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Istanbul is Turkey's largest city and Europe's most populous metropolitan area.
Europe and some parts of Africa and Asia by night. Lights reveal the urbanized areas of Europe. It also shows Blue Banana megalopolis from north-west England to northern Italy, and Golden Banana urbanized area between Genoa and Valencia.

This list ranks metropolitan areas in Europe by their population according to three different sources; it includes metropolitan areas that have a population of over 1 million.

Sources

List includes metropolitan areas according only to the studies of ESPON, Eurostat, and OECD. For European countries not covered by the three institutions, City Population is used as the population count source for the purpose of assessing the inclusion criteria. For this reason some metropolitan areas, like the Italian Genoa Metropolitan Area (with a population of 1,510,781 as of 2010 [1]) or the Ukrainian Kryvyi Rih metropolitan area (with a population of 1,170,953 as of 2019 [2]), are not included in this list, with data by other statistic survey institutes.

Figures in the first three columns correspond to Functional urban areas (FUA). The concept of a functional urban area defines a metropolitan area as a core urban area defined morphologically on the basis of population density, plus the surrounding labour pool defined on the basis of commuting. Figures in the first two columns use a harmonised definition of a Functional urban area developed jointly in 2011, with delimitation basing on the DEGURBA method. [3] [4]

Figures in the fourth column come from City Population and correspond to variously defined urban agglomerations.

Further information on how the areas are defined can be found in the source documents. These figures should be seen as an interpretation, not as conclusive fact.

Metropolitan areas

  Areas within the European Union
Metropolitan area name Country OECD
(2020) [5]
Eurostat [6] ESPON
(2006) [7]
City Population
(urban agglomerations)
(2024) [8]
Amsterdam metropolitan area   Netherlands 2,890,428 2,915,114 (2022) 2,497,000 [a] 2,525,000
Antwerp   Belgium 1,146,565 1,157,068 (2021) 1,406,000 [b] 1,240,000
Athens metropolitan area   Greece 3,526,887 3,828,434 (2011) 3,761,000 3,575,000
Baku [c]   Azerbaijan 3,675,000
Barcelona metropolitan area   Spain 5,105,991 5,093,585 (2022) 4,082,000 [d] 4,875,000
Belgrade   Serbia 1,430,000
Bergamo   Italy 311,971 310,020 (2022) 662,000 [e] 6,100,000 [f]
Berlin metropolitan area   Germany 5,342,958 4,979,867 (2021) 4,016,000 4,850,000
Bilbao   Spain 1,014,366 1,041,059 (2022) 947,000 <1,000,000
Bordeaux   France 1,290,068 1,376,375 (2020) 918,000 1,140,000
Greater Bristol   United Kingdom 969,256 955,541 (2018) 1,041,000 <1,000,000
Brussels metropolitan area   Belgium 2,500,251 3,350,969 (2022) 2,639,000 [b] 2,750,000
Bucharest metropolitan area   Romania 2,219,341 2,478,618 (2018) 2,064,000 2,200,000
Budapest metropolitan area   Hungary 3,012,001 3,001,643 (2022) 2,523,000 2,500,000
Cardiff   United Kingdom 928,101 915,466 (2018) 1,097,000 <1,000,000
Copenhagen metropolitan area   Denmark 1,945,157 1,928,612 (2013) 1,881,000 [g] 1,770,000
Donetsk   Ukraine 1,410,000 [h]
Dnipro   Ukraine 1,330,000 [i]
Dresden   Germany 1,343,747 965,353 (2021) 882,000 <1,000,000
Dublin Metropolitan Area   Ireland 2,110,459 1,793,902 (2011) 1,477,000 1,530,000
Metropolitan City of Florence   Italy 791,543 784,279 (2022) 645,000 [j] <1,000,000
Frankfurt Rhine-Main   Germany 2,729,936 2,678,557 (2021) 2,764,000 [k] 3,300,000
Gdańsk ( Tricity)   Poland 1,170,990 1,223,884 (2021) 993,000 <1,000,000
Greater Glasgow   United Kingdom 1,847,200 1,830,710 (2018) 1,395,000 1,700,000
Gothenburg   Sweden 1,051,345 1,021,831 (2018) 759,000 <1,000,000
The Hague   Netherlands 1,116,798 1,132,975 (2021) 1,404,000 [a] 3,400,000 [l]
Hamburg Metropolitan Region   Germany 3,328,679 3,421,692 (2021) 2,983,000 2,925,000
Hannover   Germany 1,316,006 1,289,320 (2021) 997,000 [m] 1,150,000
Helsinki Metropolitan Area   Finland 1,526,778 1,551,959 (2022) 1,285,000 1,530,000
Istanbul [n]   Turkey 13,719,061 11,044,642 (2004) 15,900,000
Katowice metropolitan area   Poland 2,486,510 2,417,386 (2021) 3,029,000 [o] 2,225,000
Kazan metropolitan area   Russia 1,590,000
Kharkiv   Ukraine 1,600,000 [i]
Kyiv metropolitan area   Ukraine 3,475,000 [i]
Kraków metropolitan area   Poland 1,423,235 1,489,912 (2021) 1,236,000 <1,000,000
Leipzig   Germany 1,049,342 956,290 (2021) 842,000 <1,000,000
Lille   France 1,505,093 1,515,061 (2020) 1,161,000 [p] 1,320,000
Lisbon metropolitan area   Portugal 3,035,487 3,049,222 (2023) 2,591,000 2,500,000
Łódź metropolitan area   Poland 903,719 893,083 (2021) 1,165,000 <1,000,000
London metropolitan area   United Kingdom 12,451,423 12,434,823 (2018) 11,203,000 14,900,000
Lyon   France 2,129,101 2,293,180 (2020) 1,669,000 2,025,000
Madrid metropolitan area   Spain 7,005,286 6,982,656 (2022) 5,263,000 6,650,000
Málaga- Marbella   Spain 1,211,770 [q] 1,230,313 [r] (2022) 775,000 [s] 1,090,000
Greater Manchester   United Kingdom 3,399,018 3,348,274 (2018) 2,556,000 3,150,000
Mannheim- Ludwigshafen   Germany 1,191,766 1,318,805 (2021) 1,136,000 [t] 1,590,000
Marseille   France 1,278,124 [u] 1,879,601 (2020) 1,530,000 1,700,000
Merseyside ( Liverpool/ Birkenhead)   United Kingdom 1,548,752 1,533,860 (2018) 2,241,000 1,890,000
Milan metropolitan area   Italy 4,985,668 4,934,205 (2022) 4,136,000 [e] 6,100,000 [f]
Minsk metropolitan area   Belarus 2,100,000
Moscow metropolitan area   Russia 19,100,000
Munich   Germany 2,926,802 3,016,834 (2021) 2,665,000 [v] 2,300,000
Nantes   France 1,003,395 1,022,775 (2020) 708,000 <1,000,000
Naples metropolitan area   Italy 3,349,233 3,303,711 (2022) 2,905,000 [w] 4,050,000 [x]
Nice   France 1,020,879 618,489 (2020) 1,082,000 <1,000,000
Nizhny Novgorod   Russia 1,660,000
Nottingham- Derby   United Kingdom 935,049 [y] 1,406,315 [z] (2018) 1,534,000 1,380,000
Northwest Metropolitan Region ( Bremen)   Germany 1,274,429 1,046,897 (2021) 1,077,000 1,000,000
Nuremberg Metropolitan Region   Germany 1,352,002 1,181,541 (2021) 1,443,000 1,210,000
Odesa   Ukraine 1,100,000 [i]
Greater Oslo Region   Norway 1,420,926 1,278,827 (2013) 1,037,000 1,260,000
Ostrava metropolitan area   Czech Republic 709,768 695,244 (2022) 1,046,000 [o] <1,000,000
Palermo metropolitan area   Italy 995,821 986,721 (2022) 861,000 <1,000,000
Paris metropolitan area   France 12,997,058 13,125,142 (2020) 11,175,000 11,500,000
Perm   Russia 1,090,000
Porto Metropolitan Area   Portugal 1,785,248 1,316,989 (2023) 1,245,000 [aa] 1,550,000
Portsmouth- Southampton   United Kingdom 695,204 [ab] 1,230,011 [ac] (2018) 1,547,000 1,150,000
Poznań metropolitan area   Poland 993,656 1,051,414 (2021) 919,000 <1,000,000
Prague metropolitan area   Czech Republic 2,267,817 2,216,746 (2022) 1,669,000 1,470,000
Rhein-Nord [ad] ( Düsseldorf - Neuss)   Germany 1,557,269 2,247,629 [ae] (2021) 3,073,000 [af] [ag] 5,000,000 [ah]
Rhein-Süd [ad] ( Cologne - Bonn)   Germany 2,004,984 3,005,728 [ai] (2021) 3,070,000 [ag] 5,000,000 [ah]
Riga metropolitan area   Latvia 927,924 917,351 (2022) 1,195,000 <1,000,000
Rome metropolitan area   Italy 4,325,591 4,291,581 (2022) 5,190,000 3,425,000
Rostov-on-Don   Russia 1,410,000
Rotterdam   Netherlands 1,876,165 1,902,704 (2022) 1,904,000 [a] 3,400,000 [l]
Ruhr [ad]   Germany 5,115,617 5,068,912 (2021) 5,376,000 [aj] [ag] 5,650,000
Saarbrücken - Forbach   Germany/
  France
797,110 522,983 [ak] (2021) 1,102,000 <1,000,000
Saint Petersburg metropolitan area   Russia 6,500,000
Samara   Russia 1,370,000
Saratov   Russia 1,210,000
Seville   Spain 1,558,006 1,556,975 (2021) 1,180,000 [al] 1,300,000
Sofia   Bulgaria 1,551,056 1,531,867 (2022) 1,174,000 1,240,000
Metropolitan Stockholm   Sweden 2,377,081 2,308,143 (2018) 2,171,000 2,275,000
South Yorkshire ( Sheffield- Doncaster)   United Kingdom 1,204,485 1,189,393 (2018) 1,869,000 1,540,000
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region   Germany 2,794,283 2,531,040 (2021) 2,289,000 2,400,000
Tbilisi [c]   Georgia 1,420,000
Thessaloniki metropolitan area   Greece 1,049,937 973,997 (2011) 1,052,000 <1,000,000
Toulouse   France 1,445,789 1,470,899 (2020) 832,000 1,130,000
Turin metropolitan area   Italy 1,728,714 1,712,372 (2022) 1,601,000 [am] 1,580,000
Tyne and Wear ( Newcastle- Sunderland)   United Kingdom 1,192,598 1,175,274 (2018) 1,599,000 1,470,000
Ufa   Russia 1,230,000
Utrecht   Netherlands 887,420 895,000 (2022) 982,000 [a] <1,000,000
Valencia   Spain 1,768,205 1,775,845 (2022) 1,398,000 [an] 1,920,000
Vienna   Austria 3,004,660 2,584,000 2,350,000
Volgograd   Russia 1,090,000
Voronezh   Russia 1,170,000
Warsaw metropolitan area   Poland 3,209,784 3,374,742 (2021) 2,785,000 2,500,000
West Midlands conurbation ( Birmingham)   United Kingdom 3,122,915 3,097,965 (2018) 3,683,000 3,250,000
West Yorkshire Built-up Area ( Leeds - Bradford)   United Kingdom 2,655,815 2,619,128 (2018) 2,302,000 2,225,000
Yerevan [c]   Armenia 1,520,000
Zagreb metropolitan area   Croatia 1,219,858 1,161,259 (2022) <1,000,000
Zürich metropolitan area    Switzerland 1,401,783 1,951,341 (2022) 1,615,000 1,490,000

Polycentric metropolitan areas in the European Union

Rank Area State Population [9]
1 Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region   Germany 12,190,000
2 Randstad   Netherlands 6,787,000
3 Katowice-Ostrava metropolitan area   Poland/   Czech Republic 5,294,000
4 Flemish Diamond   Belgium 5,103,000
5 Vienna-Bratislava metropolitan region   Austria/   Slovakia 4,600,000

See also

Regional and country-specific lists

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Part of the Randstad polycentric urban region consisting of the metropolitan areas of Amsterdam (2,497,000), Rotterdam (1,904,000), The Hague (1,404,000), and Utrecht (982,000). The total population of the region is 6,787,000.
  2. ^ a b The Flemish Diamond metropolitan region, which consists of the metropolitan areas of Brussels, Antwerp, Gent, and Leuven, has a total population of 5,103,000.
  3. ^ a b c Continental placement may vary depending on geographic convention being followed.
  4. ^ Total population is 4,251,000 if the metropolitan area of Mataro (169,000) is included.
  5. ^ a b Part of a wider Milan polycentric metropolitan area with a total population of 6,011,000.
  6. ^ a b Combined total population of Milan and Bergamo metropolitan areas.
  7. ^ Part of the wider Öresund region, which includes the Danish metropolitan area of Copenhagen (1,881,000) and the Swedish metropolitan areas of Malmö (667,000) and Helsingborg (294,000). The total regional population is 2,842,000.
  8. ^ Probable overestimate
  9. ^ a b c d Doesn't consider the impact of the Russian invasion
  10. ^ Total population is 1,090,000 if the metropolitan areas of Prato (240,000), Pistoia (114,000), and Empoli (91,000) are included.
  11. ^ Part of the Rhein-Main metropolitan region with a total population of 4,149,000, which additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Darmstadt (501,000), Wiesbaden (453,000), and Mainz (431,000).
  12. ^ a b Combined total population of Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area.
  13. ^ Estmation.
  14. ^ 65% of the population lives on the European part
  15. ^ a b Part of the polycentric Katowice-Ostrava metropolitan area with a total population of 5,294,000. The region includes the metropolitan areas of Katowice (3,029,000) Ostrava (1,046,000), Bielsko-Biała (584,000), Rybnik (526,000) and Racibórz (109,000).
  16. ^ Part of the wider Lille- Bassin Minier region with a total population of 3,115,000.
  17. ^ Lists Málaga (877,868) and Marbella (333,902) as two separate metropolitan areas.
  18. ^ Lists Málaga (887,146) and Marbella (343,167) as two separate metropolitan areas.
  19. ^ Total population is 844,000 if the metropolitan area of Vélez-Málaga (69,000) is included.
  20. ^ Lists Mannheim (683,000) and Ludwigshafen (453,000) as two of eight FUAs within the Rhein-Neckar poly-FUA (2,931,000).
  21. ^ Does not include Aix-en-Provence, which OECD, unlike INSEE, considers as a separate metropolitan area, with a population of 352,097 in 2020.
  22. ^ Total population is 3,271,000 if the metropolitan area of Augsburg (606,000) is included.
  23. ^ Part of a wider polycentric metropolitan area with a population of 3,714,000.
  24. ^ Combined total population of Naples, Caserta, and Salerno metropolitan areas.
  25. ^ Does not include Derby, which OECD considers as a separate metropolitan area, with a population of 495,159 in 2020.
  26. ^ Lists Nottingham (919,484) and Derby (486,831) as two separate metropolitan areas.
  27. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 1,778,000.
  28. ^ Does not include Portsmouth, which OECD considers as a separate metropolitan area, with a population of 542,048 in 2020.
  29. ^ Lists Portsmouth (542,040) and Southampton (687,971) as two separate metropolitan areas.
  30. ^ a b c Polycentric metropolitan area
  31. ^ Lists Düsseldorf (1,464,904), Wuppertal (383,594), and Mönchengladbach (399,131) as three separate metropolitan areas.
  32. ^ Includes Duisburg metropolitan area of Ruhr.
  33. ^ a b c Part of the polycentric urban region of Rhein-Ruhr, which has a total population of 12,190,000.
  34. ^ a b Combined total population of Cologne-Bonn and Düsseldorf-Neuss metropolitan areas.
  35. ^ Lists Cologne (2,215,509) and Bonn (790,219) as two separate metropolitan areas.
  36. ^ Does not include Duisburg metropolitan area.
  37. ^ Does not include the French part.
  38. ^ Total population is 1,262,000 if the metropolitan area of Utrera (82,000) is included.
  39. ^ Total population is 1,716,000 if the metropolitan area of Pinerolo (115,000) is included.
  40. ^ Total population is 1,499,000 if the metropolitan area of Sagunto (101,000) is included.

References

  1. ^ "Urbanismi, Cluster urbani e aree metropolitane – volume primo, Italia" (PDF) (in Italian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  2. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2019" (PDF).(in Ukrainian)
  3. ^ Lewis Dijkstra, Hugo Poelman (2012-03-01). Cities in Europe - The new OECD-EC definition (PDF) (Report). p. 2. Retrieved 2024-06-08. Until recently, there was no harmonised definition of 'a city' for European and other countries member of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This undermined the comparability, and thus also the credibility, of cross-country analysis of cities. To resolve this problem, the OECD and the European Commission developed a new definition of a city and its commuting zone in 2011. […] Each city is part of its own commuting zone or a polycentric commuting zone covering multiple cities. These commuting zones are significant, especially for larger cities. The cities and commuting zones together (called Larger Urban Zones) account for 60 % of the EU population.
  4. ^ "Territorial typologies manual - cities, commuting zones and functional urban areas". Eurostat. Within the Urban Audit, (...) functional urban areas were previously referred to as 'larger urban zones'.
  5. ^ "OECD Data Explorer - Population by age and sex - Cities and FUAs". OECD. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  6. ^ "Database". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 16 Jun 2024. Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas (urb_lpop1)
  7. ^ "Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3)]" (PDF). European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015., Final Report, Chapter 3
  8. ^ Brinkhoff, Thomas (1 January 2024). "Major Agglomerations of The World". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  9. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3) Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine, Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007) page 241-243
  • Geopolis: research group, university of Paris-Diderot, France - Population of urban areas of 10,000 or more