Politics of New Jersey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Jersey is one of the fifty U.S. states. The state is considered a Democratic stronghold, since it has consistently voted for Democrats in presidential elections since 1992. Democrats have also controlled both chambers of the state legislature since 2002. New Jersey currently has two Democratic United States senators. New Jersey's Class I Senate seat has been Democratic since 1959 (with an 8-month exception in 1982). New Jersey's Class II Senate seat has been Democratic since 1979 (with a four-month exception in 2013). In addition, New Jersey's House congressional delegation has had a Democratic majority since 1964 with the exceptions of 1993–1997, 2006, and 2013–2017. As of July 1, 2020, there are more registered Democrats than unaffiliated voters for the first time in history.

History

American Revolution

In 1776, the first constitution of New Jersey was drafted. Written during the American Revolution, it created a basic framework for state government and allowed "all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money" [1] to vote (including blacks, spinsters, and widows); married women could not own property under common law. The constitution declared itself temporary and void if there was reconciliation with Great Britain. [2] [3] Both parties in elections mocked the other party for relying on "petticoat electors", and accused each other of allowing unqualified women to vote. The state voted for Washington in 1789 and 1792, as well as Adams in 1796.

Nineteenth century

The second version of the constitution was adopted on June 29, 1844, and restricted suffrage to white males. Important components of the second state constitution included the separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The new constitution also provided a bill of rights, and granted voters (instead of the legislature) the right to elect the governor. Throughout the century, the state voted for the Federalist Party twice, the Democratic-Republican Party five times, the National Republican Party once, the Whig Party four times, the Democratic Party ten times, and the Republican Party three times.

Twentieth century

From 1894 to 1973, Republicans controlled the both houses of the state legislature (with the exceptions of 1907, 1911, 1913–1914, 1932, 1937, 1958–1963, 1966-1967). From 1900 to 1944, New Jersey voted for Democrats five times, and voted for Republicans seven times. After World War II, New Jersey was a Republican-leaning swing state in presidential elections; from the 1948 to the 1988, Republican candidates won nine out of eleven elections. John F. Kennedy won New Jersey in 1960 by 22,000 votes, and Lyndon B. Johnson won in 1964 as a part of his landslide victory. Although New Jersey had several highly populated Democratic urban areas such as Camden, Newark, and Jersey City, the state was also becoming home to suburbs of New York City and Philadelphia. Voters in suburban New Jersey were overwhelmingly white, and more likely to vote Republican. From 1943 to 1979, New Jersey was represented in the US Senate by a Democrat and a Republican.

Since 1992, New Jersey has voted for Democrats in every presidential election. Bill Clinton won a plurality of New Jersey's popular vote that year, and a majority of New Jersey's popular vote in 1996. Among Republican New Jersey voters, those living in rural parts of the state tended to vote for conservative Republicans; suburban voters tended to prefer liberal, or moderate, Republicans. During the 1980s, a significant number of Asian-Americans immigrated to the northeastern and central parts of the state and tended to vote Democratic.

Twenty-first century

Since 2002, the New Jersey Legislature has been overwhelmingly Democratic; in April 2020, there were over 994,000 more registered Democrats than Republicans. [4] Democrats tend to do well in areas near New York City, Philadelphia, and Trenton, and cities such as Jersey City, Newark, Camden, Elizabeth, Trenton, Paterson are overwhelmingly Democratic. These cities influence counties (such as Hudson, Essex, Camden, Passaic, Union and Middlesex) to vote Democratic. Predominantly suburban and rural counties, especially along the Jersey Shore and northwestern New Jersey, tend to vote Republican; this includes counties such as Ocean, Warren, Cape May and Hunterdon. Other counties, such as Atlantic, Salem, Cumberland, are considered "swing" counties; they tend to vote closely within the margins of each party, swaying in one direction or the other.

Statistics

The 2016 presidential election in New Jersey was won by Hillary Clinton in 12 counties. Trump won nine counties, with a vote percentage of 55.45 to 41.35 percent. Trump flipped two counties (Gloucester and Salem) which had voted Democratic in 2012. Every county voted identically in 2016 and the 2017 gubernatorial election with the exception of Gloucester, which flipped back to Democratic. In the 2018 Senate election, Atlantic and Gloucester Counties flipped Republican. In the 2020 presidential election, Biden flipped Atlantic, Gloucester, and Morris counties.

County votes for 2016 Presidential, [5] 2017 Gubernatorial, [6] 2018 Senate, [7] 2020 Presidential, and 2020 Senate
County 2016 Presidential 2017 Gubernatorial 2018 Senate 2020 Presidential 2020 Senate
Atlantic Clinton Murphy Hugin Biden Booker
Bergen Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Burlington Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Camden Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Cape May Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta
Cumberland Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Essex Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Gloucester Trump Murphy Hugin Biden Booker
Hudson Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Hunterdon Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta
Mercer Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Middlesex Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Monmouth Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta
Morris Trump Guadagno Hugin Biden Booker
Ocean Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta
Passaic Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Salem Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta
Somerset Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Sussex Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta
Union Clinton Murphy Menendez Biden Booker
Warren Trump Guadagno Hugin Trump Mehta

Nine counties (Burlington, Camden, Essex, Gloucester, Hudson, Mercer, Middlesex, Passaic, and Union) have a majority of Democratic registrants, and four (Cape May, Hunterdon, Sussex, and Warren) have a majority of Republican registrants; the remaining eight have a majority of unaffiliated voters. Of those with an unaffiliated majority, four counties have more Democrats than Republicans (Atlantic, Bergen, Cumberland, Monmouth, Salem, and Somerset) and two counties (Ocean and Morris) has more Republicans than Democrats.

Two counties (Essex and Hudson) have a majority of their registrants in one party (Democratic). The highest percentage of unaffiliated voters is in Monmouth (41.7 percent). The highest percentage of Democrats is in Hudson (54.9 percent); the highest percentage of Republicans is in Sussex (41.6 percent), and the highest percentage registered in other parties is in Cumberland (2.1 percent). The lowest percentage of unaffiliated is in Cape May (33 percent), Democrats is in Sussex (22.5 percent), Republicans is in Essex (9.9 percent), and other parties is Hunterdon (0.8 percent). The county with the closest Democratic-Republican percentages is Monmouth, with Democrats at 28.7 percent and Republicans at 28.4 percent. The county with the largest Democratic-Republican percentage spread is Hudson (44.8 percent). Bergen County has the largest number of registered voters (678,826), and Salem County has the least (49,612).

Voter registration by county on November 2, 2020 [4]
County [a] Unaffiliated Una % Democratic Dem % Republican Rep % Other O % Total
Atlantic 75,101 36.6% 72,772 35.5% 54,398 26.5% 2,890 1.4% 205,161
Bergen 267,555 39.4% 258,794 38.1% 145,805 21.5% 6,672 1% 678,826
Burlington 119,107 34.3% 136,381 39.3% 87,934 25.3% 3,889 1.1% 347,311
Camden 141,978 36% 185,839 47.1% 61,164 15.5% 5,211 1.3% 394,192
Cape May 25,321 33% 18,930 24.6% 31,740 41.3% 848 1.1% 76,839
Cumberland 38,557 40.3% 33,770 35.3% 21,424 22.4% 1,967 2.1% 95,718
Essex 214,733 37.6% 294,191 51.6% 56,504 9.9% 5,217 0.9% 570,645
Gloucester 83,187 36% 89,628 38.8% 55,460 24% 2,813 1.2% 231,088
Hudson 138,118 33.4% 227,028 54.9% 41,780 10.1% 6,282 1.5% 413,208
Hunterdon 35,391 33.4% 28,485 26.9% 41,056 38.8% 877 0.8% 105,809
Mercer 101,128 38.6% 117,005 44.6% 40,184 15.3% 3,857 1.5% 262,174
Middlesex 224,385 39.8% 242,566 43% 89,442 15.9% 7,597 1.4% 563,990
Monmouth 204,559 41.7% 140,759 28.7% 139,223 28.4% 5,805 1.2% 490,346
Morris 141,133 36.1% 112,759 28.8% 133,470 34.1% 3,811 1% 391,173
Ocean 177,182 39.8% 100,823 22.6% 161,808 36.3% 5,722 1.3% 445,535
Passaic 126,185 38.3% 131,089 39.8% 67,070 20.4% 5,158 1.6% 329,502
Salem 19,871 40.1% 15,436 31.1% 13,531 27.3% 774 1.6% 49,612
Somerset 101,149 39.1% 90,014 34.8% 65,262 25.2% 2,550 1% 258,975
Sussex 39,672 34.4% 25,955 22.5% 47,907 41.6% 1,731 1.5% 115,265
Union 132,520 35.4% 180,242 48.1% 56,886 15.2% 4,838 1.3% 374,486
Warren 30,315 35.1% 21,879 25.3% 33,140 38.3% 1,110 1.3% 86,444
Total 2,437,147 37.6% 2,524,345 38.9% 1,445,188 22.3% 79,619 1.2% 6,486,299
  1. ^ Counties are colored based on majority party registration.

Six districts (1, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12) have a majority of Democratic registrants, and zero have a majority of Republican registrants; the remaining six have a majority of unaffiliated voters. Of those with an unaffiliated majority, five districts have more Democrats than Republicans (2, 3, 5, 7, and 11) and one district (4) has more Republicans than Democrats.

Two districts (8 and 10) have a majority of their registrants in one party (Democratic). The highest percentage of unaffiliated voters is in District 6 (40.3 percent). The highest percentage of Democrats is in District 10 (58.5 percent); the highest percentage of Republicans is in District 4 (31.2 percent), and the highest percentage registered in other parties is a tie between District 6, District 8, and District 9 (1.5 percent each). The lowest percentage of unaffiliated is in District 10 (34.3 percent), Democrats is in District 4 (27 percent), Republicans is in District 10 (5.9 percent), and other parties is a tie between Districts 7 and 11 (0.9 percent each). The district with the closest Democratic-Republican percentages is District 11, with Democrats at 31.6 percent and Republicans at 30.3 percent. The district with the largest Democratic-Republican percentage spread is District 10 (52.6 percent). District 11 has the largest number of registered voters (599,917), and District 8 has the smallest (440,239).

Voter registration by congressional district on November 2, 2020 [8]
District [a] Unaffiliated Una % Democratic Dem % Republican Rep % Other O % Total
1 201,419 35.6% 257,508 45.6% 98,746 17.5% 7,453 1.3% 565,126
2 [b] 202,230 37.3% 175,469 32.3% 157,261 29% 7,808 1.4% 542,768
3 213,576 37% 186,117 32.2% 170,860 29.6% 7,099 1.2% 577,652
4 230,770 40.7% 153,057 27% 176,695 31.2% 6,462 1.1% 566,984
5 220,574 38.2% 183,920 31.9% 166,807 28.9% 5,773 1% 577,074
6 199,724 40.3% 202,656 40.9% 85,890 17.3% 7,158 1.5% 495,428
7 223,679 37.8% 186,709 31.5% 176,477 29.8% 5,361 0.9% 592,226
8 154,001 35% 237,043 53.8% 42,674 9.7% 6,521 1.5% 440,239
9 186,768 38.8% 214,239 44.5% 73,358 15.2% 7,080 1.5% 481,445
10 177,099 34.3% 301,671 58.5% 30,559 5.9% 6,795 1.3% 516,124
11 223,165 37.2% 189,834 31.6% 181,743 30.3% 5,175 0.9% 599,917
12 204,142 38.4% 236,122 44.4% 84,118 15.8% 6,934 1.3% 531,316
Total 2,437,147 37.6% 2,524,345 38.9% 1,445,188 22.3% 79,619 1.2% 6,486,299
  1. ^ Districts are colored by current political representation, not by the highest percentage of voters in each party.
  2. ^ Jeff Van Drew was elected as a Democrat in 2018, but switched parties on January 7, 2020 over Donald Trump's impeachment.

Issues

The most contentious recent issue in New Jersey has been the conflict between the state government and public-sector unions. The unions, allied with the Democratic Party, believed that their workers were entitled to pensions and healthcare which had been promised to them in the past. Moderate Democrats and Republicans believed that the state could no longer afford to pay for benefits it had promised public workers in the past. [9] [10]

Property taxes are also an issue, since the state has the nation's highest property tax. [11] New Jersey is a densely-populated, high-income, high-cost-of-living state, with more money needed for infrastructure and transportation, and it does not allow counties and municipalities to impose local income or sales taxes. Property taxes fund local government, schools and county expenses, making lowering it difficult. [12]

Legalized gambling is also an issue. In 2011, Governor Chris Christie and Senate President Steve Sweeney promised to limit gambling to Atlantic City for "at least five years" to protect the struggling tourist destination from intrastate competition. Developers are pressuring the legislature to allow gambling in other parts of the state, such as the Meadowlands. New Jersey challenged the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) in 2014, which had grandfathered Nevada's federal statutory monopoly on legal sports betting. The Supreme Court overturned the appellate-court decision, removing the final barrier to New Jersey sports betting on May 14, 2018. Justice Samuel Alito wrote the opinion supporting New Jersey's assertion that the PASPA infringed on the state's Tenth Amendment rights in Murphy vs. Collegiate Athletic Association. [13] The state quickly moved to capitalize on the ruling and allow sports betting at state-sanctioned sportsbooks at the Meadowlands Racetrack. [14]

In 2010, New Jersey legalized medical cannabis. The law, legalizing the drug for medical use, was passed by a Democratic government just before Christie (who was skeptical about legalized medical marijuana) took office. Christie subsequently vetoed, or requested alterations to, laws expanding the state's program. (New Jersey has two dispensaries.) The issue gained attention during the 2013 gubernatorial election, when the father of a young girl with epilepsy confronted Christie at a diner. In March 2019, a vote on recreational legalization was canceled at the last minute. [15] The state senate did not have the 21 votes needed to pass, since all of its Republicans and nine of its Democrats opposed the bill. A ballot measure to legalize marijuana for recreational use was on the ballot on November 3, 2020. [16] Named Public Question 1, it passed overwhelmingly 67%-33%, with every county supporting legalization.

On October 21, 2019, weeks after California passed a similar bill, state Senators Joseph Lagana (D-Bergen) and Sandra Cunningham (D-Hudson) introduced the New Jersey Fair Play Act. The bill would allow college athletes to be paid for the use of their names, images and likeness, and to hire an agent or lawyer. It intends to protect student athletes, since one injury can cost them their scholarship without a way to pay for school or vocational guidance. [17]

On February 4, 2019, Governor Phil Murphy signed a $15- minimum-wage bill into law. The law will increase the minimum wage by $1 every January 1 until it reaches $15 in 2024. When it was enacted, the state's minimum wage was $8.85. The first increase was on July 1, 2019 (to $10), and it will become $12 on January 1, 2021. The bill raises tipped-worker wages from $2.13 to $5.13 per hour; if a worker does not earn the minimum wage through tips, the employer must make up the difference. Farm-workers will only be raised to $12.50 an hour in 2024, then possibly raise it to $15 by 2027. [18]

LGBT rights

In April 2004, New Jersey enacted a domestic-partnership law which is available to same- and opposite-sex couples aged 62 and over. In 2006, the Supreme Court of New Jersey ordered the state to provide the rights and benefits of marriage to gay and lesbian couples. The following year, New Jersey became the third state in the U.S. (after Connecticut and Vermont) to offer civil unions to same-sex couples. In 2013, the state supreme court ruled that New Jersey must allow same-sex couples to marry. A 2010 last-minute attempt to legalize same-sex marriage under outgoing Democratic governor failed because of objections by Senate President Steve Sweeney (also a Democrat). From 2010 to 2013, Governor Christie vetoed attempts by the state legislature to legalize same-sex marriage. Since the 2013 New Jersey Supreme Court ruling, three government-recognized relationships have been in effect in the state: domestic partnerships, civil unions, and marriage. Rhode Island and New Jersey are the two states which permit adult incestuous relationships. [19] [20]

Gun control

New Jersey has some of the country's strictest gun control laws, which include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets, and magazines which can hold more than 10 rounds. A permit is required to purchase any firearm, including shotguns, rifles, and handguns. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony. BB guns, air guns, black-powder guns, and slingshots are statutory weapons. New Jersey does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses, and enforces its own gun laws. [21]

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "New Jersey Constitution of 1776". state.nj.us. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  2. ^ Klinghoffer and Elkis. "The Petticoat Electors: Women’s Suffrage in New Jersey, 1776–1807." Journal of the Early Republic, 12, no. 2 (1992): 159–193.
  3. ^ Connors, R. J. (1775). New Jersey's Revolutionary Experience [Pamphlet]. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Historical Commission.
  4. ^ a b "NJ Department of State - Division of Elections" (PDF). New Jersey Division of Elections. NJ Department of State.
  5. ^ "NJ Department of State" (PDF). NJ DOS - Division of Elections.
  6. ^ "NJ Department of State" (PDF). NJ DOS - Division of Elections.
  7. ^ "New Jersey Election Results 2018: Live Midterm Map by County & Analysis". www.politico.com. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
  8. ^ "NJ Department of State - Division of Elections" (PDF). NJ DOS - Division of Elections.
  9. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard. "N.J. Legislature Moves to Cut Benefits for Public Workers". nytimes.com. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Looks like time's up for New Jersey's pension fund". nypost.com. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  11. ^ "Which homeowners around the U.S. pay the highest property taxes?". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
  12. ^ Livio, Susan K. (2017-02-18). "7 reasons why N.J.'s property taxes are highest in U.S. again". nj. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
  13. ^ "Docket for 16-476". Archived from the original on July 8, 2019. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  14. ^ Bagli, Charles; Piccoli, Sean. "For the First Time, Gamblers Bet on Sports at Meadowlands Racetrack". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  15. ^ "New Jersey Cancels Vote On Marijuana Legalization". Point Pleasant, NJ Patch. 2019-03-25. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
  16. ^ "NJ Marijuana Legalization Is Alive Again: Here's When It May Come". Newark, NJ Patch. 2019-08-09. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
  17. ^ Sitrin, Carly. "New Jersey bill would allow college athletes to earn endorsement money". Politico PRO. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
  18. ^ L, Katherine; ERGAN. "Murphy signs bill to boost New Jersey's minimum wage to $15". Politico PRO. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
  19. ^ McDonnell, Brett. "Is Incest Next?." Cardozo Women's Law Journal 10.2 (2004).
  20. ^ Merkel, Dan (2009). Privilege Or Punish: Criminal Justice and the Challenge of Family Ties. Oxford University Press. p. 196. ISBN  9780195380064.
  21. ^ "N.J.A.C. Title 13 Chapter 54 - Firearms and Weapons" (PDF). New Jersey State Police. State of NJ Dep. of Law & Public Safety. Retrieved 7 February 2019.