United States have been founded by Taiwanese Americans such as Morris Chang (founder of TSMC), Min Kao (co-founder of Garmin), Jerry Yang (co-founder of Yahoo), Steve Chen (co-founder of YouTube), Jen-Hsun Huang (co-founder of Nvidia), William Wang (founder of Vizio), Greg Tseng (co-founder of Tagged) and James Chu (founder of Viewsonic).

Economics

According to the 2009 U.S. Census, Taiwanese American men had one of "the highest year-round, full-time median earnings" with a figure of $76,587, whilst Taiwanese American women had a median income of $51,307. After Indian Americans, Taiwanese Americans have the highest median incomes of any ethnic group in United States with a median income of $68,809, which is roughly 37% percent above the national average. Taiwanese Americans have one of the lowest poverty rates in the US, with a poverty rate of 9.5% compared to 11.3% for the general American population. [9]

Settlement

Many Taiwanese immigrants have not settled in the old Chinatowns because they do not speak Cantonese. Instead, they have generally immigrated directly to American suburbia and as a result, new suburban Taiwanese communities were formed. For example, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Taiwanese emigrants were instrumental in the development of Monterey Park, California in Los Angeles - resulting in the moniker of "Little Taipei" - as well as Flushing, Queens, which generally reflected new investments and capital flowing from Taiwan into newer Taiwanese enclaves instead of the mostly dilapidated Chinatowns.

While Monterey Park is no longer the largest Taiwanese community in Los Angeles today, Flushing remains the main Taiwanese cultural, commercial, and political center in New York City. In Los Angeles County, California, newer communities such as Rowland Heights, Hacienda Heights, Arcadia, San Marino, Diamond Bar, Walnut, San Gabriel, Temple City, are similar to "Little Taipei." However, many annual Taiwanese cultural events (especially during Taiwanese Heritage Week) are still held in Monterey Park. As an attempt to duplicate the Taiwanese success of Monterey Park in Houston, Texas, Taiwanese immigrant entrepreneurs established what is now widely considered as Houston's new Chinatown on Bellaire Boulevard in the mid-1980s. A number of Taiwanese American businesses and organizations still operate and flourish in this part of Houston.

The prestige and performance of particular school districts, as well as access to careers in high-tech firms, have played significant a significant part in influencing the settlement patterns of Taiwanese Americans. Areas with high concentrations of Taiwanese immigrants include the San Gabriel Valley (Greater Los Angeles), Santa Clara Valley ( Cupertino, San Jose), East Bay ( Dublin, Pleasanton, El Cerrito, Oakland), Los Angeles/Orange County border communities ( Cerritos/ Artesia), and Irvine in Central Orange County. Outside of California, there are also major Taiwanese concentrations in Flushing, Long Island City, and Forest Hills, all within Queens; Nassau County on Long Island; Jersey City and Hoboken in nearby New Jersey; Rockville, Maryland (northwest of Washington, D.C.); Sugar Land, Texas (near Houston), Plano, Texas (near Dallas); Bellevue, Washington (and adjacent areas) (part of the Greater Seattle Area's "Eastside" communities) and Chandler, Arizona. Additionally, the northeastern suburbs of the Atlanta, Georgia area has also received a significant influx of Taiwanese immigrant residents.

From the middle of the 1980s to the 1990s, large numbers of affluent Taiwanese Americans began moving out to upscale neighborhoods such as Cupertino, San Mateo, Palo Alto, Fremont, Newark, and Pleasanton in the Bay Area; San Marino, Arcadia, South Pasadena, and Temple City in Western San Gabriel Valley; Hacienda Heights, Rowland Heights, Walnut, and Diamond Bar in Eastern San Gabriel Valley; with immigrants from the People's Republic of China and Cantonese and Teochew (mostly from Vietnam) taking their place in Monterey Park, as well as Alhambra. Starting in the 2000s, highly educated Nassau County on Long Island east of New York City, as well as suburbs in northern and central New Jersey, have received a large influx of Taiwanese immigrants.

Similarly, for the past 10 years, Taiwanese have been immigrating to upscale neighborhoods in Los Angeles and Orange County such as Cerritos and Irvine respectively. Cerritos is located in Los Angeles County but borders Orange County and has a large diversity of Asian immigrants. Irvine has a very large Taiwanese population. The Irvine Chinese School, which serves mostly the American-born children of Taiwanese immigrants, is one of the largest Chinese-language schools in the Orange County area.

Taiwanese-oriented strip malls and shopping complexes are typically complete with supermarkets and restaurants, thus most Taiwanese American suburbanites do not frequent traditional Chinatowns. In addition, shops offering imported Taiwanese goods allow for young Taiwanese expatriates in the United States to keep up with the current trends and popular culture of Taiwan. Taiwanese Americans have also brought with them Taiwanese cuisine to the communities they have settled, which, possibly excluding bubble tea, is not generally well known or served outside these aforementioned Taiwanese immigrant enclaves.

U.S. metropolitan areas with large Taiwanese American populations

The list of metropolitan area with a Taiwanese American population of at least 4,000, as of the 2010 U.S. Census.

Rank Metro Area Region Taiwanese-Americans
Alone or in Combination ( 2010 Census)
1 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana Pacific 60,478 [11]
2 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island Mid-Atlantic 25,573 [12]
3 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara Pacific 17,125 [13]
4 San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont Pacific 16,549 [14]
5 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria South Atlantic 7,179 [15]
6 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown West South Central 7,109 [16]
7 Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Pacific 6,924 [17]
8 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario Pacific 5,913 [18]
9 Chicago-Joliet-Naperville East North Central 5,532 [19]
10 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington West South Central 5,195 [20]
11 Boston-Cambridge-Quincy New England 4,802 [21]
12 San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos Pacific 4,722 [22]

Politics

Taiwanese Americans have also gradually increased their political engagement in the public sphere of the U.S. in recent years.

Notable examples include:

Immigrants vs. native-borns

First and second generation immigrants from Taiwan usually share a common language, Mandarin, although many also speak Taiwanese Hokkien, and to a lesser extent, Hakka. Many first generation immigrants educated before 1945 speak Japanese as their second native language. As with most immigrants to the United States, linguistic fluency in the heritage language quickly disappears in the second generation. Immigrants whose families are from the Taipei metropolitan area usually speak Mandarin as their primary language. There are many first generation Taiwanese immigrants of full Hakka heritage who speak all three languages. Some Taiwanese Americans of mixed Hoklo and Hakka Heritage speak only Mandarin as their primary langage.

Organizations

Organizations geared towards Taiwanese Americans include the Formosan Association for Public Affairs (FAPA), North America Taiwanese Professors Association (NATPA), Taiwanese American Citizens League (TACL), Taiwanese American Professionals (TAP) and Intercollegiate Taiwanese American Students Association (ITASA). In addition, most cities with concentrations of Taiwanese Americans have a Taiwanese association or Taiwan Center.

The first Taiwanese church in North America, the Winfield Reformed Church in Woodside, Queens, in New York City, was established in 1969. [26]

Media

Taiwanese Americans also run several of North America's major Chinese-language newspapers, such as the World Journal based in Queens; and the Chicago Chinese News. However, these influential and highly circulated newspapers are not geared solely to Taiwanese immigrants, but also serve a broader Chinese-speaking immigrant readership. Pacific Journal is a weekly Taiwanese-run newspaper that is geared more exclusively toward Taiwanese readers.

Due to the significant Taiwanese American community, Taiwanese media dominates the Chinese-language airwaves in the United States. Cable and satellite television of Taiwan-based media keeps Taiwanese Americans abreast of news developments and programming in Taiwan. For example, satellite stations ETTV America and CTI cater to Mandarin-speaking Taiwanese immigrants.

Sports

Hall of Fame tennis player and current coach Michael Chang and current basketball player Jeremy Lin, are Taiwanese Americans.

Taiwanese nationality and residency

Passport of Taiwan
Passport of the United States

In the 1960s, many Taiwanese Americans chose to make America their permanent home and had children in the U.S. Most sought refuge from the numerous arrests and executions during the White Terror era of the Kuomintang, the political party which had dictatorially ruled the country. By the late 1970s, improving economic conditions in Taiwan slowed the rate of immigration. During the 1990s, political liberalization in Taiwan encouraged many who had left Taiwan for political reasons to return.

Although the oath of naturalization of the United States contains a statement renouncing "allegiance and fidelity" to other countries, the Republic of China (the formal name of Taiwan) does not recognize this renunciation as sufficient for the termination of ROC nationality, and requires a person who wishes to renounce ROC nationality to take another oath before an ROC consular officer. All renunciations are subject to approval from the Ministry of the Interior, [27] and the Ministry may deny a person's application under Taiwanese law. [28] Without formal renunciation, the ROC government considers its emigrants with American citizenship to continue to be nationals of the ROC. Acquiring US citizenship has no effect on the holder's status as a national of ROC, which makes Taiwan-born Americans still eligible to vote in the ROC elections, provided that their household registration is still intact in Taiwan.

Unlike their Taiwan-born parents, the American-born second generation do not have household registration in Taiwan at birth, making them nationals without household registration (NWOHRs), despite the fact that they are also ROC nationals under Taiwanese law. In contrast with those with household registration in Taiwan, NWOHRs cannot receive a Taiwanese National Identification Card, do not have right of abode in Taiwan, and are subject to immigration control while in Taiwan. [29] They are, however, eligible for a Taiwan passport. It is possible for NWOHRs to be registered as nationals with household registration (NWHRs) if they meet the requirements listed under the Immigration Act of Taiwan.

Connection to politics of Taiwan

Politically, Taiwanese Americans play an active role in the politics and culture of the country, aided in large part by recognition of dual citizenship. The identity politics of Taiwan also influences at least first generation Taiwanese Americans. Many government officials, including presidents Tsai Ing-Wen, Ma Ying-Jeou, and Lee Teng-Hui, have received graduate degrees in the United States. The United States was also a major destination for anti-Kuomintang figures such as Peng Ming-min and Chai Trong-rong, where they were politically exiled. Others, including Nobel Prize laureate Yuan T. Lee were educated in the United States.

The close connection between Taiwan and the United States has led to some interesting political dynamics. From time to time, the issue of loyalty to Taiwan is raised – for example, in 2008, during his successful Presidential campaign, the fact that Ma Ying-Jeou has sisters and a daughter who are American citizens was criticized. James Soong has been criticized for having extensive property holdings in the United States and for the fact that his children are American citizens. Several legislators and government officials in the KMT have been controversially alleged to have permanent U.S. residency status or U.S. citizenship without renouncement while serving in public office. Similarly, loyalty was raised as an issue in the feud between Li Ao and Yuan T. Lee, whose children are also American citizens. This issue is partly one of socio-economic status as Taiwanese with extensive connections within the United States are considered wealthier and more privileged than the average Taiwanese.

However, this issue has not become a large part of Taiwanese political discourse, largely because links with the United States are so extensive on both sides of the political spectrum that no one can use this issue to gain a significant political advantage. Both the pan-Blue coalition and pan-Green coalition rely on Taiwanese Americans for votes. In the 2004 ROC Presidential Election, both coalitions campaigned extensively in the United States. and an estimated 10,000 Taiwanese Americans traveled to Taiwan to vote in the election.

While dual citizens are banned from high political office, [30] there has not been a significant movement within Taiwan to ban dual citizenship in general. Taiwan's Supreme Court has ruled that all citizens, dual or singular, are entitled to the same rights. US natural born citizens were included in the decision.[ citation needed]

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "ASIAN ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH ONE OR MORE OTHER RACES, AND WITH ONE OR MORE ASIAN CATEGORIES FOR SELECTED GROUPS". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  2. ^ "僑委會全球資訊網". Archived from the original on 2012-09-16.
  3. ^ J. Sydney Jones, "Taiwanese Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, (3rd ed., vol. 4, Gale, 2014), pp. 343-356. Online
  4. ^ Robert A. Johnston. "EXPERIENCES OF IMMIGRATION AMONG WOMEN FROM TAIWAN" (PDF). Sjsu.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  5. ^ Indian Americans grow to 3.2 million, top in household income. The Economic Times. 2011.
  6. ^ Springer, Richard (Nov 14, 2011). "South Asian Population Growth in U.S. Leads Asian Groups". Indiawest. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  7. ^ "Indo-Americans Population Surpasses 3 Million Milestone, Tops In Income". The Link. November 26, 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  8. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Asian alone)". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2011-12-26.
  9. ^ a b c American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Taiwanese alone)". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2011-12-26.
  10. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. 2010. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
  11. ^ "Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  12. ^ "New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  13. ^ "San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  14. ^ "San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Washington-Arlington-Alexandria". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  16. ^ "Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  19. ^ "Chicago-Joliet-Naperville". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  21. ^ "Boston-Cambridge-Quincy". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  22. ^ "San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos". US Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  23. ^ "Andrew Yang's Presidential Bid is So Very 21st Century". Wired.
  24. ^ Lea Kahn. "West Windsor Mayor Shing-Fu Hsueh won't seek a fifth term". Centraljersey.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  25. ^ "N.J. mayor born in Taiwan is the epitome of the American dream - Editorial". Nj.com. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  26. ^ "教會歷史 – 紐約恩惠歸正教會 Winfield Reformed Church". Winfieldreformedchurch.org. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  27. ^ Article 11 of the Nationality Law of the Republic of China.
  28. ^ Articles 12 and 13 of the Nationality Law of the Republic of China.
  29. ^ "Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  30. ^ Article 20 of the Nationality Law of the Republic of China.

Bibliography

External links