From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Foreign exchange reserves, also called Forex reserves, are, in a strict sense, only foreign-currency deposits held by nationals and monetary authorities. However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and IMF reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful. [1]

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the euro, the pound sterling, the Japanese yen, the Indian rupee, and the Swiss franc) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the Central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency.

List

  • All the figures below are in U.S.$ equivalents as different countries report data in different currencies.
  • The exchange rate of the currencies as well the as gold price of the reported date is considered while calculating U.S.$ equivalents.
  • Not all countries keep gold as reserves to avoid physical storage costs & the risks associated with it, hence there are no values in excluding gold column.
  • Sorting the data in desirable column would provide rankings.
Countries Forex Reserves Including Gold
(data in millions US$)
Date Change Increase / Decrease / Steady Forex Reserves Excluding Gold
(data in millions US$)
Date Change Increase / Decrease / Steady Ref
  China 3,225,817 1 Apr 2024 Decrease 28,957 3,113,850 1 Apr 2024 Increase 4,15 [2]
  Japan 1,290,606 5 Apr 2024 Increase 9,122 1,230,377 5 Apr 2024 Increase 4,598 [3]
  Switzerland 868,632 28 Mar 2024 Increase 1,127 800,164 28 Mar 2024 Decrease 198 [4]
  India 644,151 10 May 2024 Increase 2,560 588,198 10 May 2024 Increase 4,672 [5]
  Russia 698,400 10 May 2024 Decrease 2,300 422,902 10 May 2024 Decrease 15,751 [6]
  Taiwan 568,107 3 Apr 2024 Decrease 132 563,720 3 Apr 2024 Decrease 17 [7]
  Saudi Arabia 455,205 7 Apr 2024 Increase 23,642 454,772 7 Apr 2024 Increase 23,973 [8]
  Hong Kong 425,153 1 Apr 2024 Increase 2,126 425,126 1 Apr 2024 Increase 137 [9]
  South Korea 419,360 3 Apr 2024 Increase 3,580 419,360 3 Apr 2024 Steady [10]
  Mexico 364,192 20 Mar 2024 Increase 3425 291,108 20 Mar 2024 Decrease 439 [11]
  Singapore 357,345 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 4,465 347,083 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 356 [12]
  Brazil 352,705 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2,361 344,173 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 361 [13]
  Germany 339,800 31 Mar 2024 Increase 19,247 100,135 31 Mar 2024 Decrease 734 [14]
  United States 242,681 15 Mar 2024 Decrease 1,422 231,640 15 Mar 2024 Decrease 41 [15]
  France 240,677 1 Mar 2024 Increase 2,400 120,745 1 Mar 2024 Increase 33 [16]
  Thailand 223,769 15 Mar 2024 Increase 1,391 218,308 15 Mar 2024 Decrease 26 [17]
  Israel 208,109 30 Apr 2024 Decrease 5,632 208,109 30 Apr 2024 Decrease 5,632 [18]
  Poland 206,097 30 Apr 2024 Increase 3,600 179,055 30 Apr 2024 Increase 2,092 [19]
  United Kingdom 183,952 5 Mar 2024 Increase 26,610 163,520 5 Mar 2024 Decrease 43 [20]
  United Arab Emirates 151,600 1 Mar 2024 Increase 3,540 146,400 1 Mar 2024 Increase 34 [21]
  Czech Republic 144,996 1 Mar 2024 Increase 2,007 144,996 1 Mar 2024 Steady [22]
  Indonesia 149,915 1 Mar 2024 Increase 3,515 149,915 1 Mar 2024 Steady [23]
  Turkey 128,490 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 3,391 79,060 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 129 [24]
  Netherlands 125,451 1 Mar 2024 Increase 212 125,451 1 Mar 2024 Steady [25]
  Canada 116,251 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 45 116,251 1 Mar 2024 Steady [26]
  Philippines 104,033 1 Mar 2024 Increase 2,039 93,502 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,845 [27]
  Malaysia 102,241 1 Mar 2024 Increase 10,659 99,652 1 Mar 2024 Steady [28]
  Iraq 100,000 25 Mar 2024 Decrease 15,000 100,000 25 Mar 2024 Steady [29]
  Spain 94,341 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 5,485 94,341 1 Mar 2024 Steady [30]
  Vietnam 93,342 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 1,241 93,342 1 Mar 2024 Steady [31]
  Belgium 82,000 1 Mar 2024 Increase 14,200 67,200 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 79 [32]
  Denmark 80,058 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,261 75,660 1 Mar 2024 Increase 126 [33]
  Romania 77,364 31 Mar 2024 Decrease 7,498 69,866 31 Mar 2024 Increase 7,809 [34]
  Peru 73,483 1 Mar 2024 Increase 201 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [35]
  Norway 71,901 1 Mar 2024 Increase 330 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [36]
  Libya 70,524 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 238 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [37]
  Italy 247,748 30 Apr 2024 Increase 8,882 77,727 30 Apr 2024 Increase 183 [38]
  Algeria 68,028 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,880 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [39]
  Qatar 64,560 1 Mar 2024 Increase 8,931 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [40]
  Sweden 59,568 23 Mar 2024 Decrease 842 51,602 23 Mar 2024 Decrease 147 [41]
  Colombia 57,269 8 Mar 2024 Increase 124 data not available 8 Mar 2024 data not available [42]
  Australia 53,883 7 Mar 2024 Increase 604 45,816 7 Mar 2024 Decrease 48 [43]
  Portugal 53,710 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 7,800 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [44]
  South Africa 53,473 7 Mar 2024 Increase 504 45,293 7 Mar 2024 Increase 49 [45]
  Kuwait 46,420 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,112 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [46]
  Chile 42,527 1 Mar 2024 Increase 2,373 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [47]
  Ukraine 40,507 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 1,212 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [48]
  Hungary 41,344 1 Mar 2024 Increase 4,749 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [49]
  Bulgaria 35,395 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 692 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [50]
  Egypt 35,310 1 Mar 2024 Increase 3,161 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [51]
  Nigeria 34,980 1 Mar 2024 Increase 465 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [52]
  Austria 34,856 1 Mar 2024 Increase 954 34,671 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 187 [53]
  Kazakhstan 34,500 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 938 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [54]
  Uzbekistan 32,195 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 950 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [55]
  Morocco 32,037 1 Mar 2024 Increase 213 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [56]
  New Zealand 31,712 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,916 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [57]
  Croatia 2,935 1 Mar 2024 Increase 159 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [58]
  Bangladesh 25,231 1 Apr 2024 Decrease 867 data not available 1 Apr 2024 data not available [59]
  Serbia 24,468 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 667 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [60]
  Iran 24,300 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,641 23,600 1 Mar 2024 Steady [61]
  Macau 24,283 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 1,566 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [62]
  Guatemala 21,390 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1300 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [63]
  Argentina 20,846 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2,090 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [64]
  Turkmenistan 20,600 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 45 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [65]
  Cambodia 18,496 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 67 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [66]
  Jordan 18,765 1 Mar 2024 Increase 187 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [67]
  Nepal 18,400 11 Mar 2024 Increase 1,857 data not available 11 Mar 2024 data not available [68]
  Oman 16,163 1 Mar 2024 Increase 548 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [69]
  Uruguay 15,449 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 1.176 15,441 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 11 [70]
  Lebanon 14,738 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 692 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [71]
  Dominican Republic 14,371 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,145 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [72]
  Angola 14,200 15 Mar 2024 Decrease 40 data not available 15 Mar 2024 data not available [73]
  Costa Rica 13,200 1 Mar 2024 Increase 320 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [74]
  Ireland 12,599 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 130 11,874 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 [75]
  Azerbaijan 11,650 1 Mar 2024 Increase 142 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [76]
  Ivory Coast 9,800 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 18 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [77]
  Paraguay 9,707 1 Mar 2024 Increase 805 9,168 1 Mar 2024 Increase 7 [78]
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8,711 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 391 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [79]
  Tunisia 8,623 21 Mar 2024 Increase 539 data not available 21 Mar 2024 data not available [80]
  North Korea 8,072 1 Mar 2024 Increase 73 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [81]
  Pakistan 8,006 26 Apr 2024 Increase 19 data not available 26 Apr 2024 data data not available [82]
  Finland 7,995 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 22 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [83]
  Slovakia 7,650 1 Mar 2024 Increase 441 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [84]
  Honduras 7,390 21 Mar 2024 Decrease 580 data not available 21 Mar 2024 data not available [85]
  Tanzania 7,022 22 Mar 2024 Increase 600 data not available 22 Mar 2024 data not available [86]
  Iceland 6,847 15 Mar 2024 Increase 24 6,668 15 Mar 2024 Increase 9 [87]
  Myanmar 6,700 1 Mar 2024 Increase 800 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [88]
  Moldova 6,390 11 Mar 2024 Decrease 600 data not available 11 Mar 2024 data not available [89]
  Afghanistan 6,228 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 60 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [90]
  Panama 6,143 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 200 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [91]
  Venezuela 5,908 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 776 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [92]
  Trinidad and Tobago 5,800 18 Mar 2024 Decrease 44 data not available 18 Mar 2024 data not available [93]
  Albania 5,700 1 Mar 2024 Increase 400 5,467 1 Mar 2024 Increase 47 [94]
  Mauritius 5,591 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 196 5,497 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 27 [95]
  Bahrain 5,500 25 Mar 2024 Increase 128 data not available 25 Mar 2024 data not available [96]
  Sri Lanka 5,430 31 Apr 2024 Increase 400 data not available 31 Apr 2024 data not available [97]
  Georgia 5,224 25 Mar 2024 Increase 90 data not available 25 Mar 2024 data not available [98]
  Mongolia 5,120 20 Mar 2024 Increase 500 data not available 20 Mar 2024 data not available [99]
  Botswana 5,080 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 267 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [100]
  Jamaica 4,921 5 Mar 2024 Increase 300 data not available 5 Mar 2024 data not available [101]
  Lithuania 4,900 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 440 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [102]
  Vatican City 4,339 1 Mar 2024 Increase 950 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [103]
  Armenia 4,298 25 Mar 2024 Increase 600 data not available 25 Mar 2024 data not available [104]
  Nicaragua 3,980 1 Mar 2024 Increase 1,100 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [105]
  Greece 3,926 1 Mar 2024 Increase 107 3,869 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 8 [106]
  Latvia 3,913 1 Mar 2024 Increase 13 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [107]
  Uganda 3,700 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 259 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [108]
  Andorra 3,689 20 Mar 2024 Increase 11 data not available 20 Mar 2024 data not available [109]
  Brunei 3,664 1 Mar 2024 Increase 107 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [110]
  Cameroon 3,459 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 180 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [111]
  Ethiopia 3,430 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 170 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [112]
  Ghana 3,368 1 Mar 2024 Increase 452 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [113]
  Ecuador 3,305 1 Mar 2024 Increase 747 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [114]
  Belarus 3,296 1 Mar 2024 Increase 146 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [115]
  Kyrgyzstan 2,976 1 Mar 2024 Increase 193 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [116]
  Slovenia 2,519 1 Mar 2024 Increase 062 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [117]
  El Salvador 2,510 1 Mar 2024 Increase 39 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [118]
  Cuba 2,500 15 Mar 2024 Decrease 10,391 data not available 15 Mar 2024 data not available [119]
  Kenya 2,490 5 Mar 2024 Increase 1,073 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [120]
  Papua New Guinea 2,339 1 Mar 2024 Increase 500 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [121]
  Haiti 2,296 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 1,256 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [122]
  Estonia 2,065 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 145 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [123]
  Namibia 2,019 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 25 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [124]
  Bahamas 1,758 1 Mar 2024 Increase 85 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [125]
  Bolivia 1,769 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 471 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [126]
  Madagascar 1,620 19 Mar 2024 Increase 127 data not available 19 Mar 2024 data not available [127]
  Montenegro 1,558 1 Mar 2024 Increase 26 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [128]
  Mauritania 1,493 1 Mar 2024 Increase 37 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [129]
  Tajikistan 1,482 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 19 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [130]
  Rwanda 1,458 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 7 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [131]
  Zambia 1,433 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 16 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [132]
  Guinea 1,425 15 Mar 2024 Increase 33 data not available 15 Mar 2024 data not available [133]
  Gabon 1,377 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 90 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [134]
  Cyprus 1,271 1 Mar 2024 Increase 200 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [135]
  Luxembourg 1,119 5 Mar 2024 Decrease 34 data not available 5 Mar 2024 data not available [136]
  Laos 1,099 1 Mar 2024 Increase 23 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [137]
  Curaçao 1,080 20 Mar 2024 Increase 30 data not available 20 Mar 2024 data not available [138]
  Fiji 1,065 5 Mar 2024 Increase 22 data not available 5 Mar 2024 data not available [139]
  Niger 1,053 1 Mar 2024 Increase 24 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [140]
  Aruba 1,017 15 Mar 2024 Increase 30 data not available 15 Mar 2024 data not available [141]
  Bhutan 972 10 Mar 2024 Decrease 3 data not available 10 Mar 2024 data not available [142]
  Kosovo 950 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 15 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [143]
  Malta 937 20 Mar 2024 Increase 9 data not available 20 Mar 2024 data not available [144]
  Lesotho 785 1 Mar 2024 Increase 11 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [145]
  Barbados 770 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [146]
  Cape Verde 712 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 25 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [147]
  San Marino 716 1 Mar 2024 Increase 243 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [148]
  Gambia 698 1 Mar 2024 Increase 6 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [149]
  Palestine 671 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 12 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [150]
  Timor-Leste 654 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [151]
  Suriname 647 8 Mar 2024 Increase 30 data not available 8 Mar 2024 data not available [152]
  Sierra Leone 624 2 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 2 Mar 2024 data not available [153]
  Mali 604 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 19 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [154]
  Maldives 588 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 180 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [155]
  Guyana 553 10 Mar 2024 Decrease 20 data not available 10 Mar 2024 data not available [156]
  Solomon Islands 551 8 Mar 2024 Increase 24 data not available 8 Mar 2024 data not available [157]
  Seychelles 546 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 19 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [158]
  Vanuatu 509 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [159]
  Democratic Republic of the Congo 505 14 Mar 2024 Decrease 160 data not available 14 Mar 2024 data not available [160]
  Djibouti 504 1 Mar 2024 Increase 3 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [161]
  Malawi 488 1 Mar 2024 Increase 17 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [162]
  Eswatini 467 1 Mar 2024 Increase 27 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [163]
  Republic of the Congo 443 1 Mar 2024 Increase 20 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [164]
  Syria 401 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 16 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [165]
  Federated States of Micronesia 395 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [166]
  Central African Republic 375 1 Mar 2024 Increase 14 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [167]
  Saint Kitts and Nevis 365 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 14 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [168]
  Liberia 342 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 7 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [169]
  Guinea-Bissau 329 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 3 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [170]
  Antigua and Barbuda 285 1 Mar 2024 Increase 6 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [171]
  Belize 281 1 Mar 2024 Increase 4 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [172]
  Saint Lucia 258 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [173]
  Yemen 250 1 Mar 2024 Increase 5 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [174]
  Grenada 247 1 Mar 2024 Increase 11 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [175]
  Tonga 226 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 3 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [176]
  Togo 208 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 7 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [177]
  Comoros 197 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 5 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [178]
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 192 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 1 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [179]
  Eritrea 189 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [180]
  Samoa 188 1 Mar 2024 Increase 3 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [181]
  São Tomé and Príncipe 186 1 Mar 2024 Increase 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [182]
  Sudan 172 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 5 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [183]
  Dominica 168 1 Mar 2024 Increase 6 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [184]
  Senegal 164 1 Mar 2024 Increase 12 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [185]
  Zimbabwe 159 1 Mar 2024 Increase 8 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [186]
  Chad 143 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 4 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [187]
  Burundi 105 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 6 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [188]
  South Sudan 80 2 Mar 2024 Increase 7 data not available 2 Mar 2024 data not available [189]
  Benin 69 1 Mar 2024 Increase 9 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [190]
  Montserrat 54 1 Mar 2024 Increase 5 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [191]
  Equatorial Guinea 46 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [192]
  Burkina Faso 42 1 Mar 2024 Decrease 3 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [193]
  Somalia 37 1 Mar 2024 Increase 5 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [194]
  Kiribati 8 1 Mar 2024 Increase 2 data not available 1 Mar 2024 data not available [195]

Timeline of the top 5 countries

Combined Foreign Reserves Timeline for China, Japan, Switzerland, India, Russia
Combined Foreign Reserves Timeline for China, Japan, Switzerland, India, Russia

The five countries with the largest foreign exchange reserves almost all have reserves of at least 500 billion USD and higher and have maintained such an amount for at least a week. At present there are only six countries whose reserves are at such a figure; this includes China, Japan, Switzerland, India, Russia and Taiwan. Saudi Arabia formerly included on the list until March 2020; its reserves were severely depleted by the low oil price during the economic fallout of from the global outbreak of coronavirus disease, its ongoing oil price war with Russia and competition from US shale oil. [196] Here is the combined foreign reserves timeline for China, Japan, Switzerland, India, Russia. [197]

  • China - China has the largest reserve since last 14 years. [198] [199] The main composition of Chinese forex reserves is approximately two-thirds USD and one-fifth Euros with the rest made up of Japanese Yen and the British Pound. China was the second country to reach $500 billion and the first to reach $1 trillion in reserves. China is also the only country that reached net reserves of $2 trillion and $3 trillion. Chinese forex reserve reached over $3.993 trillion and possibly reached $4 trillion before July 2014 but there was no official figures to confirm it.
  • Japan - Japanese has the second largest reserves in the world. Japan was the first country to reach $500 billion in reserves and had the highest forex reserves in the world until they were surpassed by China in 2006. They have remained in second place since 2006 and above $1 trillion since 2008, being the second country to surpass $1 trillion. [200]
  • Switzerland - Swiss has the third largest reserves in the world. Switzerland became the fifth country to reach $500 Billion in 2014 after Saudi Arabia and the third country to reach $1 trillion at the end of 2020. Swiss reserves are compiled in Swiss francs. Since the Financial crisis of 2007-2008, the Swiss franc has significantly appreciated against other currencies due to Switzerland's traditional perceived safety which has attracted speculative foreign capital; due to the inflows of investment income by Swiss firms, and due to the large surplus in the trade of goods. In order to protect the real economy from the sudden speculative appreciation of the currency, the Swiss National Bank began intervening in the currency markets, first with an explicit target of a maximum exchange rate against the euro of 1.20CHF/EUR until 2015, [201] and then through implicit interventions. However, the resilience of the export sector and the continued inflows of capital, has meant that the Swiss Franc has kept appreciating. [202] As a result of this, the SNB has been unable to dispose of its large accumulated foreign exchange reserves since their sale would lead to an even greater appreciation of the currency.
  • Russia - Russia has the world's fifth largest reserves; They have reached a level of $600 billion on 21 May 2021. They were the third country to reach $500 billion. [206] The first fall in reserves was due to the Great Recession, the second fall in 2015 was due to falling oil prices.

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserves

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB). [207] Monetary gold is not covered in COFER but included in reserved assets, a broader scope than that of COFER. [208]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions) [207]
Currency→
↓Quarter
United States USD European Union EUR Japan JPY United Kingdom GBP Canada CAD China RMB Australia AUD Switzerland CHF Other
Currencies
Unallocated
Reserves
Total
Q1 2019 6,727.09 2,208.79 584.63 495.70 208.64 212.26 181.95 15.27 263.50 712.93 11,610.77
Q2 2019 6,752.28 2,264.88 611.87 497.41 209.85 212.80 186.71 15.53 270.56 715.88 11,737.76
Q3 2019 6,728.85 2,212.74 612.75 492.22 205.44 213.83 182.48 16.20 262.92 729.40 11,656.82
Q4 2019 6,674.83 2,279.30 631.00 511.51 206.71 215.81 187.18 17.36 281.50 749.55 11,824.74
Q1 2020 6,794.91 2,197.30 624.97 486.08 195.13 221.48 170.16 16.05 255.53 770.32 11,731.94
Q2 2020 6,902.01 2,272.44 643.70 504.36 215.47 233.68 190.34 17.22 278.67 754.11 12,011.98
Q3 2020 6,927.16 2,359.61 668.19 523.64 231.10 247.44 199.51 19.30 283.16 787.44 12,246.56
Q4 2020 6,990.97 2,526.41 715.35 561.39 246.57 271.60 216.87 20.74 314.63 841.14 12,705.67
Q1 2021 6,971.79 2,404.80 686.30 554.28 250.01 293.32 214.89 19.44 335.82 851.50 12,582.14
Q2 2021 7,070.33 2,458.88 672.20 560.90 270.01 314.81 218.44 23.13 357.57 865.83 12,812.12
Q3 2021 7,087.77 2,462.44 681.42 561.66 264.29 320.15 214.26 23.77 354.77 860.67 12,831.20
Q4 2021 7,087.14 2,486.88 671.77 576.22 286.93 336.10 218.02 24.51 362.96 886.73 12,937.27
Q1 2022 6,868.97 2,328.35 626.44 569.45 286.02 330.03 221.91 29.48 387.80 858.65 12,507.09
Q2 2022 6,645.02 2,187.63 572.65 538.73 275.75 308.22 209.14 27.63 358.62 858.26 11,981.65
Q3 2022 6,426.89 2,086.40 560.11 489.95 260.92 281.12 204.78 24.78 358.59 841.74 11,535.29
Q4 2022 6,460.21 2,252.06 608.17 543.11 262.62 287.81 217.08 25.31 383.64 877.79 11,917.81
Q1 2023 6,630.89 2,186.33 610.39 605.02 270.60 287.12 221.62 28.26 389.07 877.53 12,029.03
Q2 2023 6,641.89 2,207.25 597.15 533.64 278.51 272.99 219.70 21.26 403.72 887.06 12,055.26
Q3 2023 6,497.94 2,150.47 598.73 530.36 274.36 260.12 222.35 20.30 426.63 920.27 11,901.53

See also

References

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External links