DPT vaccine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from TDaP)
DPT vaccine
Global vaccination coverage- Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) immunization, OWID.svg
Global vaccination coverage- diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) immunization [1]
Combination of
Diphtheria vaccine Vaccine
Pertussis vaccine Vaccine
Tetanus vaccine Vaccine
Clinical data
Trade namesAdacel, Boostrix, Revaxis, others
AHFS/ Drugs.com UK Drug Information
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular injection
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
  • none
 ☒NcheckY  (what is this?)   (verify)

The DPT vaccine or DTP vaccine is a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases in humans: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus. [2] The vaccine components include diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and either killed whole cells of the bacterium that causes pertussis or pertussis antigens. The whole cells or antigens will be depicted as either "DTwP" or "DTaP", where the lower-case "w" indicates whole-cell inactivated pertussis and the lower-case "a" indicates pertussis antigens. [3]

In the United States, the DPT vaccine is administered as part of the childhood vaccines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [4] In France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom the combination vaccine is known as DTP.

History

In the 20th century, the advancements in vaccinations helped to reduce the incidence of childhood pertussis and had a dramatically positive effect on the health of populations in the United States. [5] However, in the early 21st century, reported instances of the disease increased 20-fold due to a downturn in the number of immunizations received and resulted in numerous fatalities. [6] During the 21st century, many parents declined to vaccinate their children against pertussis for fear of perceived side effects despite scientific evidence showing vaccines to be highly effective and safe. [6] In 2009, the journal Pediatrics concluded the largest risk among unvaccinated children was not the contraction of side effects, but rather the disease that the vaccination aims to protect against. [6]

Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) vaccination was licensed in 1949. [7]

Combination vaccines with acellular pertussis

DTaP and Tdap are both combination vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The lower-case "d" and "p" indicate smaller concentrations of diphtheria toxoids and pertussis antigens, and "a" in "ap/aP" indicates that the pertussis toxoids are acellular. [8]

DTaP

DTaP (also DTPa and TDaP) is a combination vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, in which the pertussis component is acellular. [9] This is in contrast to whole-cell, inactivated DTP (DTwP). [10] The acellular vaccine uses selected antigens of the pertussis pathogen to induce immunity. [11] Because it uses fewer antigens than the whole-cell vaccines, it is considered to cause fewer side effects, but it is also more expensive. [11] Research suggests that the DTP vaccine is more effective than DTaP in conferring immunity, because DTaP's narrower antigen base is less effective against current pathogen strains. [12]

Tdap

Tdap, (also dTpa), is a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine. It was licensed in the United States for use in adults and adolescents on June 10, 2005. [13] Two Tdap vaccines are available in the US. In January 2011, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the use of Tdap in adults of all ages, including those age 65 and above. [14] In October 2011, in an effort to reduce the burden of pertussis in infants, the ACIP recommended that unvaccinated pregnant women receive a dose of Tdap. On October 24, 2012, the ACIP voted to recommend the use of Tdap during every pregnancy. [15] [16]

The ACIP and Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommended that both adolescents and adults receive Tdap in place of their next Td booster (recommended to be given every ten years). [17] [18] [19] [13] Tdap and Td can be used as prophylaxis for tetanus in wound management. People who will be in contact with young infants are encouraged to get Tdap even if it has been less than five years since Td or TT to reduce the risk of infants being exposed to pertussis. NACI suggests intervals shorter than five years can be used for catch-up programs and other instances where programmatic concerns make five-year intervals difficult. [20]

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a pentavalent vaccine, combining the DTP vaccine with vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B. Evidence on how effective this pentavalent vaccine is compared to the individual vaccines has not yet been determined. [21]

A 2019 study in the American Economic Journal found that state requirements mandating the use of the Tdap vaccine "increased Tdap vaccine take-up and reduced pertussis (whooping cough) incidence by about 32 percent." [22]

Contraindications

The DPT vaccine should be avoided in persons who experienced a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to a past vaccine containing tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis. It should also be avoided in persons with a known severe allergy to an ingredient in the vaccine. If the reaction was caused by tetanus toxoids, the CDC recommends considering a passive immunization with tetanus immune globulin (TIG) if a person has a dirty and/or large wound. [23] The DPT vaccine should also be avoided if a person developed encephalopathy (seizures, coma, declined consciousness) within seven days of receiving any pertussis-containing vaccine and the encephalopathy cannot be traced to another cause. [24] A DT vaccine is available for children under the ages of seven who have contraindications or precautions to pertussis-containing vaccines. [25]

Side effects

DTaP

Common side effects include soreness where the shot was given, fever, irritability, tiredness, loss of appetite, and vomiting. [9] Most side effects are mild to moderate and may last from one to three days [9] More serious but rare reactions after a DTaP vaccination may include seizures, lowered consciousness, or a high fever over 105 °F (41 °C). [2]

Tdap

Common side effects include pain or swelling where the shot was given, mild fever, headache, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach ache. [9] Any individual who has experienced a life-threatening allergic reaction after receiving a previous dose of diphtheria, tetanus, or pertussis containing vaccine should not receive the Tdap vaccination. [9]

Related vaccines

Other related vaccines include the DT and Td vaccines, which lack the pertussis component. [26] [27] [28] The Td vaccine is administered to children over the age of seven as well as to adults. It is most commonly administered as a booster shot every 10 years. [26] The Td booster shot may also be administered as protection from a severe burn or dirty wound. [26]

Immunization schedules and requirements

France

In France, DTP is mandatory and given at 2 months (1st dose) and 4 months (2nd dose) with a booster at 11 months. Subsequent boosters are recommended at ages 6, 11–13, 25, 45, 65, then every ten years. [29]

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, pertussis is known as kinkhoest and DKTP refers to the DTaP-IPV combination vaccine against diphtheria, kinkhoest, tetanus, and polio. DTP is given as part of the National Immunisation Programme. [30]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, DTP is called the "3-in-1 teenage booster" and protects against tetanus, diphtheria and polio. It is given by the NHS to all teenagers aged 14 (the hexavalent vaccine is given to infants and provides the first stage of protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio, as well as pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B and Hepatitis B). Subsequent boosters are recommended for foreign travellers where more than 10 years has passed since their last booster. [31] This is provided on the NHS free of charge due to the significant risk that an imported case of polio could pose to public health in Britain. [32]

United States

The standard immunization regimen for children within the United States is five doses of DTaP between the ages of two months and fifteen years. [33] The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive their first dose at two months, the second dose at four months, the third dose at six months, the fourth dose between 15 and 18 months, and the fifth dose between 4-6 years. [4]

Infants younger than 12 months of age, specifically less than three months of age are at highest risk of acquiring pertussis. [34] In U.S, there is no current tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccination (whooping cough) recommended or licensed for new born infants. [34] As a result, in their first few months of life, unprotected infants are at highest risk of life-threatening complications and infections from pertussis. Infants should not receive pertussis vaccination younger than six weeks of age. [35] Ideally, Infants should receive DTaP (name of whooping cough vaccine for children from age 2 months through 6 years) at 2, 4, 6 months of age and they are not protected until the full series is completed. [34] To protect infants younger than twelve months of age not vaccinated with Tdap against pertussis, ACIP also recommends, adults (e.g., parents, siblings, grandparents, childcare providers, and healthcare personnel) and children to receive Tdap at least two weeks before being in contact with the infant. [24]

The CDC recommends that adults who have received their childhood DTP series receive a Td or Tdap booster every ten years. [36] [37] For adults that have not received the DTP series, the CDC recommends a three-part vaccine series followed by a Td or Tdap booster every ten years. [36]

In pregnancy

According to the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines, one dose of Tdap is recommended during each pregnancy to ensure protection against pertussis in newborn infants. [38] Optimal timing to administer a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy is between 27 through 36 weeks gestation. [38] If Tdap is administered early in pregnancy, it is not recommended to administer again during the 27 through 36 weeks gestation period as only one dose is recommended during pregnancy. [39]

Pregnant women who have not previously vaccinated with Tdap (i.e., have never received DTP, DTaP, or DT as child or Td or TT as an adult) are recommended to receive a series of three Td vaccinations starting during pregnancy to ensure protection against maternal and neonatal tetanus. [40] In such cases, administration of Tdap is recommended after 20 weeks' gestation, [41] [16] and in earlier pregnancy a single dose of Tdap can be substituted for one dose of Td, and then the series completed with Td. [40] [16] For women not previously vaccinated with Tdap, if Tdap is not administered during pregnancy, it should be administered immediately postpartum. [24]

Brand names

Australia

TDaP Vaccines in Australia
Trade name Approval date Comments
Adacel [42] 2005 [43] Adacel is indicated for active immunisation against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis in persons aged ten years and over as a booster following primary immunisation. [43]
Adacel Polio [44] 2006 [45] Adacel Polio is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis in adults, adolescents and children aged four years and older as a booster following primary immunization. [45]

United Kingdom

Brand names in the United Kingdom include Revaxis (Sanofi Pasteur). [46]

United States

As of January 2020, there are six DTaP vaccines and two Tdap vaccines licensed and available for use in the United States. [47] [48] All of them are indicated as childhood vaccinations with the schedules as follows:

DTaP Vaccines in the US
Trade name Approval date Comments Contraindications
Daptacel [49] 2002 [50] For use in ages six weeks through six years as a five-dose series at 2, 4, and 6 months (6–8 weeks apart) and at 15–20 months of age and at 4–6 years. [49]
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Daptacel or tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis containing vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy (coma, prolonged seizures, and decreased level of consciousness) within seven days of a previous dose of a pertussis containing vaccine.
  • Progressive neurologic disorder (spasms, epilepsy, progressive encephalopathy) [49]
Infanrix [51] 1997 [52] For use in ages six weeks through six years (before the seventh birthday) as a five-dose series as: a three-dose course at 2, 5, and 6 months (4–8 weeks apart), followed by a two booster doses at 15–20 months of age and 4–6 years of age. [51]
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Infanrix or tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis-containing vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy (coma, prolonged seizures, and decreased level of consciousness) within seven days of a previous dose of a pertussis containing vaccine.
  • Progressive neurologic disorder (spasms, epilepsy, progressive encephalopathy) [51]
Kinrix [53] 2008 [54] DTaP-IPV vaccine; also immunizes against poliomyelitis. Kinrix can be utilized for the fifth (last) dose in the DTaP immunization series and the fourth dose in the IPV immunization series in children 4–6 years old (before the seventh birthday) whose previous DTaP vaccine doses have been with Infanrix and/or Pediarix for the first three doses and Infanrix for the fourth dose. [53]
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of any vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis or poliovirus
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to any ingredient in any of Kinrix's vaccines
  • Encephalopathy (declining level of consciousness, coma, seizure) within seven days of receiving any pertussis-containing vaccine
  • Progressive neurologic disorders (spasms, epilepsy) [53]
Pediarix [55] 2002 [56] DTaP-IPV-HepB vaccine; also immunizes against hepatitis B and poliomyelitis as a three-dose series in infants two, four, and six months (4–8 weeks apart). [55]
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Pediarix, any type of ingredient of Pediarix, or any other diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine or H. influenzae type b vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy within seven days of pertussis-containing vaccine.
  • Progressive neurologic disorder of spasms, epilepsy until the condition has stabilized. [55]
Pentacel [57] 2008 [58] DTaP-IPV/Hib vaccine; also immunizes against invasive Haemophilus influenza type b and poliomyelitis. It is a four-dose series given at: 2, 4, and 6 months, and at 15–18 months of age. [57]
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Pentacel, any type of ingredient of Pentacel, or any other diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine or H. influenzae type b vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy within seven days of pertussis-containing vaccine.
  • Progressive neurologic disorder of spasms, epilepsy until the condition has stabilized. [57]
Quadracel [59] 2015 [60] DTaP-IPV vaccine; also immunizes against poliomyelitis. It is approved for use as a fifth dose for children aged 4–6 years old in the DTaP vaccination series and as a fourth or fifth dose in the inactivated polio (IPV) series. [59]
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Quadracel, any type of ingredient of Quadracel, or any other diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine or H. influenzae type b vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy within seven days of pertussis-containing vaccine.
  • Progressive neurologic disorder of spasms, epilepsy until the condition has stabilized. [59]
TDaP Vaccines in the US
Trade name Approval date Comments Contraindications
Adacel [61] 2005 [62] For use in ages 10 through 64 as an active booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. It may also be administered as prophylaxis for wound management. [61] It has not been shown to be safe or effective as a primary immunization or to complete the series.
  • Hypersensitivity reaction (anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Adacel, any type of ingredient of Adacel, or any other diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine or H. influenzae type b vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy (coma, seizure, loss of consciousness) within seven days of pertussis-containing vaccine.
  • Progressive neurologic disorder of spasms, epilepsy until the condition has stabilized. [61]
Boostrix [63] 2005 [64] For use in ages ten and older as a single intramuscular injection into the deltoid as a booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. It may also be administered as prophylaxis for wound management. [63]
  • Hypersensitivity reaction (anaphylaxis) after previously receiving a vaccine containing any form of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, or pertussis-containing antigen.
  • Hypersensitivity reaction (anaphylaxis) to any ingredient within a previously administered Boostrix vaccine.
  • Encephalopathy (coma, seizure, loss of consciousness) progression within seven days of receiving a vaccine with antigens from pertussis. [63]

References

  1. ^ "Global vaccination coverage: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) immunization". Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b "DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis) Vaccine Information Statement". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1 April 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ Liang JL, Tiwari T, Moro P, Messonnier NE, Reingold A, Sawyer M, Clark TA (April 2018). "Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)" (PDF). MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 67 (2): 1–44. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6702a1. PMC  5919600. PMID  29702631. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ a b "Birth-18 Years Immunization Schedule". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  5. ^ Hebert CJ, Hall CM, Odoms LN (May 2012). "Lessons learned and applied: what the 20th century vaccine experience can teach us about vaccines in the 21st century". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 8 (5): 560–8. doi: 10.4161/hv.19204. PMC  3495718. PMID  22617834.
  6. ^ a b c "Is Vaccine Refusal Worth The Risk?". NPR. 2009-05-26. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
  7. ^ "Vaccine Timeline: Historic Dates and Events Related to Vaccines and Immunization". Immunization Action Coalition. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
  8. ^ "The difference between Tdap and DTaP; dabigatran versus warfarin". JAAPA. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Safety Information for Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Vaccines". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 15 June 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ Syed MA (February 2017). "Choosing from Whole Cell and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines-Dilemma for the Developing Countries". Iranian Journal of Public Health. 46 (2): 272–273. PMC  5402791. PMID  28451568.
  11. ^ a b Esposito S, Stefanelli P, Fry NK, Fedele G, He Q, Paterson P, et al. (2019). "Pertussis Prevention: Reasons for Resurgence, and Differences in the Current Acellular Pertussis Vaccines". Frontiers in Immunology. 10: 1344. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01344. PMC  6616129. PMID  31333640.
  12. ^ "Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Whooping Cough Vaccination | What You Should Know | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
  13. ^ a b Kretsinger K, Broder KR, Cortese MM, Joyce MP, Ortega-Sanchez I, Lee GM, et al. (December 2006). "Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), for use of Tdap among health-care personnel" (PDF). MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 55 (RR-17): 1–37. PMID  17167397. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (January 2011). "Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2010" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 60 (1): 13–5. PMID  21228763. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (February 2013). "Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 62 (7): 131–5. PMC  4604886. PMID  23425962. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  16. ^ a b c Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 69 (3): 77–83. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6903a5. PMC  7367039. PMID  31971933. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  17. ^ Broder KR, Cortese MM, Iskander JK, Kretsinger K, Slade BA, Brown KH, et al. (March 2006). "Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adolescents: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccines recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)" (PDF). MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 55 (RR-3): 1–34. PMID  16557217. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  18. ^ "ACIP Votes to Recommend Use of Combined Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine for Adults" (PDF). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-19. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  19. ^ "Interval Between Administration of Vaccines Against Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis". PHAC-ASPC.GC.ca.
  20. ^ "General Recommendations on Immunization". www.cdc.gov. 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
  21. ^ Bar-On ES, Goldberg E, Hellmann S, Leibovici L (April 2012). "Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD005530. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005530.pub3. PMID  22513932. S2CID  205179339.
  22. ^ Lawler EC, Carpenter CS (2019). "Direct and Spillover Effects of Middle School Vaccination Requirements". American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 11 (1): 95–125. doi: 10.1257/pol.20170067. ISSN  1945-7731.
  23. ^ Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. (2015). "Chapter 21: Tetanus". Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (13th ed.). Washington D.C.: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ISBN  978-0990449119.
  24. ^ a b c Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. (2015). "Chapter 16: Pertussis". Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (13th ed.). Washington D.C.: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ISBN  978-0990449119.
  25. ^ "UpToDate". www.uptodate.com. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  26. ^ a b c "Td (Tetanus, Diphtheria) Vaccine Information Statement". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1 March 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  27. ^ "Tetanus and Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine". HealthLink BC. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Diphtheria Vaccination". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  29. ^ Site officiel de l'administration française (Republique Francaise) https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/vosdroits/F704
  30. ^ "Dutch National Immunization Program". National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  31. ^ https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tetanus/
  32. ^ https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/travel-vaccinations/
  33. ^ "Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccination". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 3 February 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  34. ^ a b c "Pertussis | Pregnancy and Whooping Cough | Your Baby Needs Vaccines on Time | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-02-14. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  35. ^ Gilley M, Goldman RD (February 2014). "Protecting infants from pertussis". Canadian Family Physician. 60 (2): 138–40. PMC  3922557. PMID  24522676.
  36. ^ a b "Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 3 February 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  37. ^ Pool V, Tomovici A, Johnson DR, Greenberg DP, Decker MD (April 2018). "Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine in the USA". Vaccine. 36 (17): 2282–2287. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.03.029. PMID  29573876.
  38. ^ a b Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 69 (3): 77–83. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6903a5. PMC  7367039. PMID  31971933. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  39. ^ "Tdap (Pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2019-04-10. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  40. ^ a b Health Care Guideline: Routine Prenatal Care. Fourteenth Edition. Archived June 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine By the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. July 2010.
  41. ^ Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (October 2011). "Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women and persons who have or anticipate having close contact with an infant aged <12 months --- Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 60 (41): 1424–6. PMID  22012116. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  42. ^ "Adacel". The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  43. ^ a b "Adacel (Pertussis Vaccine-Acellular Combined with Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids (Adsorbed))". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  44. ^ "Adacel Polio". The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  45. ^ a b "Adacel Polio (Pertussis Vaccine - Acellular and Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids (Adsorbed) Combined with Inactivated Poliovirus Type 1, 2 and 3 (Vero cell))". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  46. ^ NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/3-in-1-teenage-booster/
  47. ^ "About Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Vaccination". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 22 January 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  48. ^ "Licensed Biological Products with Supporting Documents". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 7 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  49. ^ a b c "Daptacel (corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), bordetella pertussis toxoid antigen (glutaraldehyde inactivated), bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin antigen- formaldehyde inactivated, bordetella pertussis pertactin antigen, and bordetella pertussis fimbriae 2/3 antigen injection, suspension)". DailyMed. Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  50. ^ "Daptacel". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 22 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 17 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  51. ^ a b c "Infanrix- diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed suspension". DailyMed. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  52. ^ "Infanrix". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 22 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 17 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  53. ^ a b c "Kinrix- diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed and inactivated poliovirus vaccine injection, suspension". DailyMed. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  54. ^ "Kinrix". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 22 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 17 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  55. ^ a b c "Pediarix (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis b- recombinant and inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined injection, suspension". DailyMed. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  56. ^ "Pediarix". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 23 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-23. Retrieved 17 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  57. ^ a b c "Pentacel (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus and haemophilus b conjugate- tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine kit)". DailyMed. Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 5 June 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  58. ^ "Pentacel". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 22 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 17 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  59. ^ a b c "Quadracel- diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed and inactivated poliovirus vaccine injection, suspension". DailyMed. Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  60. ^ "Quadracel". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 22 July 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 17 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  61. ^ a b c "Adacel Tdap (clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), bordetella pertussis toxoid antigen (glutaraldehyde inactivated), bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin antigen- formaldehyde inactivated, bordetella pertussis pertactin antigen, and bordetella pertussis fimbriae 2/3 antigen injection, suspension)". DailyMed. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  62. ^ "Adacel". Archived from the original on 2017-07-23.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)
  63. ^ a b c "Boostrix- tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed suspension". DailyMed. 25 April 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  64. ^ "Boostrix". Archived from the original on 2017-07-22.CS1 maint: unfit url ( link)

Further reading

Diphtheria

Pertussis

Tetanus

External links