Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Anthem: " Jamaica, Land We Love"
and largest city
|National language||Jamaican Patois ( de facto)|
Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|House of Representatives|
from the United Kingdom
|6 August 1962|
|10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi) ( 160th)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
|2,726,667  ( 141st)|
• 2011 census
|266 /km2 (688.9/sq mi)|
|GDP ( PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$26.981 billion  ( 134th)|
• Per capita
|$9,434  ( 109th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$15.424 billion  ( 119th)|
• Per capita
|$5,393  ( 95th)|
|Gini (2016)|| 35
|HDI (2019)|| 0.734
high · 101st
|Currency||Jamaican dollar ( JMD)|
+1-658 ( Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)
|ISO 3166 code||JM|
Jamaica ( // ( listen)) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola).  Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic); the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some 215 kilometres (134 mi) to the north-west.
Originally inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people were either killed or died of diseases to which they had no immunity, and the Spanish then forcibly transplanted large numbers of African slaves to Jamaica as labourers.  The island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it, renaming it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with a plantation economy dependent on the African slaves and later their descendants. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British began using Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. 
With 2.9 million people,   Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city. The majority of Jamaicans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, with significant European, East Asian (primarily Chinese), Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities.  Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, there is a large Jamaican diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The country has a global influence that belies its small size; it was the birthplace of the Rastafari religion, reggae music (and associated genres such as dub, ska and dancehall), and it is internationally prominent in sports, most notably cricket, sprinting and athletics.   
Jamaica is an upper-middle income country  with an economy heavily dependent on tourism; it has an average of 4.3 million tourists a year.  Politically it is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen.  Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives. 
Humans have inhabited Jamaica from as early as 4000–1000 BC. Little is known of these early peoples.  Another group, known as the "Redware people" after their pottery, arrived circa 600 AD,  followed by the Arawak– Taíno circa 800 AD, who most likely came from South America.   They practised an agrarian and fishing economy, and at their height are thought to have numbered some 60,000 people, grouped into around 200 villages headed by caciques (chiefs).  The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour. 
Though often thought to have become extinct following contact with Europeans, the Taíno in fact still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655.  Some fled into interior regions, merging with African Maroon communities.    Today, only a tiny number of Jamaican natives, known as Yamaye, remain. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any remaining evidence of the Taíno. 
Spanish rule (1509–1655)
Christopher Columbus was the first European to see Jamaica, claiming the island for Spain after landing there in 1494 on his second voyage to the Americas.  His probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay,  and St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. He later returned in 1503; however, he was shipwrecked and he and his crew were forced to live on Jamaica for a year whilst waiting to be rescued. 
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla, which was established in 1509 by Juan de Esquivel but abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy.  The capital was moved to Spanish Town, then called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534 (at present-day St. Catherine).   Meanwhile, the Taínos began dying in large numbers, from both introduced diseases to which they had no immunity, and from enslavement by the Spanish.  As a result, the Spanish began importing slaves from Africa to the island. 
Many slaves managed to escape, forming autonomous communities in remote and easily defended areas in the interior of Jamaica, mixing with the remaining Taino; these communities became known as Maroons.  Small numbers of Jews also came to live on the island.  By the early 17th century it is estimated that no more than 2,500–3,000 people lived on Jamaica.  [ page needed]
Early British period
The English began taking an interest in the island and, following a failed attempt to conquer Santo Domingo on Hispaniola, Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables led an invasion of Jamaica in 1655.  Battles at Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Rio Nuevo in 1658 resulted in Spanish defeats; in 1660 the Maroon community under the leadership of Juan de Bolas switched sides from the Spanish, and began supporting the English. With their help, the Spanish defeat was secured. 
When the English captured Jamaica, most Spanish colonists fled, with the exception of Spanish Jews, who chose to remain in the island. Spanish slave holders freed their slaves before leaving Jamaica.  Many slaves dispersed into the mountains, joining the already established maroon communities.  During the centuries of slavery, Jamaican Maroons established free communities in the mountainous interior of Jamaica, where they maintained their freedom and independence for generations, under the leadership of Maroon leaders such as Juan de Serras. 
Meanwhile, the Spanish made several attempts to re-capture the island, prompting the British to support pirates attacking Spanish ships in the Caribbean; as a result piracy became rampant on Jamaica, with the city of Port Royal becoming notorious for its lawlessness. Spain later recognised English possession of the island with the Treaty of Madrid (1670).  As a result, the English authorities sought to rein in the worst excesses of the pirates. 
In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 white and 1,500 black.  By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations worked by large numbers of slaves, black Africans formed a majority of the population.  The Irish in Jamaica also formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of 1655. The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms.  Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. 
A limited form of local government was introduced with the creation of the House of Assembly of Jamaica in 1664; however, it represented only a tiny number of rich plantation owners.  In 1692, the colony was rocked by an earthquake that resulted in several thousand deaths and the almost complete destruction of Port Royal. 
During the 1700s the economy boomed, based largely on sugar and other crops such as coffee, cotton and indigo. All these crops were worked by black slaves, who lived short and often brutal lives with no rights, being the property of a small planter-class.  In the 18th century, slaves ran away and joined the Maroons in increasing numbers, and resulted in The First Maroon War (1728 – 1739/40), which ended in stalemate. The British government sued for peace, and signed treaties with the Leeward Maroons led by Cudjoe and Accompong in 1739, and the Windward Maroons led by Quao and Queen Nanny in 1740. 
A large slave rebellion, known as Tacky's War, broke out in 1760 but was defeated by the British and their Maroon allies.  After the second conflict in 1795–96, many Maroons from the Maroon town of Cudjoe's Town (Trelawny Town) were expelled to Nova Scotia and, later, Sierra Leone.  Many slaves ran away and formed independent communities under the leadership of escaped slaves such as Three-Fingered Jack, Cuffee and at Me-no-Sen-You-no-Come. 
By the beginning of the 19th century, Jamaica's dependence on slave labour and a plantation economy had resulted in black people outnumbering white people by a ratio of almost 20 to 1. Although the British had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly.[ citation needed] While planning the abolition of slavery, the British Parliament passed laws to improve conditions for slaves. They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce,  prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church.[ citation needed] The House of Assembly in Jamaica resented and resisted the new laws. Members, with membership then restricted to European-Jamaicans, claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament's interference in island affairs. Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened.
The British abolished the slave trade in 1807, but not the institution itself.  In 1831 a huge slave rebellion, known as Baptist War, broke out, led by the Baptist preacher Samuel Sharpe. The rebellion resulted in hundreds of deaths, the destruction of many plantations, and resulted in ferocious reprisals by the plantocracy class.  As a result of rebellions such as these, as well as the efforts of abolitionists, the British outlawed slavery in its empire in 1834, with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838.  The population in 1834 was 371,070, of whom 15,000 were white, 5,000 free black; 40,000 'coloured' or free people of color ( mixed race); and 311,070 were slaves.  The resulting labour shortage prompted the British to begin to "import" indentured servants to supplement the labour pool, as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations.  Workers recruited from India began arriving in 1845, Chinese workers in 1854.  Many South Asian and Chinese descendants continue to reside in Jamaica today.  
Over the next 20 years, several epidemics of cholera, scarlet fever, and smallpox hit the island, killing almost 60,000 people (about 10 per day).[ citation needed] Nevertheless, in 1871 the census recorded a population of 506,154 people, 246,573 of which were males, and 259,581 females. Their races were recorded as 13,101 white, 100,346 coloured (mixed black and white), and 392,707 black.  This period was marked by an economic slump, with many Jamaicans living in poverty. Dissatisfaction with this, and continued racial discrimination and marginalisation of the black majority, led to the outbreak of the Morant Bay rebellion in 1865 led by Paul Bogle, which was put down by Governor John Eyre with such brutality that he was recalled from his position.  His successor, John Peter Grant, enacted a series of social, financial and political reforms whilst aiming to uphold firm British rule over the island, which became a Crown Colony in 1866.  In 1872 the capital was transferred from Spanish Town to Kingston. 
Early 20th century
Unemployment and poverty remained a problem for many Jamaicans. Various movements seeking political change arose as a result, most notably the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League founded by Marcus Garvey in 1917. As well as seeking greater political rights and an improvement for the condition of workers, Garvey was also a prominent Pan-Africanist and proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement.  He was also one of the chief inspirations behind Rastafari, a religion founded in Jamaica in the 1930s that combined Christianity with an Afrocentric theology focused on the figure of Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia. Despite occasional persecution, Rastafari grew to become an established faith on the island, later spreading abroad.
The Great Depression of the 1930s hit Jamaica hard. As part of the British West Indian labour unrest of 1934–39, Jamaica saw numerous strikes, culminating in a strike in 1938 that turned into a full-blown riot.    As a result, the British government instituted a commission to look into the causes of the disturbances; their report recommended political and economic reforms in Britain's Caribbean colonies.   A new House of Representatives was established in 1944, elected by universal adult suffrage.  During this period Jamaica's two-party system emerged, with the creation of the Jamaican Labour Party (JLP) under Alexander Bustamante and the People's National Party (PNP) under Norman Manley. 
Jamaica slowly gained increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. In 1958 it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation of several of Britain's Caribbean colonies.  Membership of the Federation proved to be divisive, however, and a referendum on the issue saw a slight majority voting to leave.  After leaving the Federation, Jamaica attained full independence on 6 August 1962.  The new state retained, however, its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (with the Queen as head of state) and adopted a Westminster-style parliamentary system. Bustamante, at the age of 78, became the country's first prime minister.  
Strong economic growth, averaging approximately 6% per annum, marked the first ten years of independence under conservative JLP governments; these were led by successive Prime Ministers Alexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster (who died of natural causes within two months of taking office) and Hugh Shearer.  The growth was fuelled by high levels of private investment in bauxite/alumina, tourism, the manufacturing industry and, to a lesser extent, the agricultural sector. In the 1967 Jamaican general election, the JLP were victorious again, winning 33 out of 53 seats, with the PNP taking 20 seats. 
In terms of foreign policy Jamaica became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, seeking to retain strong ties with Britain and the United States whilst also developing links with Communist states such as Cuba. 
The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor, many of whom ended up living in crime-ridden shanty towns in Kingston.  This, combined with the effects of a slowdown in the global economy in 1970,[ citation needed] led to the voters electing the PNP under Michael Manley in 1972. The PNP won 37 seats to the JLP's 16. 
Manley's government enacted various social reforms, such as a higher minimum wage, land reform, legislation for women's equality, greater housing construction and an increase in educational provision.   Internationally he improved ties with the Communist bloc and vigorously opposed the apartheid regime in South Africa. 
In 1976, the PNP won another landslide, winning 47 seats to the JLP's 13. The turnout was a very high 85 percent.  However, the economy faltered in this period due to a combination of internal and external factors (such as the oil shocks).  The rivalry between the JLP and PNP became intense, and political and gang-related violence grew significantly in this period. 
By 1980, Jamaica's gross national product had declined to some 25% below its 1972 level.[ citation needed] Seeking change, Jamaicans voted the JLP back in in 1980 under Edward Seaga, the JLP winning 51 seats to the PNP's nine seats.   Firmly anti-Communist, Seaga cut ties with Cuba and sent troops to support the US invasion of Grenada in 1983.  The economic deterioration, however, continued into the mid-1980s, exacerbated by a number of factors. The largest and third-largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa, closed; and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan.[ citation needed] Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. left the Jamaican industry. There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy.[ citation needed] Owing to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund (IMF) financing, which was dependent on implementing various austerity measures.  These resulted in strikes in 1985 and a decline in support for the Seaga government, exacerbated by criticism of the government's response to the devastation caused by Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.   Having now de-emphasised socialism and adopting a more centrist position, Michael Manley and the PNP were re-elected in 1989, winning 45 seats to the JLP's 15.  
The PNP went on to win a string of elections, under Prime Ministers Michael Manley (1989–1992), P. J. Patterson (1992–2005) and Portia Simpson-Miller (2005–2007). In the 1993 Jamaican general election, Patterson led the PNP to victory, winning 52 seats to the JLP's eight seats. Patterson also won the 1997 Jamaican general election, by another landslide margin of 50 seats to the JLP's 10 seats.  Patterson's third consecutive victory came in the 2002 Jamaican general election, when the PNP retained power, but with a reduced seat majority of 34 seats to 26. Patterson stepped down on 26 February 2006, and was replaced by Portia Simpson-Miller, Jamaica's first female Prime Minister. The turnout slowly declined during this period of time, from 67.4% in 1993 to 59.1% in 2002. 
During this period various economic reforms were introduced, such as deregulating the finance sector and floating the Jamaican dollar, as well as greater investment in infrastructure, whilst also retaining a strong social safety net.  Political violence, so prevalent in the previous two decades, declined significantly.  
In 2007 the PNP was defeated by the JLP by a narrow margin of 32 seats to 28, with a turnout of 61.46%.  This election ended 18 years of PNP rule, and Bruce Golding became the new prime minister.  Golding's tenure (2007-2010) was dominated by the effects of the global recession, as well as the fallout from an attempt by Jamaican police and military to arrest drug lord Christopher Coke in 2010 which erupted in violence, resulting in over 70 deaths.   As a result of this incident Golding resigned and was replaced by Andrew Holness in 2011.
Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. In 2011, a survey showed that approximately 60% of Jamaicans believe that the country would have been better off had it remained a British colony, with only 17% believing it would have been worse off, citing as problems years of social and fiscal mismanagement in the country.   However, this poll reflected a greater discontent with the JLP handling of crime and the economy, and as a result, Holness and the JLP were defeated in the 2011 Jamaican general election, which saw Portia Simpson-Miller and the PNP return to power. The number of seats had been increased to 63, and the PNP swept to power with a landslide 42 seats to the JLP's 21. The voter turnout was 53.17%. 
Holness's JLP won the 2016 general election narrowly, defeating Simpson-Miller's PNP, on 25 February. The PNP won 31 seats to the JLP's 32. As a result, Simpson-Miller became Opposition Leader for a second time. The voter turnout dipped below 50% for the first time, registering just 48.37%. 
In the 2020 general election, Andrew Holness made history for the JLP by accomplishing a second consecutive win for the Jamaica Labour Party, winning 49 seats to 14 won by the PNP, led this time by Peter Phillips (politician). The last time a consecutive win occurred for the JLP was in 1980. However, the turnout at this election was just 37%, probably affected by the coronavirus pandemic. 
Government and politics
Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.   The head of state is the Queen of Jamaica (currently Elizabeth II),  represented locally by the Governor-General of Jamaica.    The governor-general is nominated by the Prime Minister of Jamaica and the entire Cabinet and then formally appointed by the monarch. All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their reserve powers for use in certain constitutional crisis situations. The position of the monarch has been a matter of continuing debate in Jamaica for many years; currently both major political parties are committed to transitioning to a republic with a president.  
Jamaica's current constitution was drafted in 1962 by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom parliament, which gave Jamaica independence. 
The Parliament of Jamaica is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). Members of the House (known as Members of Parliament or MPs) are directly elected, and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the governor-general's best judgement, is best able to command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the governor-general to be the prime minister. Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general. 
The Judiciary of Jamaica operates on a common law system derived from English law and Commonwealth of Nations precedents.  The court of final appeal is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, though during the 2000s parliament attempted to replace it with the Caribbean Court of Justice.[ citation needed]
Political parties and elections
Jamaica has traditionally had a two-party system, with power often alternating between the People's National Party (PNP) and Jamaica Labour Party (JLP).  The party with current administrative and legislative power is the Jamaica Labour Party, after its 2020 victory. There are also several minor parties who have yet to gain a seat in parliament; the largest of these is the National Democratic Movement (NDM).
In the context of local government the parishes are designated "Local Authorities". These local authorities are further styled as "Municipal Corporations", which are either city municipalities or town municipalities.  Any new city municipality must have a population of at least 50,000, and a town municipality a number set by the Minister of Local Government.  There are currently no town municipalities.
The local governments of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrews are consolidated as the city municipality of Kingston & St. Andrew Municipal Corporation. The newest city municipality created is the Municipality of Portmore in 2003. While it is geographically located within the parish of St. Catherine, it is governed independently.
|Cornwall County||Capital||km2||Middlesex County||Capital||km2||Surrey County||Capital||km2|
|2||Saint Elizabeth||Black River||1,212||7||Manchester||Mandeville||830||12||Portland||Port Antonio||814|
|3||Saint James||Montego Bay||595||8||Saint Ann||St. Ann's Bay||1,213||13||Saint Andrew||Half Way Tree||453|
|4||Trelawny||Falmouth||875||9||Saint Catherine||Spanish Town||1,192||14||Saint Thomas||Morant Bay||743|
|5||Westmoreland||Savanna-la-Mar||807||10||Saint Mary||Port Maria||611|
The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica.  The JDF is based on the British military model with similar organisation, training, weapons and traditions. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending on the arm of service. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at Up Park Camp or JDF Training Depot, Newcastle, both in St. Andrew. As with the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.[ citation needed]
The JDF is directly descended from the British Army's West India Regiment formed during the colonial era.  The West India Regiment was used extensively by the British Empire in policing the empire from 1795 to 1926. Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in World War II. The West Indies Regiment was reformed in 1958 as part of the West Indies Federation, after dissolution of the Federation the JDF was established.[ citation needed]
The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit.  The infantry regiment contains the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (National Reserve) battalions. The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the JDF Air Wing (National Reserve). The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations. 
The role of the support battalion is to provide support to boost numbers in combat and issue competency training in order to allow for the readiness of the force.  The 1st Engineer Regiment was formed due to an increased demand for military engineers and their role is to provide engineering services whenever and wherever they are needed.  The Headquarters JDF contains the JDF Commander, Command Staff as well as Intelligence, Judge Advocate office, Administrative and Procurement sections. 
In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role. In early 2005, an Opposition leader, Edward Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF. This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens.[ citation needed] In 2017, Jamaica signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. 
Geography and environment
Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean.  It lies between latitudes 17° and 19°N, and longitudes 76° and 79°W. Mountains dominate the interior: the Don Figuerero, Santa Cruz, and May Day mountains in the west, the Dry Harbour Mountains in the centre, and the John Crow Mountains and Blue Mountains in the east, the latter containing Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica's tallest mountain at 2,256 m.   They are surrounded by a narrow coastal plain.   Jamaica only has two cities, the first being Kingston, the capital city and centre of business, located on the south coast and the second being Montego Bay, one of the best known cities in the Caribbean for tourism, located on the north coast. Kingston Harbour is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world,  which contributed to the city being designated as the capital in 1872. Other towns of note include Portmore, Spanish Town, Savanna la Mar, Mandeville and the resort towns of Ocho Ríos, Port Antonio and Negril. 
Tourist attractions include Dunn's River Falls in St. Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue Lagoon in Portland, believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano[ citation needed], and Port Royal, site of a major earthquake in 1692 that helped form the island's Palisadoes tombolo.    
Among the variety of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are dry and wet limestone forests, rainforest, riparian woodland, wetlands, caves, rivers, seagrass beds and coral reefs. The authorities have recognised the tremendous significance and potential of the environment and have designated some of the more 'fertile' areas as 'protected'. Among the island's protected areas are the Cockpit Country, Hellshire Hills, and Litchfield forest reserves. In 1992, Jamaica's first marine park, covering nearly 15 square kilometres (5.8 sq mi), was established in Montego Bay. Portland Bight Protected Area was designated in 1999.  The following year Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park was created, covering roughly 300 square miles (780 km2) of a wilderness area which supports thousands of tree and fern species and rare animals.
There are several small islands off Jamaica's coast, most notably those in Portland Bight such as Pigeon Island, Salt Island, Dolphin Island, Long Island, Great Goat Island and Little Goat Island, and also Lime Cay located further east. Much further out – some 50–80 km off the south coast – lie the very small Morant Cays and Pedro Cays.
The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although higher inland regions are more temperate.   Some regions on the south coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains, are relatively dry rain-shadow areas. 
Jamaica lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic Ocean and because of this, the island sometimes suffers significant storm damage.   Hurricanes Charlie and Gilbert hit Jamaica directly in 1951 and 1988, respectively, causing major damage and many deaths. In the 2000s (decade), hurricanes Ivan, Dean, and Gustav also brought severe weather to the island.
Flora and fauna
Jamaica's climate is tropical, supporting diverse ecosystems with a wealth of plants and animals. Its plant life has changed considerably over the centuries; when the Spanish arrived in 1494, except for small agricultural clearings, the country was deeply forested. The European settlers cut down the great timber trees for building and ships' supplies, and cleared the plains, savannas, and mountain slopes for intense agricultural cultivation.  Many new plants were introduced including sugarcane, bananas, and citrus trees. 
Jamaica is home to about 3,000 species of native flowering plants (of which over 1,000 are endemic and 200 are species of orchid), thousands of species of non-flowering flora, and about 20 botanical gardens, some of which are several hundred years old.   Areas of heavy rainfall also contain stands of bamboo, ferns, ebony, mahogany, and rosewood. Cactus and similar dry-area plants are found along the south and southwest coastal area. Parts of the west and southwest consist of large grasslands, with scattered stands of trees. Jamaica is home to three terrestrial ecoregions, the Jamaican moist forests, Jamaican dry forests, and Greater Antilles mangroves. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.01/10, ranking it 110th globally out of 172 countries. 
Jamaican's fauna, typical of the Caribbean, includes highly diversified wildlife with many endemic species. As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are mostly several species of bats of which at least three endemic species are found only in Cockpit Country, one of which is at-risk. Other species of bat include the fig-eating and hairy-tailed bats. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica is the Jamaican hutia, locally known as the coney.  Introduced mammals such as wild boar and the small Asian mongoose are also common. Jamaica is also home to about 50 species of reptiles,  the largest of which is the American crocodile; however, it is only present within the Black River and a few other areas. Lizards such as anoles, iguanas and snakes such as racers and the Jamaican boa (the largest snake on the island), are common in areas such as the Cockpit Country. None of Jamaica's eight species of native snakes is venomous. 
Jamaica is home to about 289 species of birds of which 27 are endemic including the endangered black-Billed parrots and the Jamaican blackbird, both of which are only found in Cockpit Country. It is also the indigenous home to four species of hummingbirds (three of which are found nowhere else in the world): the black-billed streamertail, the Jamaican mango, the Vervain hummingbird, and red-billed streamertails. The red-billed streamertail, known locally as the "doctor bird", is Jamaica's National Symbol.   Other notable species include the Jamaican tody and the Greater flamingo, 
One species of freshwater turtle is native to Jamaica, the Jamaican slider. It is found only on Jamaica and on a few islands in the Bahamas. In addition, many types of frogs are common on the island, especially treefrogs. Beautiful and exotic birds, such as the can be found among a large number of others.
Jamaican waters contain considerable resources of fresh-and saltwater fish.  The chief varieties of saltwater fish are kingfish, jack, mackerel, whiting, bonito, and tuna. Fish that occasionally enter freshwater and estuarine environments include snook, jewfish, mangrove snapper, and mullets. Fish that spend the majority of their lives in Jamaica's fresh waters include many species of livebearers, killifish, freshwater gobies, the mountain mullet, and the American eel. Tilapia have been introduced from Africa for aquaculture, and are very common. Also visible in the waters surrounding Jamaica are dolphins, parrotfish, and the endangered manatee. 
Insects and other invertebrates are abundant, including the world's largest centipede, the Amazonian giant centipede. Jamaica is the home to about 150 species of butterflies and moths, including 35 indigenous species and 22 subspecies. It is also the native home to the Jamaican swallowtail, the western hemisphere's largest butterfly. 
Coral reef ecosystems are important because they provide people with a source of livelihood, food, recreation, and medicinal compounds and protect the land on which they live.  Jamaica relies on the ocean and its ecosystem for its development. However, the marine life in Jamaica is also being affected. There could be many factors that contribute to marine life not having the best health. Jamaica's geological origin, topographical features and seasonal high rainfall make it susceptible to a range of natural hazards that can affect the coastal and oceanic environments. These include storm surge, slope failures (landslides), earthquakes, floods and hurricanes.  Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination.  Another one of those factors could include tourism: being that Jamaica is a very touristy place, the island draws numerous people traveling here from all over the world. The Jamaican tourism industry accounts for 32% of total employment and 36% of the country's GDP and is largely based on the sun, sea and sand, the last two of these attributes being dependent on healthy coral reef ecosystems.  Because of Jamaica's tourism, they have developed a study to see if the tourist would be willing to help financially to manage their marine ecosystem because Jamaica alone is unable to. The ocean connects all the countries all over the world, however, everyone and everything is affecting the flow and life in the ocean. Jamaica is a very touristy place specifically because of their beaches. If their oceans are not functioning at their best then the well-being of Jamaica and the people who live there will start to deteriorate. According to the OECD, oceans contribute $1.5 trillion annually in value-added to the overall economy.  A developing country on an island will get the majority of their revenue from their ocean.
Pollution comes from run-off, sewage systems, and garbage. However, this typically all ends up in the ocean after there is rain or floods. Everything that ends up in the water changes the quality and balance of the ocean. Poor coastal water quality has adversely affected fisheries, tourism and mariculture, as well as undermining biological sustainability of the living resources of ocean and coastal habitats.  Jamaica imports and exports many goods through their waters. Some of the imports that go into Jamaica include petroleum and petroleum products. Issues include accidents at sea; risk of spills through local and international transport of petroleum and petroleum products.  Oil spills can disrupt the marine life with chemicals that are not normally found in the ocean. Other forms of pollution also occur in Jamaica. Solid waste disposal mechanisms in Jamaica are currently inadequate.  The solid waste gets into the water through rainfall forces. Solid waste is also harmful to wildlife, particularly birds, fish and turtles that feed at the surface of the water and mistake floating debris for food.  For example, plastic can be caught around birds and turtles necks making it difficult to eat and breath as they begin to grow causing the plastic to get tighter around their necks. Pieces of plastic, metal, and glass can be mistaken for the food fish eat. Each Jamaican generates 1 kg (2 lbs) of waste per day; only 70% of this is collected by National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) — the remaining 30% is either burnt or disposed of in gullies/waterways. 
There are policies that are being put into place to help preserve the ocean and the life below water. The goal of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems.  Developing an underdeveloped country can impact the oceans ecosystem because of all the construction that would be done to develop the country. Over-building, driven by powerful market forces as well as poverty among some sectors of the population, and destructive exploitation contribute to the decline of ocean and coastal resources.  Developing practices that will contribute to the lives of the people but also to the life of the ocean and its ecosystem. Some of these practices include: Develop sustainable fisheries practices, ensure sustainable mariculture techniques and practices, sustainable management of shipping, and promote sustainable tourism practices.  As for tourism, tourism is the number one source of foreign exchange earnings in Jamaica and, as such is vital to the national economy.  Tourist typically go to countries unaware of issues and how they impact those issues. Tourist are not going to be used to living in a different style compared to their own country. Practices such as: provide sewage treatment facilities for all tourist areas, determine carrying capacity of the environment prior to planning tourism activities, provide alternative types of tourist activities can help to get desired results such as the development of alternative tourism which will reduce the current pressure on resources that support traditional tourism activities.  A study was conducted to see how tourist could help with sustainable financing for ocean and coastal management in Jamaica. Instead of using tourist fees they would call them environmental fees. This study aims to inform the relevant stakeholders of the feasibility of implementing environmental fees as well as the likely impact of such revenue generating instruments on the current tourist visitation rates to the island.  The development of a user fee system would help fund environmental management and protection. The results show that tourists have a high consumer surplus associated with a vacation in Jamaica, and have a significantly lower willingness to pay for a tourism tax when compared to an environmental tax. The findings of the study show that the "label" of the tax and as well as the respondent's awareness of the institutional mechanisms for environmental protection and tourism are important to their decision framework.  Tourist are more willing to pay for environmental fees rather than tourist tax fees. A tax high enough to fund for environmental management and protection but low enough to continue to bring tourist to Jamaica. It has been shows that if an environmental tax of $1 per person were introduced it would not cause a significant decline in visitation rates and would generate revenues of US$1.7M. 
|Black or Black Mixed ||92.1%||2,661,965|
|Mixed non-Black ||6.1%||176,308|
Jamaica's diverse ethnic roots are reflected in the national motto 'Out of Many One People'. Most of the population of 2,812,000 (July 2018 est.)  are of African or partially African descent, with many being able to trace their origins to the West African countries of Ghana and Nigeria.   Other major ancestral areas are Europe,  South Asia, and East Asia.  It is uncommon for Jamaicans to identify themselves by race as is prominent in other countries such as the United States, with most Jamaicans seeing Jamaican nationality as an identity in and of itself, identifying as simply being 'Jamaican' regardless of ethnicity.   A study found that the average admixture on the island was 78.3% Sub-Saharan African, 16.0% European, and 5.7% East Asian.  Another study in 2020 showed that Jamaicans of African descent represent 76.3% of the population, followed by 15.1% Afro-European, 3.4% East Indian and Afro-East Indian, 3.2% Caucasian, 1.2% Chinese and 0.8% other. 
The Jamaican Maroons of Accompong and other settlements are the descendants of African slaves who fled the plantations for the interior where they set up their own autonomous communities.    Many Maroons continue to have their own traditions and speak their own language, known locally as Kromanti. 
Asians form the second-largest group and include Indo-Jamaicans and Chinese Jamaicans.  Most are descended from indentured workers brought by the British colonial government to fill labour shortages following the abolition of slavery in 1838. Prominent Indian Jamaicans include jockey Shaun Bridgmohan, who was the first Jamaican in the Kentucky Derby, NBC Nightly News journalist Lester Holt, and Miss Jamaica World and Miss Universe winner Yendi Phillips. The southwestern parish of Westmoreland is famous for its large population of Indo-Jamaicans.  Along with their Indian counterparts, Chinese Jamaicans have also played an integral part in Jamaica's community and history. Prominent descendants of this group include Canadian billionaire investor Michael Lee-Chin, supermodels Naomi Campbell and Tyson Beckford, and VP Records founder Vincent "Randy" Chin.
There are about 20,000 Jamaicans who have Lebanese and Syrian ancestry.  Most were Christian immigrants who fled the Ottoman occupation of Lebanon in the early 19th century. Eventually their descendants became very successful politicians and businessmen. Notable Jamaicans from this group include former Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga, Jamaican politician and former Miss World Lisa Hanna, Jamaican politicians Edward Zacca and Shahine Robinson, and hotelier Abraham Elias Issa.
In 1835, Charles Ellis, 1st Baron Seaford gave 500 acres of his 10,000 acre estate in Westmoreland for the Seaford Town German settlement. Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent. 
The first wave of English immigrants arrived to the island 1655 after conquering the Spanish, and they have historically been the dominant group. Prominent descendants from this group include former American Governor of New York David Paterson, Sandals Hotels owner Gordon Butch Stewart, United States Presidential Advisor and "mother" of the Pell Grant Lois Rice, and former United States National Security Advisor and Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice. The first Irish immigrants came to Jamaica in the 1600s as war prisoners and later, indentured labour. Their descendants include two of Jamaica's National Heroes: Prime Ministers Michael Manley and Alexander Bustamante. Along with the English and the Irish, the Scots are another group that has made a significant impact on the island. According to the Scotland Herald newspaper, Jamaica has more people using the Campbell surnames than the population of Scotland itself, and it also has the highest percentage of Scottish surnames outside of Scotland. Scottish surnames account to about 60% of the surnames in the Jamaican phone books.[ citation needed] The first Jamaican inhabitants from Scotland were exiled "rebels". Later, they would be followed by ambitious businessmen who spent time between their great country estates in Scotland and the island. As a result, many of the slave owning plantations on the island were owned by Scottish men, and thus a large number of mixed-race Jamaicans can claim Scottish ancestry. High immigration from Scotland continued until well after independence.[ citation needed] Today, notable Scottish-Jamaicans include the businessman John Pringle, former American Secretary of State Colin Powell, and American actress Kerry Washington. 
There is also a significant Portuguese Jamaican population that is predominantly of Sephardic Jewish heritage; [ citation needed]. The first Jews arrived as explorers from Spain in the 15th century after being forced to convert to Christianity or face death. A small number of them became slave owners and even famous pirates.  Judaism eventually became very influential in Jamaica and can be seen today with many Jewish cemeteries around the country. During the Holocaust Jamaica became a refuge for Jews fleeing persecution in Europe.[ citation needed] Famous Jewish descendants include the dancehall artist Sean Paul, former record producer and founder of Island Records Chris Blackwell, and Jacob De Cordova who was the founder of the Daily Gleaner newspaper.   
In recent years immigration has increased, coming mainly from China, Haiti, Cuba, Colombia, and Latin America; 20,000 Latin Americans reside in Jamaica.  In 2016, the Prime Minister Andrew Holness suggested making Spanish Jamaica's second official language.  About 7,000 Americans also reside in Jamaica.[ citation needed] Notable American with connection to the island include fashion icon Ralph Lauren, philanthropist Daisy Soros, Blackstone's Schwarzman family, the family of the late Lieutenant Governor of Delaware John W. Rollins, fashion designer Vanessa Noel, investor Guy Stuart, Edward and Patricia Falkenberg, and iHeart Media CEO Bob Pittman, all of whom hold annual charity events to support the island. 
Jamaica is regarded as a bilingual country, with two major languages in use by the population.   The official language is English, which is "used in all domains of public life", including the government, the legal system, the media, and education. However, the primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois (or Patwa). The two exist in a dialect continuum, with speakers using a different register of speech depending on context and whom they are speaking to. 'Pure' Patois, though sometimes seen as merely a particularly aberrant dialect of English, is essentially mutually unintelligible with standard English and is best thought of a separate language.  A 2007 survey by the Jamaican Language Unit found that 17.1 percent of the population were monolingual in Jamaican Standard English (JSE), 36.5 percent were monolingual in Patois, and 46.4 percent were bilingual, although earlier surveys had pointed to a greater degree of bilinguality (up to 90 percent).  The Jamaican education system has only recently begun to offer formal instruction in Patois, while retaining JSE as the "official language of instruction". 
Additionally, some Jamaicans use one or more of Jamaican Sign Language (JSL), American Sign Language (ASL) or the indigenous Jamaican Country Sign Language (Konchri Sain).  Both JSL and ASL are rapidly replacing Konchri Sain for a variety of reasons. 
Many Jamaicans have emigrated to other countries, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. In the case of the United States, about 20,000 Jamaicans per year are granted permanent residence.  There has also been emigration of Jamaicans to other Caribbeans countries such as Cuba,  Puerto Rico, Guyana, and The Bahamas. It was estimated in 2004 that up to 2.5 million Jamaicans and Jamaican descendants live abroad. 
Jamaicans in the United Kingdom number an estimated 800,000 making them by far the country's largest African-Caribbean group. Large-scale migration from Jamaica to the UK occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s when the country was still under British rule. Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities.  Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans are quite considerable in numerous cities in the United States, including New York City, Buffalo, the Miami metro area, Atlanta, Chicago, Orlando, Tampa, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Hartford, Providence and Los Angeles.  In Canada, the Jamaican population is centred in Toronto,  with smaller communities in cities such as Hamilton, Montreal, Winnipeg, Vancouver and Ottawa.  Jamaican Canadians comprise about 30% of the entire Black Canadian population.  
A notable though much smaller group of emigrants are Jamaicans in Ethiopia. These are mostly Rastafarians, in whose theological worldview Africa is the promised land, or 'Zion', or more specifically Ethiopia, due to reverence in which former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is held.  Most live in the small town of Shashamane about 150 miles (240 km) south of the capital Addis Ababa. 
When Jamaica gained independence in 1962, the murder rate was 3.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the lowest in the world.  By 2009, the rate was 62 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest in the world.  Gang violence became a serious problem, with organised crime being centred around Jamaican posses or ' Yardies'. Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates.   Some areas of Jamaica, particularly poor areas in Kingston, Montego Bay and elsewhere experience high levels of crime and violence. 
However, there were 1,682 reported murders in 2009 and 1,428 in 2010.[ citation needed] After 2011 the murder rate continued to fall, following the downward trend in 2010, after a strategic programme was launched.  In 2012, the Ministry of National Security reported a 30 percent decrease in murders.  Nevertheless, in 2017 murders rose by 22% over the previous year. 
Many Jamaicans are hostile towards LGBT and intersex people,    and mob attacks against gay people have been reported.    Numerous high-profile dancehall and ragga artists have produced songs featuring explicitly homophobic lyrics.  Male homosexuality is illegal and punishable by prison time.  
Largest cities or towns in Jamaica
Demographic Statistics 2016, pp. 15–16 (2011 Census)
|3||Spanish Town||Saint Catherine||147,152|
|4||Montego Bay||Saint James||110,115|
|7||Old Harbour||Saint Catherine||28,912|
|9||Ocho Rios||Saint Ann||16,671|
Christianity is the largest religion practised in Jamaica.   About 70% are Protestants; Roman Catholics are just 2% of the population.  According to the 2001 census, the country's largest Protestant denominations are the Church of God (24%), Seventh-day Adventist Church (11%), Pentecostal (10%), Baptist (7%), Anglican (4%), United Church (2%), Methodist (2%), Moravian (1%) and Plymouth Brethren (1%).  Bedwardism is a form of Christianity native to the island, sometime view as a separate faith.   The Christian faith gained acceptance as British Christian abolitionists and Baptist missionaries joined educated former slaves in the struggle against slavery. 
The Rastafari movement has 29,026 adherents, according to the 2011 census, with 25,325 Rastafarian males and 3,701 Rastafarian females.  The faith originated in Jamaica in the 1930s and though rooted in Christianity it is heavily Afrocentric in its focus, revering figures such as the Jamaican black nationalist Marcus Garvey and Haile Selassie, the former Emperor of Ethiopia.   Rastafari has since spread across the globe, especially to areas with large black or African diasporas.  
Other religions in Jamaica include Jehovah's Witnesses (2% population), the Bahá'í faith, which counts perhaps 8,000 adherents  and 21 Local Spiritual Assemblies,  Mormonism,  Buddhism, and Hinduism.   The Hindu Diwali festival is celebrated yearly among the Indo-Jamaican community.  
There is also a small population of about 200 Jews, who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative.  The first Jews in Jamaica trace their roots back to early 15th-century Spain and Portugal.  Kahal Kadosh Shaare Shalom, also known as the United Congregation of Israelites, is a historic synagogue located in the city of Kingston. Originally built in 1912, it is the official and only Jewish place of worship left on the island. The once abundant Jewish population has voluntarily converted to Christianity over time.[ citation needed] Shaare Shalom is one of the few synagogues in the world that contains sand covered floors and is a popular tourist destination.  
Other small groups include Muslims, who claim 5,000 adherents.  The Muslim holidays of Ashura (known locally as Hussay or Hosay) and Eid have been celebrated throughout the island for hundreds of years. In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August. People of all religions attend the event, showing mutual respect.  
Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae, ska, mento, rocksteady, dub, and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban recording industry.  These have themselves gone on to influence numerous other genres, such as punk rock (through reggae and ska), dub poetry, New Wave, two-tone, reggaeton, jungle, drum and bass, dubstep, grime and American rap music. Some rappers, such as The Notorious B.I.G., Busta Rhymes, and Heavy D, are of Jamaican descent.
Bob Marley is probably the best known Jamaican musician; with his band The Wailers he had a string of hits in 1960s–70s, popularising reggae internationally and going on to sell millions of records.   Many other internationally known artists were born in Jamaica, including Toots Hibbert, Millie Small, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Gregory Isaacs, Half Pint, Protoje, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer, Big Youth, Jimmy Cliff, Dennis Brown, Desmond Dekker, Beres Hammond, Beenie Man, Shaggy, Grace Jones, Shabba Ranks, Super Cat, Buju Banton, Sean Paul, I Wayne, Bounty Killer and many others. Bands that came from Jamaica include Black Uhuru, Third World Band, Inner Circle, Chalice Reggae Band, Culture, Fab Five and Morgan Heritage.
The journalist and author H. G. de Lisser (1878–1944) used his native country as the setting for his many novels.  Born in Falmouth, Jamaica, de Lisser worked as a reporter for the Jamaica Times at a young age and in 1920 began publishing the magazine Planters' Punch. The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. He was named Honorary President of the Jamaican Press Association; he worked throughout his professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry.
Roger Mais (1905 – 1955), a journalist, poet, and playwright wrote many short stories, plays, and novels, including The Hills Were Joyful Together (1953), Brother Man (1954), and Black Lightning (1955). 
Ian Fleming (1908 – 1964), who had a home in Jamaica where he spent considerable time, repeatedly used the island as a setting in his James Bond novels, including Live and Let Die, Doctor No, " For Your Eyes Only", The Man with the Golden Gun, and Octopussy and The Living Daylights.  In addition, James Bond uses a Jamaica-based cover in Casino Royale. So far, the only James Bond film adaptation to have been set in Jamaica is Doctor No. Filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and Let Die took place in Jamaica.
Marlon James (1970), novelist has published three novels: John Crow's Devil (2005), The Book of Night Women (2009) and A Brief History of Seven Killings (2014), winner of the 2015 Man Booker Prize. 
Jamaica has a history in the film industry dating from the early 1960s. A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is presented in the 1970s musical crime film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated (and psychopathic) reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree.  Other notable Jamaican films include Countryman, Rockers, Dancehall Queen, One Love, Shottas, Out the Gate, Third World Cop and Kingston Paradise. Jamaica is also often used as a filming location, such as the James Bond film Dr. No (1962), Cocktail (1988) starring Tom Cruise, and the 1993 Disney comedy Cool Runnings, which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics.
- National bird: red-billed streamertail (also called doctor bird) (a hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus)
- National flower – lignum vitae (Guiacum officinale)
- National tree: blue mahoe (Hibiscus talipariti elatum)
- National fruit: ackee (Blighia sapida)
- National motto: "Out of Many, One People."
Sport is an integral part of national life in Jamaica and the island's athletes tend to perform to a standard well above what might ordinarily be expected of such a small country.  While the most popular local sport is cricket, on the international stage Jamaicans have tended to do particularly well at track and field athletics.  
Jamaica has produced some of the world's most famous cricketers, including George Headley, Courtney Walsh, and Michael Holding.  The country was one of the venues of 2007 Cricket World Cup and the West Indies cricket team is one of 10 ICC full member teams that participate in international Test cricket.  The Jamaica national cricket team competes regionally, and also provides players for the West Indies team. Sabina Park is the only Test venue in the island, but the Greenfield Stadium is also used for cricket.   Chris Gayle is the most renowned batsman from Jamaica currently representing the West Indies cricket team.
Since independence Jamaica has consistently produced world class athletes in track and field.  In Jamaica involvement in athletics begins at a very young age and most high schools maintain rigorous athletics programs with their top athletes competing in national competitions (most notably the VMBS Girls and Boys Athletics Championships) and international meets (most notably the Penn Relays). In Jamaica it is not uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the international athletics stage.
Over the past six decades Jamaica has produced dozens of world class sprinters including Olympic and World Champion Usain Bolt, world record holder in the 100m for men at 9.58s, and 200m for men at 19.19s. Other noteworthy Jamaican sprinters include Arthur Wint, the first Jamaican Olympic gold medalist; Donald Quarrie, Elaine Thompson double Olympic champion from Rio 2016 in the 100m and 200m, Olympic Champion and former 200m world record holder; Roy Anthony Bridge, part of the International Olympic Committee; Merlene Ottey; Delloreen Ennis-London; Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, the former World and two time Olympic 100m Champion; Kerron Stewart; Aleen Bailey; Juliet Cuthbert; three-time Olympic gold medalist; Veronica Campbell-Brown; Sherone Simpson; Brigitte Foster-Hylton; Yohan Blake; Herb McKenley; George Rhoden, Olympic gold medalist; Deon Hemmings, Olympic gold medalist; as well as Asafa Powell, former 100m world record holder and 2x 100m Olympic finalist and gold medal winner in the men's 2008 Olympic 4 × 100 m. American Olympic winner Sanya Richards-Ross was also born in Jamaica.
Jamaica has also produced several world class amateur and professional boxers including Trevor Berbick and Mike McCallum. First-generation Jamaican athletes have continued to make a significant impact on the sport internationally, especially in the United Kingdom where the list of top British boxers born in Jamaica or of Jamaican parents includes Lloyd Honeyghan, Chris Eubank, Audley Harrison, David Haye, Lennox Lewis and Frank Bruno, Donovan "Razor" Ruddock, Mike Tyson, and Floyd Mayweather Jr., whose maternal grandfather is Jamaican. 
Association football and horse-racing are other popular sports in Jamaica. The national football team qualified for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Horse racing was Jamaica's first sport. It was brought in the 1700s by British immigrants to satisfy their longing for their favorite pastime back at home. During slavery, the Afro-Jamaican slaves were considered the best horse jockeys. Today, horse racing provides jobs for about 20,000 people including horse breeders, groomers, and trainers. Also, several Jamaicans are known internationally for their success in horse racing including Richard DePass, who once held the Guinness Book of World Records for the most wins in a day, Canadian awards winner George HoSang, and American award winners Charlie Hussey, Andrew Ramgeet, and Barrington Harvey. Also, there are hundreds of Jamaicans who are employed in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom as exercise riders and groomers. 
Race car driving is also a popular sport in Jamaica with several car racing tracks and racing associations across the country. 
The Jamaica national bobsled team was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics, beating many well-established teams. Chess and basketball are widely played in Jamaica and are supported by the Jamaica Chess Federation (JCF) and the Jamaica Basketball Federation (JBF), respectively. Netball is also very popular on the island, with the Jamaica national netball team called The Sunshine Girls consistently ranking in the top five in the world. 
Rugby league has been played in Jamaica since 2006.  The Jamaica national rugby league team is made up of players who play in Jamaica and from UK based professional and semi professional clubs (notably in the Super League and Championship). In November 2018 for the first time ever, the Jamaican rugby league team qualified for the Rugby League World Cup after defeating the USA & Canada. Jamaica will play in the 2021 Rugby League World Cup in England. 
The emancipation of the slaves heralded the establishment of an education system for the masses. Prior to emancipation there were few schools for educating locals and many sent their children off to England to access quality education.[ citation needed] After emancipation the West Indian Commission granted a sum of money to establish Elementary Schools, now known as All Age Schools. Most of these schools were established by the churches.  This was the genesis of the modern Jamaican school system.
Presently the following categories of schools exist:
- Early childhood – Basic, infant and privately operated pre-school. Age cohort: 2 – 5 years.
- Primary – Publicly and privately owned (privately owned being called preparatory schools). Ages 3 – 12 years.
- Secondary – Publicly and privately owned. Ages 10 – 19 years. The high schools in Jamaica may be either single-sex or co-educational institutions, and many schools follow the traditional English grammar school model used throughout the British West Indies.
- Tertiary – Community colleges; teachers' colleges, with the Mico Teachers' College (now The MICO University College) being the oldest, founded in 1836; the Shortwood Teachers' College (which was once an all-female teacher training institution); vocational training centres, colleges and universities, publicly and privately owned. There are five local universities: the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus); the University of Technology, Jamaica, formerly The College of Art Science and Technology (CAST); the Northern Caribbean University, formerly West Indies College; the University of the Commonwealth Caribbean, formerly the University College of The Caribbean; and the International University of the Caribbean.
Additionally, there are many community and teacher training colleges.
Education is free from the early childhood to secondary levels. There are also opportunities for those who cannot afford further education in the vocational arena, through the Human Employment and Resource Training-National Training Agency (HEART Trust-NTA) programme,  which is opened to all working age national population  and through an extensive scholarship network for the various universities.
Students are taught Spanish in school from the primary level upwards; about 40–45% of educated people in Jamaica knows some form of Spanish.[ citation needed]
Jamaica is a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, petroleum refining, financial and insurance services.  Tourism and mining are the leading earners of foreign exchange. Half the Jamaican economy relies on services, with half of its income coming from services such as tourism. An estimated 4.3 million foreign tourists visit Jamaica every year.  According to the World Bank, Jamaica is an upper-middle income country that, like its Caribbean neighbours, is vulnerable to the effects of climate change, flooding, and hurricanes.  In 2018, Jamaica represented the CARICOM Caribbean Community at the G20 and the G7 annual meetings.  In 2019 Jamaica reported its lowest unemployment rate in 50 years. 
Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the early 1980s, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocation    Since 1991, the government has followed a programme of economic liberalisation and stabilisation by removing exchange controls,   floating the exchange rate,   cutting tariffs,  stabilising the Jamaican dollar, reducing inflation  and removing restrictions on foreign investment.   Emphasis has been placed on maintaining strict fiscal discipline, greater openness to trade and financial flows, market liberalisation and reduction in the size of government. During this period, a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership through divestment and privatisation programmes.    The free-trade zones at Kingston, Montego Bay and Spanish Town allow duty-free importation, tax-free profits, and free repatriation of export earnings. 
Jamaica's economy grew strongly after the years of independence,  but then stagnated in the 1980s, due to the heavy falls in price of bauxite and fluctuations in the price of agriculture.   The financial sector was troubled in 1994, with many banks and insurance companies suffering heavy losses and liquidity problems.   According to the Commonwealth Secretariat, "The government set up the Financial Sector Adjustment Company (Finsac) in January 1997 to assist these banks and companies, providing funds in return for equity, and acquired substantial holdings in banks and insurance companies and related companies,.. but it only exasperated the problem, and brought the country into large external debt.  From 2001, once it had restored these banks and companies to financial health, Finsac divested them."  The Government of Jamaica remains committed to lowering inflation, with a long-term objective of bringing it in line with that of its major trading partners. 
In 1996 and 1997 there was a decrease in GDP largely due to significant problems in the financial sector and, in 1997, a severe island-wide drought (the worst in 70 years) and hurricane that drastically reduced agricultural production.  In 1997 and 1998, nominal GDP was approximately a high of about 8 percent of GDP and then lowered to 4½ percent of GDP in 1999 and 2000.  The economy in 1997 was marked by low levels of import growth, high levels of private capital inflows and relative stability in the foreign exchange market. 
Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is recovering. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth increased to 5.5% in 2001 compared to the corresponding period in 2000, signalling the first positive growth rate in the sector since January 1997.  In 2018, Jamaica reported a 7.9% increase in corn, 6.1% increase in plantains, 10.4% increase in bananas, 2.2% increase in pineapples, 13.3% increase in dasheen, 24.9% increase in coconuts, and a 10.6% increase in whole milk production.  Bauxite and alumina production increased 5.5% from January to December 1998, compared to the corresponding period in 1997. January's bauxite production recorded a 7.1% increase relative to January 1998 and continued expansion of alumina production through 2009 is planned by Alcoa.  Jamaica is the fifth-largest exporter of bauxite in the world, after Australia, China, Brazil and Guinea. The country also exports limestone, of which it holds large deposits. The government is currently implementing plans to increase its extraction. 
A Canadian company, Carube Copper Corp, has found and confirmed, "...the existence of at least seven significant Cu/Au porphyry systems (in St. Catherine)." They have estimated that, "The porphyry distribution found at Bellas Gate is similar to that found in the Northparkes mining district of New South Wales, Australia (which was) sold to China in 2013 for US$820 million." Carube noted that Jamaica's geology, "... is similar to that of Chile, Argentina and the Dominican Republic – all productive mining jurisdictions." Mining on the sites began in 2017. 
Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange earner, showed improvement as well. In 1999 the total visitor arrivals was 2 million, an increase of 100,000 from the previous year.  Since 2017, Jamaica's tourism has risen exponentially, rising to 4.3 million average tourists per year. Jamaica's largest tourist markets are from North America, South America, and Europe. In 2017, Jamaica recorded a 91.3% increase in stopover visitors from Southern and Western Europe (and a 41% increase in stopover arrivals from January to September 2017 over the same period from the previous year) with Germany, Portugal and Spain registering the highest percentage gains.  In 2018, Jamaica won several World Travel Awards in Portugal winning the "Chairman's Award for Global Tourism Innovation", "Best Tourist Board in the Caribbean" "Best Honeymoon Destination", "Best Culinary Destination", "World's Leading Beach Destination" and "World's Leading Cruise Destination".   Two months later, the Travvy Tourism Awards held in New York City, awarded Jamaica's Tourism Minister Edmund Bartlett, with the inaugural Chairman's Award for, "Global Tourism Innovation for the Development of the Global Tourism Resilience and Crisis Management Centre (GTRCM)". Bartlett has also won the Pacific Travel Writer's Association's award in Germany for the, "2018 Best Tourism Minister of the Year".   
Petrojam, Jamaica's national and only petroleum refinery, is co-owned by the Government of Venezuela. Petrojam, "..operates a 35,000 barrel per day hydro-skimming refinery, to produce Automotive Diesel Oil; Heavy Fuel Oil; Kerosene/Jet Fuel, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), Asphalt and Gasoline." Customers include the Power industry, Aircraft refuelers, and Local Marketing companies.  On 20 February 2019, the Jamaican Government voted to retake ownership of Venezuela's 49% share. 
Jamaica's agricultural exports are sugar, bananas, cocoa,  coconut, molasses  oranges, limes, grapefruit,  rum, yams, allspice (of which it is the world's largest and "most exceptional quality" exporter),  and Blue Mountain Coffee which is considered a world renowned gourmet brand. 
Jamaica has a wide variety of industrial and commercial activities. The aviation industry is able to perform most routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs. There is a considerable amount of technical support for transport and agricultural aviation. Jamaica has a considerable amount of industrial engineering, light manufacturing, including metal fabrication, metal roofing, and furniture manufacturing. Food and beverage processing, glassware manufacturing, software and data processing, printing and publishing, insurance underwriting, music and recording, and advanced education activities can be found in the larger urban areas. The Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance. 
Since the first quarter of 2006, the economy of Jamaica has undergone a period of staunch growth. With inflation for the 2006 calendar year down to 6.0% and unemployment down to 8.9%, the nominal GDP grew by an unprecedented 2.9%.  An investment programme in island transportation and utility infrastructure and gains in the tourism, mining, and service sectors all contributed this figure. All projections for 2007 show an even higher potential for economic growth with all estimates over 3.0% and hampered only by urban crime and public policies.[ citation needed]
The global economic downturn had a significant impact on the Jamaican economy for the years 2007 to 2009, resulting in negative economic growth. The government implemented a new Debt Management Initiative, the Jamaica Debt Exchange (JDX) on 14 January 2010. The initiative would see holders of Government of Jamaica (GOJ) bonds returning the high interest earning instruments for bonds with lower yields and longer maturities. The offer was taken up by over 95% of local financial institutions and was deemed a success by the government. 
Owing to the success of the JDX program, the Bruce Golding-led government was successful in entering into a borrowing arrangement with the IMF on 4 February 2010 for the amount of US$1.27b. The loan agreement is for a period of three years. 
In April 2014, the Governments of Jamaica and China signed the preliminary agreements for the first phase of the Jamaican Logistics Hub (JLH) – the initiative that aims to position Kingston as the fourth node in the global logistics chain, joining Rotterdam, Dubai and Singapore, and serving the Americas.  The Project, when completed, is expected to provide many jobs for Jamaicans, Economic Zones for multinational companies  and much needed economic growth to alleviate the country's heavy debt-to-GDP ratio. Strict adherence to the IMF's refinancing programme and preparations for the JLH has favourably affected Jamaica's credit rating and outlook from the three biggest rating agencies. In 2018, both Moody's and Standard and Poor Credit ratings upgraded Jamaica's ratings to both "stable and positive" respectively.  
The Jamaican road network consists of almost 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi) of roads, of which over 15,000 kilometres (9,300 mi) is paved.  The Jamaican Government has, since the late 1990s and in cooperation with private investors, embarked on a campaign of infrastructural improvement projects, one of which includes the creation of a system of freeways, the first such access-controlled roadways of their kind on the island, connecting the main population centres of the island. This project has so far seen the completion of 33 kilometres (21 mi) of freeway.[ citation needed]
Railways in Jamaica no longer enjoy the prominent position they once did, having been largely replaced by roadways as the primary means of transport. Of the 272 kilometres (169 mi) of railway found in Jamaica, only 57 kilometres (35 mi) remain in operation, currently used to transport bauxite.  On 13 April 2011, a limited passenger service was resumed between May Pen, Spanish Town and Linstead.[ citation needed]
There are three international airports in Jamaica with modern terminals, long runways, and the navigational equipment required to accommodate the large jet aircraft used in modern and air travel: Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston; Ian Fleming International Airport in Boscobel, Saint Mary Parish; and the island's largest and busiest airport, Sir Donald Sangster International Airport in the resort city of Montego Bay. Manley and Sangster International airports are home to the country's national airline, Air Jamaica. In addition there are local commuter airports at Tinson Pen (Kingston), Port Antonio, and Negril, which cater to internal flights only. Many other small, rural centres are served by private airstrips on sugar estates or bauxite mines. 
Ports, shipping and lighthouses
Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal and relative proximity to large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica receives much traffic of shipping containers. The container terminal at the Port of Kingston has undergone large expansion in capacity in recent years to handle growth both already realised as well as that which is projected in coming years.  Montego Freeport in Montego Bay also handles a variety of cargo like (though more limited than) the Port of Kingston, mainly agricultural products.
There are several other ports positioned around the island, including Port Esquivel in St. Catherine ( WINDALCO), Rocky Point in Clarendon, Port Kaiser in St. Elizabeth, Port Rhoades in Discovery Bay, Reynolds Pier in Ocho Rios, and Boundbrook Port in Port Antonio.
Jamaica depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs.  Many test sites have been explored for oil, but no commercially viable quantities have been found.  The most convenient sources of imported oil and motor fuels (diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel) are from Mexico and Venezuela.
Jamaica's electrical power is produced by diesel ( bunker oil) generators located in Old Harbour. Other smaller power stations (most owned by the Jamaica Public Service Company,  the island's electricity provider) support the island's electrical grid including the Hunts Bay Power Station, the Bogue Power Station, the Rockfort Power Station and small hydroelectric plants on the White River, Rio Bueno, Morant River, Black River (Maggotty) and Roaring River.  A wind farm, owned by the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, was established at Wigton, Manchester. 
Jamaica imports approximately 80,000 barrels (13,000 m3) of oil energy products per day,  including asphalt and lubrication products. Just 20% of imported fuels are used for road transportation, the rest being used by the bauxite industry, electricity generation, and aviation. 30,000 barrels/day of crude imports are processed into various motor fuels and asphalt by the Petrojam Refinery in Kingston. 
Jamaica produces enormous quantities of drinking alcohol (at least 5% water content), most of which appears to be consumed as beverages, and none used as motor fuel. Facilities exist to refine hydrous ethanol feedstock into anhydrous ethanol (0% water content), but as of 2007, the process appeared to be uneconomic and the production plant was idle. 
The country's two mobile operators – FLOW Jamaica (formerly LIME, bMobile and Cable and Wireless Jamaica) and Digicel Jamaica have spent millions in network upgrades and expansion. The newest operator, Digicel was granted a licence in 2001 to operate mobile services in the newly liberalised telecom market that had once been the sole domain of the incumbent FLOW (then Cable and Wireless Jamaica) monopoly. Digicel opted for the more widely used GSM wireless system, while a past operator, Oceanic (which became Claro Jamaica and later merged with Digicel Jamaica in 2011) opted for the CDMA standard. FLOW (formerly "LIME" – pre- Columbus Communications merger) which had begun with TDMA standard, subsequently upgraded to GSM in 2002, decommissioned TDMA in 2006 and only utilised that standard until 2009 when LIME launched its 3G network.  Both operators currently provide islandwide coverage with HSPA+ (3G) technology. Currently, only Digicel offers LTE to its customers  whereas FLOW Jamaica has committed to launching LTE in the cities of Kingston and Montego Bay, places where Digicel's LTE network is currently only found in, in short order.
A new entrant to the Jamaican communications market, Flow Jamaica, laid a new submarine cable connecting Jamaica to the United States. This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables connecting Jamaica to the rest of the world to four. Cable and Wireless Communications (parent company of LIME) acquired the company in late 2014 and replaced their brand LIME with FLOW.  FLOW Jamaica currently has the most broadband and cable subscribers on the island and also has 1 million mobile subscribers,  second to Digicel (which had, at its peak, over 2 million mobile subscriptions on its network).
Digicel entered the broadband market in 2010 by offering WiMAX broadband,  capable of up to 6 Mbit/s per subscriber. To further their broadband share post-LIME/FLOW merger in 2014, the company introduced a new broadband service called Digicel Play,  which is Jamaica's second FTTH offering (after LIME's deployment in selected communities in 2011 ). It is currently only available in the parishes of Kingston, Portmore and St. Andrew. It offers speeds of up to 200 Mbit/s down, 100 Mbit/s up via a pure fibre optic network. Digicel's competitor, FLOW Jamaica, has a network consisting of ADSL, Coaxial and Fibre to the Home (inherited from LIME) and only offers speeds up to 100 Mbit/s. FLOW has committed to expanding its Fibre offering to more areas in order to combat Digicel's entrance into the market.
It was announced that the Office and Utilities Regulations (OUR), Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining (MSTEM) and the Spectrum Management Authority (SMA) have given approval for another mobile operator licence in January 2016.  The identity of this entrant was ascertained on 20 May 2016, when the Jamaican Government named the new carrier as Symbiote Investments Limited operating under the name Caricel.  The company will focus on 4G LTE data offerings and will first go live in the Kingston Metropolitan Area and will expand to the rest of Jamaica thereafter.[ citation needed]
- Collins, Olive. "Welcome to Sligoville: The story of the Irish in Jamaica". The Irish Times.
- "CIA World Factbook (Jamaica)". United States Government. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
- The CIA World Factbook – Jamaica Archived 8 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2015-09-16.
- "The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "Data Query Total Population by sex (thousands)". UNITED NATIONS/DESA/POPULATION DIVISION. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Population Usually Resident in Jamaica, by Parish: 2011". Statistical Institute of Jamaica. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Data Query – Population density (persons per square km), as of 1 July". UNITED NATIONS/DESA/POPULATION DIVISION. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "The World Factbook". CIA.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- "CIA World Factbook – Jamaica". Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Athletics in Jamaica". My island Jamaica. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Reggae." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 16 February 2016.
- "Jamaica". State.gov. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "Jamaica (country)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Record 4.3 Million Tourist Arrivals in 2017". Jamaica Information Service (Government of Jamaica). Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- As represented in Old Spanish orthography, meaning it began with a " sh" sound.
- "Taíno Dictionary" (in Spanish). The United Confederation of Taíno People. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
"Jamaica - Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council". aribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council. 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock"..
- "The Taino of Jamaica (Jamaica)". Jamaicans.com. 1 April 2001. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "Jamaica" Archived 20 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Atkinson, Lesley-Gail. "The Earliest Inhabitants: The Dynamics of the Jamaican Taíno."
- Fuller, Harcourt; Torres, Jada Benn (2 January 2018). "Investigating the "Taíno" ancestry of the Jamaican Maroons: a new genetic (DNA), historical, and multidisciplinary analysis and case study of the Accompong Town Maroons". Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. 43 (1): 47–78. doi: 10.1080/08263663.2018.1426227. ISSN 0826-3663. S2CID 166204004.
- Madrilejo, Nicole; Lombard, Holden; Torres, Jada Benn (13 November 2014). "Origins of marronage: Mitochondrial lineages of Jamaica's Accompong Town Maroons". American Journal of Human Biology. 27 (3): 432–437. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.22656. ISSN 1042-0533. PMID 25392952. S2CID 30255510.
- "'I am not extinct' — Jamaican Taino proudly declares ancestry". jamaica-gleaner.com. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Jamaican National Heritage Trust". 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Pickering, Keith A. "A Christopher Columbus Timeline". Archived from the original on 21 April 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, 1942, pp. 653–54. Samuel Eliot Morison, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, 1955, pp. 184–92.
- "History of Jamaica". Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "Spanish Town". Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "Jamaican History I". Discover Jamaica. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Kritzler, Edward, The Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean, Anchor, 2009, p. 15, ISBN 0767919521
- Parker, Matthew (2011). The Sugar Barons.
- "Henry Morgan: The Pirate Who Invaded Panama in 1671" Archived 12 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Historynet.com.
- *Parker, Matthew (2011). The Sugar Barons.
- "Jamaica's English History". Jamaica National Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- Benitez, Suzette. "The Maroons". Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655–1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), pp. 14-25.
- C.V. Black, History of Jamaica (London: Collins, 1975), p. 54.
- Donovan, J. (1910). Jamaica. Archived 29 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
- Trevor Burnard, "A failed settler society: marriage and demographic failure in early Jamaica", Journal of Social History, Fall, 1994
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
- "Rodgers, Nini, 'The Irish in the Caribbean 1641–1837: An Overview'". Irlandeses.org. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- Cundall, Frank. (1915) Historic Jamaica. London: Institute of Jamaica. p. 15.
- USGS (21 October 2009). "Historic Earthquakes: Jamaica 1692 June 07 UTC". Archived from the original on 8 April 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- Bev Carey, The Maroon Story: The Authentic and Original History of the Maroons in the History of Jamaica 1490–1880 (Kingston, Jamaica: Agouti Press, 1997), p. 315-355.
- "Jamaican Culture". Jamaicans.com. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- Michael Sivapragasam, After the Treaties: A Social, Economic and Demographic History of Maroon Society in Jamaica, 1739–1842, PhD Dissertation, African-Caribbean Institute of Jamaica library (Southampton: Southampton University, 2018), pp. 109-117, 182-193.
- History of the Catholic Church in Jamaica ISBN 978-0-829-40544-6 p. 68
- The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Library of Congress
- Révauger, Cécile (October 2008). The Abolition of Slavery – The British Debate 1787–1840. Presse Universitaire de France. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-2-13-057110-0.
- "Embassy of Jamaica, Washington, DC". www.embassyofjamaica.org. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- Tortello, Rebecca (3 November 2003). "The Arrival of the Indians". The Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved 27 May 2017.[ permanent dead link]
- Hemlock, Doreen (17 April 2005). "Out of Many, One People: Chinese-Jamaicans Treasure Their Roots and Their Communities". The Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- Handbook of Jamaica. Google Books: Jamaica Government. 1908. p. 37.
- J. F. Wilson Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Hot Springs Archived 15 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, pg. 70, BiblioLife (2008), ISBN 0-554-56496-3
- "Historian situates 'back-to-Africa' movements in broad context". 1 March 2006. Stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Hamilton, Janice. Jamaica in Pictures, p.30. Twenty-First Century Books (2005), ISBN 0-8225-2394-9
- Post, Ken (1978). Arise Ye Starvelings: The Jamaican Rebellion of 1938 and its Aftermath. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 9024721407.
- Fraser, Cary (1996). "The Twilight of Colonial Rule in the British West Indies: Nationalist Assertion vs. Imperial Hubris in the 1930s". Journal of Caribbean History. 30 (1/2): 2.[ permanent dead link]
- "Jamaica: Self-government". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "The West Indies Federation". 2011. CARICOM. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p. 430.
- Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p. 430.
- Communications, Peter Scott Chrysalis. "Trade Unionist". Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p. 430.
- Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p. 430.
- "Showdown in Jamaica". The New York Times. 27 November 1988. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p430 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
- Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p. 430.
- Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p430 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
- Franklyn, Delano (ed.): 2002. The Challenges of Change: P. J. Patterson Budget Presentations 1992–2002. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.
- Caribbean Elections: Jamaican Election Centre, "Jamaican general election results 3 September 2007" http://www.caribbeanelections.com/jm/elections/jm_results_2007.asp Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- Pollster's diary: virtual motion picture of campaign 2007 Archived 2008-06-22 at the Wayback Machine, Jamaica Gleaner, 9 September 2007
- "OAS body raises concerns over Jamaica as death toll rises". CNN. 27 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- "Give Us The Queen!". The Gleaner. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
- Ghosh, Palash (29 June 2011). "Most Jamaicans Would Prefer To Remain British". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
- Caribbean Elections: Jamaican Election Centre, "Jamaican general election results 29 December 2011" http://www.caribbeanelections.com/jm/elections/jm_results_2011.asp Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- Caribbean Elections: Jamaican Election Centre, "Jamaican general election results 25 February 2016" http://www.caribbeanelections.com/jm/elections/jm_results_2016.asp Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- JLP Trounces PNP 49 To 14 Seats Archived 5 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Gleaner, 3 September 2020
- "Encyclopedia Britannica – Jamaica". Archived from the original on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- Queen of Jamaica http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/Jamaica/Jamaica.aspx Archived 20 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Monarchy Today: Queen and Commonwealth". Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
- Rob Crilly, "Jamaica unveils plan to ditch Queen as head of state" Archived 29 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Telegraph, 16 April 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "Editorial: The Monarchy And Beyond" Archived 29 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Jamaica Gleaner, 12 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "Local Government Act, 2015" (PDF). localauthorities.gov.jm. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- "Jamaica Defense Force History". Jamaica Defense Force. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "Jamaica Defense Force General Information". Jamaica Defense Force. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "JDF Coast Guard Roles". Jamaica Defense Force. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "The Combat Support Battalion (Cbt Sp Bn)". Jamaica Defense Force. Archived from the original on 8 October 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- "1st Engineering Regiment History". Jamaica Defense Force. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Headquarters Jamaica Defence Force (HQ JDF)". Jamaica Defense Force. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- "County Background – Jamaica" (PDF). Pan American Health Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Geography of Jamaica". Jamaica Gleaner. Archived from the original on 18 May 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Jamaican Cities". My Island Jamaica. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Kingston tourist destinations". Planet Aware. Archived from the original on 16 July 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Jamaican tourist attractions". Planet Aware. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Port Antonio tourist attractions". Planet Aware. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Ocho Rios tourist attractions". Planet Aware. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "CSI Activities (Portland Bight, Jamaica)". Unesco.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Jamaica Climate and Weather". Word Travels. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Climate of Jamaica". Jamaica Gleaner. Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Construction and Building in Jamaica". Projects Abroad. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Jamaica's Botantical Gardens Worth More Than Gold". Jamaica Gleaner. Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Aiken, Wilson, Vogel, Garraway PhD, Karl, Byron, Peter, Eric (21 January 2007). "LETTER OF THE DAY: Biologists speak on Cockpit mining". University of the West Indies. University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link)
- Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1). doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723.
- "THE REPTILE DATABASE". reptile-database.org. Archived from the original on 2 November 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Amphibians and reptiles found in Cockpit Country jamaica". Cockpitcountry.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "The Doctor Bird – Jamaica Information Service". jis.gov.jm. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "High Andean Flamingos (Jamaica)". Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Germany). Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "All fishes reported from Jamaica". fishbase.org. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- Nuwer, Rachel. "Sea Cows Used To Walk on Land in Africa And Jamaica". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Beautiful Butterflies – Jamaican Swallowtails Among Those on Display at IOJ". Jamaica Gleaner. Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper. 29 June 2014. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Edwards, Peter E.T. (March 2009). "Sustainable financing for ocean and coastal management in Jamaica: The potential for revenues from tourist user fees" (PDF). Marine Policy. 33 (2): 376–385. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2008.08.005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Toward Developing a National Policy on Ocean and Coastal Zone Management" (PDF). nepa.gov.jm. June 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L. (July 2011). "Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: Effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae". Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 29 (4): 775. Bibcode: 2011ChJOL..29..775L. doi: 10.1007/s00343-011-0506-8. S2CID 84875443. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- "Oceans, Fisheries and Coastal Economies". World Bank. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- "MARINE DEBRIS: JAMAICA'S RESPONSE" (PDF). www.un.org. 6–10 June 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Richardson, David; Tibbles, Anthony; Schwarz, Suzanne (2007). Liverpool and Transatlantic Slavery. Liverpool University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-84631-066-9.
- "Pieces of the Past:The Arrival of the Irish". Jamaica Gleaner. 1 December 2003. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
- Bouknight-Davis 2004, p. 83 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBouknight-Davis2004 ( help)
- Graham, George (30 July 2007). "Out of Many One People, We Are A Race Apart". Jamaicans.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- http://jamaicans.com/reasons-many-jamaicans-dont-understand-racism/ Archived 4 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine title= 5 Reasons Many Jamaicans Don't Understand Racism
- Simms, Tanya M.; Rodríguez, Carol E.; Rodríguez, Rosa; Herrera, René J. (May 2010). "The genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica reflect divergent demographic histories". Am J Phys Anthropol. 142 (1): 49–66. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21194. PMID 19918989. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- Jamaican Population 2020, World Population Review https://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/jamaica-population Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- Michael Sivapragasam, After the Treaties: A Social, Economic and Demographic History of Maroon Society in Jamaica, 1739–1842, PhD Dissertation, African-Caribbean Institute of Jamaica library (Southampton: Southampton University, 2018), pp. 23–24.
- E. Kofi Agorsah, "Archaeology of Maroon Settlements in Jamaica", Maroon Heritage: Archaeological, Ethnographic and Historical Perspectives, ed. E. Kofi Agorsah (Kingston: University of the West Indies Canoe Press, 1994), pp. 180-81.
- Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 70.
- Bilby, Kenneth (1983). "How the "older heads" talk: A Jamaican Maroon spirit possession language and its relationship to the creoles of Suriname and Sierra Leone". New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 57 (1/2): 37–88. doi: 10.1163/13822373-90002097.
- https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jm.html Archived 8 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine CIA (The World Factbook): Jamaica
- "Jamaica National Heritage Trust – The People Who Came". www.jnht.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past:The Arrival of the Lebanese". old.jamaica-gleaner.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Leask, David (10 October 2005). "Jamaica: the country with more Campbells per head of population than Scotland". Herald Scotland. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Urken, Ross Kenneth. "The Forgotten Jewish Pirates of Jamaica". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Masis, Julie. "Remnants of Jamaica's Jews hold a heritage full of firsts". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Out of Many Cultures: The People Who Came The Jews in Jamaica". Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper. Archived from the original on 20 January 2007.
- "Jamaica Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jamaica Virtual Jewish History Tour. Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- "Jamaica *Rastafari * ToZion.org *". www.tozion.org. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- "Jamaica Observer Limited". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
- "60th Anniversary "Diamond Jubilee" Sugar Cane Ball at Round Hill". Round Hill Villas. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Ronald C. Morren and Diane M. Morren (2007). Are the goals and objectives of Jamaica's Bilingual Education Project being met?" Archived 16 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine – SIL International (working paper). Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Jettka, Daniel (2010). "English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English and the English-based Jamaican Creole" (PDF). Hamburg Centre for Language Corpora. Hamburg University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Claude Robinson (30 March 2014). "English lessons for Jamaica" Archived 10 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "Konchri Sain". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
- "United States immigration statistics". Dhs.gov. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- Jamaicans to Cuba. Encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- Linking the Jamaican Diaspora. Jamaica Observer. 20 June 2004.
- "Jamaica: Mapping exercise" (PDF). London: International Organization for Migration. July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- Jones, Terry-Ann. Jamaican Immigrants in the United States and Canada: Race, Transnationalism, and Social Capital. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Piblishing LLC, 2008. 2–3; 160–3. Print.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Toronto (CMA)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories — 20% sample data Archived 18 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Statistics Canada (2006). Retrieved on 11 August 2008.
- Visible minority groups, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories — 20% sample data Archived 14 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Statistics Canada (2006). Retrieved on 19 March 2011.
- Pink, Patrina (18 June 2010), "Jamaican Rastas Bring Cultural Diversity To 'Promised Land'", Jamaica Gleaner, archived from the original on 30 July 2019, retrieved 11 March 2013
- Bhalla, Nita (5 November 2001), "The town that Rastafarians built", BBC News, archived from the original on 30 July 2019, retrieved 11 March 2013
- "Crime and crisis in Jamaica". www.focal.ca. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Crime and crisis in Jamaica". Focal.ca. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "Nationmaster Crime Stats". Nationmaster.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "Crime, violence and development: trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- "Jamaica Travel Advice: Safety and Security". Foreign Travel Advice. Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Prime Minister Golding Speaks on Crime Reduction". The Gleaner. 9 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- Pachico, Elyssa (2012-3-30). "Jamaica Murder Rate Dropped 30% in 2012". InSightCrime: Organized Crime in the Americas. Retrieved 2012-12-1.
- "Jamaica's Murder Tally Over 1,500 This Year". rjrnewsonline.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- Padgett, Tim (12 April 2006). "The Most Homophobic Place on Earth?". Time. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2006.
- "2012 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Jamaica, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, pages 20-22" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "Jamaica Travel Advice: Local Laws and Customs". Foreign Travel Advice. Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Lacey, Marc (24 February 2008). "Attacks Show Easygoing Jamaica Is Dire Place for Gays". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Jamaica: Shield Gays from Mob Attacks". Human Rights Watch. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Document – Jamaica: Amnesty International condemns homophobic violence" (Press release). Amnesty International. 15 April 2007. Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Jamaica, United Nations Human Rights Committee, CCPR/C/JAM/CO/3, paragraph 8, pages 2-3, 17 November 2011" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "71 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal". Newsweek. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- Stan Simpson and David Person (2003). Home away from Home: Africans in Americas, Volume 1, Ch 19: Land of Maroons (PDF). Institute for Advanced Journalism Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- "Bedward's Tomb". www.jnht.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Elam, Rachael. "Jamaican Christian Missions:Their Influence in the Jamaican Slave Rebellion of 1831–32 and the End of Slavery" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- Savishinsky, Neil J. "Transnational popular culture and the global spread of the Jamaican Rastafarian movement." NWIG: New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 68.3/4 (1994): 259-281.
- Stephen D. Glazier, Encyclopedia of African and African-American Religions, 2001, p. 263.
- Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel (25 January 2010). Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions. Temple University Press. ISBN 9781439901755.
- Stewart, Dianne M. (7 July 2005). Three Eyes for the Journey: African Dimensions of the Jamaican Religious Experience. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198039082. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- Taylor, Patrick; Case, Frederick (2013). The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions: Volume 1: A – L; Volume 2: M – Z. ISBN 9780252094330.
- Paul Easterling, "The Ifa' Diaspora: The Art of Syncretism, Part 5 – Obeah and Myal" in  Archived 30 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine (Afrometrics.org, 2017).
- "Map Source: www.worldmap.org". 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- Bahá'í International Community (11 August 2006). "Jamaicans celebrate 4th National Baha'i Day". Bahá'í World News Service. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
- "Jamaica – LDS Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership". Mormonnewsroom.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past: Out of Many Cultures: Roads and Resistance: RELIGIOUS ICONS part 2". old.jamaica-gleaner.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- "Faith in Jamaica | Learn More About What We Believe". www.visitjamaica.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- religiousintelligence.co.uk Archived 21 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu Archived 21 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Out of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival of the Indians". old.jamaica-gleaner.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- Haruth Communications; Harry Leichter. "Jamaican Jews". Haruth.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- Dawes, Mark (10 June 2003). "Jews hold firm Life goes on in Old Synagogue". The Gleaner. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- Kaplan, Dana Evan (10 August 2012). "A Synagogue Drawn in the Sand". Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2020 – via Haaretz.
- "Why Sand Covers the Floor of One of the Western Hemisphere's Oldest Synagogues". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Hosay Festival, Westmoreland, Jamaica". caribbeanmuslims.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- Dave Thompson (2002) Reggae and Caribbean Music. Backbeat Books. p. 261. ISBN 0879306556.
- "7 Fascinating Facts About Bob Marley". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
- Toynbee, Jason (8 May 2013). Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1969–. ISBN 978-0-7456-5737-0. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Michael Hughes, "De Lisser, Herbert G.", A Companion to West Indian Literature, Collins, 1979, pp. 40–42.
- Hawthorne, Evelyn J. "The Writer and the Nationalist Model", Roger Mais and the Decolonization of Caribbean Culture, NY: Peter Lang, 1989, p. 7.
- "Ian Fleming International Airport opened in Jamaica!". News & Press. Ian Fleming Publications. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- James, Marlon (10 March 2015). "From Jamaica to Minnesota to Myself". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- Kenner, Rob (2009) " Trevor Rhone, a Writer of 'The Harder They Come,' Dies at 69 Archived 30 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine", The New York Times, 21 September 2009, retrieved 11 November 2012
- "National Symbols of Jamaica". Jis.gov.jm. 6 August 1962. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Jamaican Sports An Overview". My Island Jamaica. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- StephanieK. "Cricket in Jamaica". Jamaicans.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- "Test and ODI cricket playing nations". Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Cricket Ground Information". Windies Online. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Greenfield Stadium". Surf India. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- on YouTube
- Tortello, Dr. Rebecca. "Jamaican Horse racing History: The sport of kings". Jamaica Gleaner. Jamaica. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Graham, Neville. "New Cars To Light Up Dover". Jamaica Gleaner. Jamaica. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- IFNA. "Current World Rankings". Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Jamaica Rugby league History". Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Rugby League World Cup: Jamaica reach tournament for first time". BBC Sport. 17 November 2018. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- "Best-paid athletes from 200 countries". espn.com. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Moravian Church Contribution to Education in Jamaica". Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- "Transforming the Jamaican Education System". Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- "Vocational Education in Jamaica". UNESCO-UNEVOC. August 2012. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Ja/Caricom and the G20 Summit)". Jamaica Gleaner newspaper. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Lowest Unemployment in 50 Years". Jamaica Information Service (Government of Jamaica). Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "GOJ Divestment and Projects Programme to Generate Billions in Investment Opportunities for Jamaican Capital". Government of Jamaica Ministry of Finance and Public Services. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Holness says divestment of state assets good thing for Jamaica". Jamaica Observer newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "DBJ Bats For Small Investors in Wigton Divestment". Jamaica Gleaner newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica – Foreign Exchange Controls". export.gov. Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "No Legal Restrictions of Foreign Currency Quotes". Jamaica Observer. Jamaica Observer Newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Trade Reference Centre – Jamaica – Caribbean Trade Reference Centre". Trade Reference Centre – Jamaica – Caribbean Trade Reference Centre. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "2011 Investment Climate Statement — Jamaica". U.S. Department of State.
- "Jamaica – Import Tariffs". export.gov. Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica Turns to Reggae Videos to Promote Inflation Target". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Jamaica – 1-Openness to & Restriction on Foreign Investment". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica (Economy)". Official Commonwealth Website (UK). Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica Letter of Intent July 19, 2000". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica: October 1998". World Trade Organization. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Jamaica". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Growth in Agriculture Subsectors". Government of Jamaica ( Jamaica Information Service). Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- No gas from Trinidad, Venezuela by 2009 – Jamaica Observer.com Archived 17 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine at www.jamaicaobserver.com
- "Limestone research finds richest deposits in St Elizabeth, Portland and Trelawny". Jamaica Observer newspaper. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Collinder, Avia. "Carube Copper Corp to begin exploring for gold and copper at Bellas Gate in April". Jamaica Observer newspaper. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- McDavid, Hamilton (2003). "An Input-Output Analysis of the Jamaican Hospitality and Tourism Sector". Social and Economic Studies : Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, University of the West Indies. 52 (1): 161–184. JSTOR 27865318.
- "Jamaica sees European tourism boom". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Jamaica sweeps World Travel Awards". Jamaica Observer newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Jamaica Scores Big With Travvy Tourism Awards". Jamaica Ministry of Tourism. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Bartlett is World's Tourism Minister of the Year". Jamaica Observer newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "PetroJam (About Us)". PetroJam (Government of Jamaica). Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- "House Approves Bill to Retake Ownership of Petrojam Shares". Jamaica Information Service (Government of Jamaica). Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Jamaican cocoa could be sweet again". Jamaica Observer newspaper. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Jamaica Economy". Britannica Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Collinder, Avia (18 August 2017). "Shortage Creates Price Surge for Fresh Citrus". Jamaica Gleaner newspaper. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Zhang, L.; Lokeshwar, B.L. (2012). "Medicinal Properties of the Jamaican Pepper Plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice". Current Drug Targets. 13 (14): 1900–1906. doi: 10.2174/138945012804545641. PMC 3891794. PMID 23140298.
- "History of Aviation in Jamaica: Part I". Jamaica-gleaner.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- Statistical Institute of Jamaica Archived 17 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine at www.statinja.com
- "Statement – Prime Minister Dr Keith Rowley on CSME". CARICOM.
- "Jamaica Debt Exchange". IMF. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Jamaica Gleaner News – IMF says yes – US$1.27b loan for Jamaica approved – US$950m fund for financial sector". Jamaica-gleaner.com. 5 February 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Jamaica signs deal for China-built cargo shipping hub". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Proposed Caymanas Economic Zone To Be One of 16". Jamaica Information Service. Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Moody's Investor Services Upgrades Jamaica Sovereign Rating and Revises Outlook from Positive to Stable". Government of Jamaica (Ministry of Finance and Public Services). Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Rating agency gives positive outlook for Jamaica". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- The Jamaica Observer Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
- Annual Transport Statistics Report: Jamaica in Figures 2003-2004 Archived 2013-03-15 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Transport and Works, July 2005.
- "Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petroleum Industry Statistics". Archived from the original on 3 February 2001. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
- "Jamaica Public Service Company". Archived from the original on 7 January 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "JPS – JPS' Power Plants". Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Wigton Wind Farm Company". Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- List of nuclear reactors#Jamaica
- "Corporate Fact Sheet | Petrojam Limited". Petrojam.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petrojam Ethanol". Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
- Doing eBusiness in Jamaica Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Economist Intelligence Unit.
- "LIME 3G launch in 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- TeleGeography. "Digicel Jamaica launches LTE". Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Cable & Wireless Communications – NEW FLOW BRAND UNVEILED IN JAMAICA". www.cwc.com. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Limited, Jamaica Observer. "Flow celebrates hitting one million customers". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- TeleGeography. "Digicel launches WiMAX to non-business users". www.telegeography.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Home". www.digicelgroup.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- TeleGeography. "LIME Jamaica launches 100Mbps FTTH service". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- TeleGeography. "Jamaican government approves third mobile player". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Limited, Jamaica Observer. "Caricel – first Jamaican company to get mobile spectrum licence". Jamaica Observer. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Ahmed, Faiz (2008). The Development Path Taken by Jamaica: A brief account of the islands natural-history, economic policies, and social conditions (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012. (pp. 45–83)
- Arbell, Mordehay (2000). The Portuguese Jews of Jamaica. Canoe Press. ISBN 978-976-8125-69-9.
- Ammar, N. "From Whence they came". Jamaica Journal.
- Bahadur, Gaiutra. Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. The University of Chicago (2014), ISBN 978-0-226-21138-1
- Bernstein, Antje (2006). "English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English and the English-based Jamaican Creole". English Language and Literature Studies. seminar paper. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Chapman, Valentine Jackson (1961). The marine algae of Jamaica: Myxophyceae and Chlorophyceae.
- Chapman, Valentine Jackson (1963). The marine Algae of Jamaica: Part II: Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
- Hall, D. "Bounties European Immigration with Special Reference of the German Settlement at Seaford Town, Parts 1 and 2". Jamaica Journal, 8, (4), 48–54 and 9 (1), 2–9.
- Issa, Suzanne (1994). Mr Jamaica, Abe Issa: a pictorial biography. S. Issa. ISBN 978-976-8091-69-7.
- Jacobs, H. P. (2003). Germany in Jamaica. Indian heritage in Jamaica. Jamaica Journal, 10, (2,3,4), 10–19,
- Mullally, R. (2003). "'One Love' The Black Irish of Jamaica". Jamaica Journal. 42: 104–116.
- Parboosingh, I.S. "An Indo-Jamaica beginning". Jamaica Journal. 18 (3): 2–10, 12.
- Senior, Olive (2003). Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage. Twin Guinep Publishers. ISBN 978-976-8007-14-8.
- Sherlock, Philip Manderson; Bennett, Hazel (1998). The Story of the Jamaican People. Ian Randle Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55876-145-2.
- Thomson, Ian (2009). The Dead Yard: Tales of Modern Jamaica. Nation Books. ISBN 978-0-571-22761-7.
- Williams, Joseph John (1932). Whence the "Black Irish" of Jamaica?. L. MacVeagh, Dial Press, Inc.
- The Gleaner. Seaford Town Advertising Feature. 14 August 2003, D7- D8.
- Governmental details
- Government of Jamaica
- Jamaica at the Royal Family website
- Official website of the Jamaica Information Service
- The Cabinet Office of the Government of Jamaica
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- General information
- "Jamaica". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Jamaica from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Jamaica at Curlie
- Jamaica from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Jamaica
- Geographic data related to Jamaica at OpenStreetMap
- National Library of Jamaica materials in the Digital Library of the Caribbean
- JAMAICA VIRTUAL TOUR IN HD – many locations around the island
- Key Development Forecasts for Jamaica from International Futures