Languages of Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Of the many language families of Asia, Indo-European (purple, blue, and medium green) and Sino-Tibetan (chartreuse and pink) dominate numerically, while Altaic families (grey, bright green, and maroon) occupy large areas geographically. Indo-Aryan language family is Sindhi[ clarification needed] in Pakistan and India. Regionally dominant families are Japonic in Japan, Austronesian in the Malay Archipelago (dark red), Kadai and Mon–Khmer in Southeast Asia (azure and peach), Dravidian in South India (khaki), Turkic in Central Asia (grey), and Semitic in the Mideast (orange).

A wide variety of languages are spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates. The major language families include Altaic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Caucasian, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, Indo-European, Afroasiatic, Siberian, Sino-Tibetan and Kra–Dai. Most, but not all, have a long history as a written language.

Language groups

Ethnolinguistic distribution in Central/Southwest Asia of the Altaic, Caucasian, Afroasiatic (Hamito-Semitic) and Indo-European families.

The major families in terms of numbers are Indo-European and Indo-Aryan languages and Dravidian languages in South Asia and Sino-Tibetan in East Asia. Several other families are regionally dominant.

Sino-Tibetan

Sino-Tibetan includes Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, Karen and numerous languages of the Tibetan Plateau, southern China, Burma, and North east India.also korean

Indo-European

The Indo-European languages are primarily represented by the Indo-Iranian branch. The family includes both Indic languages ( Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Odia, Punjabi, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Marathi, Gujarati, Sinhala and other languages spoken primarily in South Asia) and Iranian ( Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi and other languages spoken primarily in Iran, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and parts of South Asia). In addition, other branches of Indo-European spoken in Asia include the Slavic branch, which includes Russian in Siberia; Greek around the Black Sea; and Armenian; as well as extinct languages such as Hittite of Anatolia and Tocharian of (Chinese) Turkestan.

Altaic families

A number of smaller, but important language families spread across central and northern Asia have long been linked in an as-yet unproven Altaic family. These are the Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic (including Manchu), Koreanic, and Japonic languages.

Mon–Khmer

The Mon–Khmer languages (also known as Austroasiatic) are the language family in South and Southeast Asia. Languages given official status are Vietnamese and Khmer (Cambodian).

Kra–Dai

The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai-Kadai) are found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia. Languages given official status are Thai (Siamese) and Lao.

Austronesian

The Austronesian languages are widespread throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, including major languages such as Fijian ( Fiji), Cebuano, Tagalog ( Philippines), and Malay ( Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei). Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese of Indonesia belong to this family as well.

Dravidian

The Dravidian languages of southern India and parts of Sri Lanka include Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam, while smaller languages such as Gondi and Brahui are spoken in central India and Pakistan respectively.

Afro-Asiatic

The Afroasiatic languages (in older sources Hamito-Semitic) are represented in Asia by the Semitic branch. Semitic languages are spoken in Western Asia, and include Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to extinct languages such as Akkadian.

Siberian families

Besides the Altaic families already mentioned (of which Tungusic is today a minor family of Siberia), there are a number of small language families and isolates spoken across northern Asia. These include the Uralic languages of western Siberia (better known for Hungarian and Finnish in Europe), the Yeniseian languages ( linked to Turkic and to the Athabaskan languages of North America), Yukaghir, Nivkh of Sakhalin, Ainu of northern Japan, Chukotko-Kamchatkan in easternmost Siberia, and—just barely— Eskimo–Aleut. Some linguists have noted that the Koreanic languages share more similarities with the Paleosiberian languages than with the Altaic languages. The extinct Ruan-ruan language of Mongolia is unclassified, and does not show genetic relationships with any other known language family.

Caucasian families

Three small families are spoken in the Caucasus: Kartvelian languages, such as Georgian; Northeast Caucasian (Dagestanian languages), such as Chechen; and Northwest Caucasian, such as Circassian. The latter two may be related to each other. The extinct Hurro-Urartian languages may be related as well.

Small families of Southern Asia

Although dominated by major languages and families, there are number of minor families and isolates in South Asia & Southeast Asia. From west to east, these include:

Creoles and pidgins

The eponymous pidgin ("business") language developed with European trade in China. Of the many creoles to have developed, the most spoken today are Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole of the Philippines, and various Malay-based creoles such as Manado Malay influenced by Portuguese. A very well-known Portuguese-based creole is the Kristang, which is spoken in Malacca, a city-state in Malaysia.

Sign languages

A number of sign languages are spoken throughout Asia. These include the Japanese Sign Language family, Chinese Sign Language, Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, as well as a number of small indigenous sign languages of countries such as Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. Many official sign languages are part of the French Sign Language family.

Official languages

Asia and Europe are the only two continents where most countries use native languages as their official languages, though English is also widespread as an international language.

Language Native name Speakers Language family Official status in a country Official Status in a region
Abkhaz Аԥсшәа 240,000 Northwest Caucasian   Abkhazia
Arabic العَرَبِيَّة 230,000,000 Afro-Asiatic   Bahrain
  Egypt
  Iraq
  Israel
  Jordan
  Kuwait
  Lebanon
  Oman
  Palestine
  Qatar
  Saudi Arabia
  Syria
  UAE
  Yemen
Armenian հայերեն 5,902,970 Indo-European   Armenia
  Artsakh
Assamese অসমীয়া 15,000,000 Indo-European   India
Azerbaijani Azərbaycanca 37,324,060 Turkic   Azerbaijan
Balochi بلۏچی

Balòči

7,600,000 Indo-European   Pakistan

  Iran

Balti بلتی

སྦལ་ཏི།

392,800 Sino-Tibetan   Pakistan
Bengali বাংলা 230,000,000 Indo-European   Bangladesh   India
Bodo बर'/बड़
Boro
1,984,569 Sino-Tibetan   India
Burmese မြန်မာဘာသာ 33,000,000 Sino-Tibetan   Myanmar
Cantonese 廣東話/广东话 7,877,900 Sino-Tibetan   China
Chin Kukish 3,000,000 Sino-Tibetan   Myanmar
Chinese Mandarin 普通話/普通话
國語/国语
華語/华语
1,200,000,000 Sino-Tibetan   China
  Singapore
  Republic of China (Taiwan)
  Myanmar

  China

Dari دری 19,600,000 Indo-European   Afghanistan
Dhivehi ދިވެހިބަސް 400,000 Indo-European   Maldives
Dzongkha རྫོང་ཁ་ 600,000 Sino-Tibetan   Bhutan
English English 301,625,412 Indo-European   India
  Pakistan
  Philippines
  Singapore
  China
Filipino Wikang Filipino 93,000,000 Austronesian   Philippines
French Français 4,716,670 Indo-European
Formosan 171,855 Austronesian   Republic of China
Georgian ქართული 4,200,000 Kartvelian   Georgia
Gujarati ગુજરાતી 50,000,000 Indo-European   India
Hakka 客家話/客家话
Hak-kâ-fa
2,370,000 Sino-Tibetan   Republic of China
Hebrew עברית 7,000,000 Afro-Asiatic   Israel
Hindi हिन्दी 550,000,000 Indo-European   India
Hokchiu 馬祖話
Mā-cū-huâ
12,000 Sino-Tibetan   Republic of China
Hokkien 臺灣話
Tâi-oân-oē
18,570,000 Sino-Tibetan   Republic of China
Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia 240,000,000 Austronesian   Indonesia
Japanese 日本語 120,000,000 Japonic   Japan (de facto)
Kachin Jinghpaw 940,000 Sino-Tibetan   Myanmar
Kannada ಕನ್ನಡ 51,000,000 Dravidian   India
Karen ကညီကျိာ်း 6,000,000 Sino-Tibetan   Myanmar
Kashmiri कॉशुर

كٲشُر

7,000,000 Indo-European   Pakistan

  India

Kayah Karenni 190,000 Sino-Tibetan   Myanmar
Kazakh Қазақша
Qazaqsha
قازاقشا
18,000,000 Turkic   Kazakhstan   China

  Russia

Khmer ភាសាខ្មែរ 14,000,000 Austroasiatic   Cambodia
Korean 조선어
한국어
80,000,000 Koreanic   North Korea
  South Korea
  China
Kurdish Kurdî
کوردی
20,000,000 Indo-European   Iraq   Iraq

  Syria

Kyrgyz Кыргызча
قىرعىزچا
2,900,000 Turkic   Kyrgyzstan   China
Lao ພາສາລາວ 7,000,000 Kra-Dai   Laos
Malay Bahasa Melayu
بهاس ملايو
30,000,000 Austronesian   Brunei
  Indonesia (as Indonesian)
  Malaysia (also called Malaysian)
  Singapore
Malayalam മലയാളം 37,000,000 Dravidian   India
Marathi मराठी 99,000,000 Indo-European   India
Meitei ꯃꯤꯇꯩꯂꯣꯟ
মৈতৈ
Manipuri
2,000,000 Sino-Tibetan   India
Mon ဘာသာ မန် 851,000 Austroasiatic   Myanmar
Mongolian Монгол хэл
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
2,000,000 Mongolic   Mongolia   China
Nepali नेपाली 29,000,000 Indo-European     Nepal   India
Odia ଓଡ଼ିଆ 33,000,000 Indo-European   India
Ossetian Ирон 540,000
(50,000 in South Ossetia)
Indo-European   South Ossetia
Pashto پښتو 45,000,000 Indo-European   Afghanistan   Pakistan
Persian فارسی
Форсӣ
130,000,000 Indo-European   Afghanistan (as Dari)
  Iran
  Tajikistan (as Tajik)
Portuguese Português 1,200,000 Indo-European   Timor Leste   China
Punjabi ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
پن٘جابی
100,000,000 Indo-European   India

  Pakistan

Rakhine ရခိုင်ဘာသာ 1,000,000 Sino-Tibetan   Myanmar
Russian Русский 260,000,000 Indo-European   Abkhazia (co-official)
  Kazakhstan (co-official)
  Kyrgyzstan (co-official)

  Russia
  South Ossetia (state)
  Tajikistan (inter-ethnic communication)
  Turkmenistan (inter-ethnic communication)
  Uzbekistan (inter-ethnic communication)

Shan ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆ 3,295,000 Kra-Dai   Myanmar
Sindhi سنڌي 40,000,000 Indo-European   Pakistan
Sinhala සිංහල 18,000,000 Indo-European   Sri Lanka
Tajik Тоҷикӣ 7,900,000 Indo-European   Tajikistan
Tamil தமிழ் 77,000,000 Dravidian   Singapore
  Sri Lanka
  India
Telugu తెలుగు 79,000,000 Dravidian   India
Tetum Lia-Tetun 500,000 Austronesian   Timor Leste
Thai ภาษาไทย 60,000,000 Kra-Dai   Thailand
Tibetan བོད་སྐད་ 1,172,940 Sino-Tibetan   China

    Nepal

Tulu ತುಳು 1,722,768 Dravidian   India
Turkish Türkçe 70,000,000 Turkic   Cyprus
  Northern Cyprus
  Turkey
Turkmen Türkmençe 7,000,000 Turkic   Turkmenistan
Urdu اُردُو 62,120,540 Indo-European   Pakistan   India
Uyghur ئۇيغۇرچە‎ 10,416,910 Turkic   China
Uzbek Oʻzbekcha
Ўзбекча
25,000,000 Turkic   Uzbekistan
Vietnamese Tiếng Việt 80,000,000 Austroasiatic   Vietnam (de facto)
Zhuang Vahcuengh 16,000,000 Kra-Dai   China

See also

References