The Five Families is the organization of the five major New York City organized crime families of the Italian American Mafia formed in 1931 by Salvatore Maranzano following his victory in the Castellammarese War.
Maranzano reorganized the Italian American gangs in New York City into the Maranzano, Profaci, Mangano, Luciano, and Gagliano families, which are now known as the Bonanno, Colombo, Gambino, Genovese, and Lucchese families. Each family had a demarcated territory and an organizationally structured hierarchy and reported up to the same overarching governing entity. Initially, Maranzano intended each family's boss to report to him as the capo di tutti i capi ("boss of all bosses"). However, this led to his assassination that September, and that role was abolished for The Commission, a ruling committee established by Lucky Luciano to oversee all Mafia activities in the United States and serve to mediate conflicts between families. It consisted of the bosses of the Five Families as well as the bosses of the Chicago Outfit and the Buffalo crime family. In 1963, Joseph Valachi publicly disclosed the existence of New York City's Five Families at the Valachi hearings. Since then, a few other crime families have been able to become powerful or notable enough to rise to a level comparable to that of the Five Families, holding or sharing the unofficial designation of Sixth Family.
In the 1920s, Mafia operations in the U.S. were controlled by Giuseppe "Joe The Boss" Masseria, whose faction consisted mainly of gangsters from Sicily and the Calabria and Campania regions of southern Italy. Masseria's faction included Charles "Lucky" Luciano, Albert "Mad Hatter" Anastasia, Vito Genovese, Alfred Mineo, Willie Moretti, Joe Adonis, and Frank Costello. However, powerful Sicilian mafioso Don Vito Ferro decided to make a bid for control of Mafia operations.  From his base in Castellammare del Golfo, he sent Salvatore Maranzano to seize control. The Castellammarese faction in the U.S. included Joseph "Joe Bananas" Bonanno, Stefano "The Undertaker" Magaddino, Joseph Profaci, and Joe Aiello.  As it became more and more evident that the two factions would clash for leadership of the Mafia, they each sought to recruit more followers to support them. 
Outwardly, the Castellammarese War was between the forces of Masseria and Maranzano.  Underneath, however, there was also a generational conflict between the old guard Sicilian leadership – known as the " Mustache Petes" for their long mustaches and old-world ways, such as refusing to do business with non-Italians – and the "Young Turks", a younger and more diverse Italian group who were more forward thinking and willing to work more with non-Italians. This approach led his followers to question whether Masseria was even capable of making the Mafia prosper in the modern times. Led by Luciano, the aim of this group was to end the war as soon as possible in order to resume their businesses, because they viewed the conflict as unnecessary. Luciano's objective was to modernize the mob and do away with unnecessary orthodox norms.  This was a vision that enabled him to attract followers, who had seen the inadequacies of Masseria's traditionalist leadership. Therefore, both factions were fluid, with many mobsters switching sides or killing their own allies during the war.   Tensions between the Maranzano and Masseria factions were evident as far back as 1928, with one side frequently hijacking the other's alcohol trucks (alcohol production was then illegal in the United States due to Prohibition).
In early 1931, Luciano decided to eliminate Masseria. The war had been going poorly for Masseria, and Luciano saw an opportunity to switch allegiance. In a secret deal with Maranzano, Luciano agreed to engineer Masseria's death in return for receiving Masseria's rackets and becoming Maranzano's second-in-command.  Joe Adonis had joined the Masseria faction and when Masseria heard about Luciano's betrayal, he approached Adonis about killing Luciano. However, Adonis instead warned Luciano about the murder plot.  On April 15, 1931, Masseria was killed at Nuova Villa Tammaro, a Coney Island restaurant in Brooklyn. While they played cards, Luciano allegedly excused himself to the bathroom, with the gunmen reportedly being Anastasia, Genovese, Adonis, and Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel;  Ciro "The Artichoke King" Terranova drove the getaway car, but legend has it that he was too shaken up to drive away and had to be shoved out of the driver's seat by Siegel.   With Maranzano's blessing, Luciano took over Masseria's gang and became Maranzano's lieutenant, ending the Castellammarese War. 
With Masseria gone, Maranzano reorganized the Italian American gangs in New York City into the Five Families headed by Luciano, Profaci, Gagliano, Mangano and himself. Maranzano called a meeting of crime bosses in Wappingers Falls, New York, where he declared himself capo di tutti i capi ("boss of all bosses").  Maranzano also whittled down the rival families' rackets in favor of his own. Luciano appeared to accept these changes, but was merely biding his time before removing Maranzano.  Although Maranzano was slightly more forward-thinking than Masseria, Luciano had come to believe that Maranzano was even more greedy and hidebound than Masseria had been. 
By September 1931, Maranzano realized Luciano was a threat, and hired Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, an Irish gangster, to kill him.  However, Lucchese alerted Luciano that he was marked for death.  On September 10, Maranzano ordered Luciano, Genovese and Costello to come to his office at the 230 Park Avenue in Manhattan. Convinced that Maranzano planned to murder them, Luciano decided to act first.  He sent to Maranzano's office four Jewish gangsters whose faces were unknown to Maranzano's people. They had been secured with the aid of Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel.  Disguised as government agents, two of the gangsters disarmed Maranzano's bodyguards. The other two, aided by Lucchese, who was there to point Maranzano out, stabbed the boss multiple times before shooting him.   This assassination was the first of what would later be fabled as the "Night of the Sicilian Vespers." 
After Maranzano's murder in 1931, Luciano called a meeting in Chicago.    Although there would have been few objections had Luciano declared himself capo di tutti i capi, he abolished the title, believing the position created trouble between the families and made himself a target for another ambitious challenger.  Luciano's goals with the Commission were to quietly maintain his own power over all the families, and to prevent future gang wars; the bosses approved the idea of the Commission.  The Commission would consist of a " board of directors" to oversee all Mafia activities in the United States and serve to mediate conflicts between families.  
The Commission consisted of seven family bosses: the leaders of New York's Five Families: Charlie "Lucky" Luciano, Vincent Mangano, Tommy Gagliano, Joseph Bonanno, and Joe Profaci; Chicago Outfit boss Al Capone; and Buffalo family boss Stefano Magaddino.   Charlie Luciano was appointed chairman of the Commission. The Commission agreed to hold meetings every five years or when they needed to discuss family problems. 
In 1963, Joseph Valachi publicly disclosed the existence of New York City's Five Families at the Valachi hearings. According to Valachi, the original bosses of the Five Families were Charles Luciano, Tommaso Gagliano, Joseph Profaci, Salvatore Maranzano and Vincent Mangano. At the time of his testimony in 1963, Valachi revealed that the current bosses of the Five Families were Tommy Lucchese, Vito Genovese, Joseph Colombo, Carlo Gambino, and Joe Bonanno. These have since been the names most commonly used to refer to the New York Five Families, despite years of overturn and changing bosses in each. 
|Original family name||Founded by||Current family name||Named after||Current boss||Acting boss|
|Maranzano||Salvatore Maranzano||Bonanno||Joe Bonanno||Michael "the Nose" Mancuso |
|Profaci||Joe Profaci||Colombo||Joseph Colombo||Unknown||Alphonse Persico De Facto Boss|
|Mangano||Vincent Mangano||Gambino||Carlo Gambino||Domenico Cefalù||Lorenzo Mannino|
|Luciano||Lucky Luciano||Genovese||Vito Genovese||Liborio Salvatore Bellomo|
|Gagliano||Tommy Gagliano||Lucchese||Tommy Lucchese||Victor Amuso||Michael "Big Mike" DeSantis|
The crime families historically operated throughout the New York Metropolitan area, but mainly within New York City. In the state of New York, the gangs have increased their criminal rackets on Long Island ( Nassau and Suffolk) and the counties of Westchester, Rockland, and Albany. They also maintain a strong presence in the state of New Jersey.  The Five Families are also active in South Florida, Connecticut, Las Vegas, and Massachusetts.
Bonanno crime family operates mainly in
Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and Long Island. The family also maintains influence in Manhattan, The Bronx, Westchester County, New Jersey, California, and Florida, and have ties to the
Rizzuto crime family in
- The Bath Avenue Crew operated in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, New York.
- The Colombo crime family operates mainly in Brooklyn, Queens, and Long Island. The family also maintains influence in Staten Island, Manhattan, The Bronx, New Jersey, and Florida.
Gambino crime family operates mainly in Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island. The family also maintains influence in The Bronx, New Jersey, Westchester County, Connecticut, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Florida, and
- The Ozone Park Boys operate in Queens and Long Island
- The Genovese crime family operates mainly in Manhattan, The Bronx, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. The family also maintains influence in Queens, Staten Island, Long Island, Westchester County, Rockland County, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Florida.
- The Lucchese crime family operates mainly in The Bronx, Manhattan, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. The family also maintains influence in Queens, Long Island, Staten Island, Westchester County, and Florida.
- 1909–1912 – Sebastiano DiGaetano
- 1912–1930 – Nicolo Schirò – fled
- 1930–1931 – Salvatore Maranzano – murdered on September 10, 1931 
- 1931–1968 – Joseph "Joe Bananas" Bonanno – on October 21, 1964, Bonanno disappeared; forcibly replaced as boss by the commission;  crime family split into two factions; in May 1966, Bonanno reappeared after two years; officially retires after a heart attack in 1968
- 1968–1971 – Paul Sciacca – imprisoned
- 1971–1973 – Natale "Joe Diamonds" Evola  – died on August 28, 1973 
- 1973–1991 – Phillip "Rusty" Rastelli  – imprisoned 1975–1984 and 1986–1991 
- 1991–2004 –
Joseph "Big Joey" Massino – imprisoned January 2003, became government informant in October 2004
- Acting 1991–1993 – Anthony "Old Man" Spero
- Acting 2003–2004 – Anthony "Tony Green" Urso – imprisoned January 2004
- 2004–2011 – Vincent "Vinny Gorgeous" Basciano – imprisoned November 2004, in July 2007 received a life sentence
- 2013–present –
Michael "the Nose" Mancuso
 – released from prison March 12, 2019
- Acting 2013–2014 – Thomas "Tommy D" DiFiore  – arrested on January 23, 2014
- Acting 2014–2015 – John "Johnny Skyway" Palazzolo – arrested on March 27, 2015 for violating parole 
- Acting 2015–2019 – Joseph "Joe C" Cammarano Jr.  – indicted on racketeering and extortion charges on January 12, 2018, acquitted March 13, 2019    
- 1928–1962 – Joseph Profaci  – died of natural causes
- 1962–1963 – Joseph Magliocco  – forced to retire by Mafia Commission
- 1963–1973 – Joseph Colombo  – paralyzed by assassination attempt
- 1973–2019 –
Carmine "Junior" Persico
 – imprisoned 1973–1979,
 died on March 7, 2019
- Acting 1973–1979 – Thomas DiBella  – stepped down, became consigliere
- Acting 1981–1983 – Alphonse "Allie Boy" Persico – Carmine Persico's brother; fugitive 1980–1987, imprisoned  
- Acting 1983–1984 – Gennaro "Jerry Lang" Langella – imprisoned 
- Acting 1985–1987 – Anthony "Scappy" Scarpati  – imprisoned
- Acting 1987–1991 – Vittorio "Vic" Orena  – imprisoned sentenced to life 
- Acting 1991–1993 – Vacant – disputed leadership during the third war
- Acting 1994–1996 – Andrew "Andy Mush" Russo    – imprisoned March 1997 
- Acting 1996–2019 – Alphonse "Little Allie Boy" Persico  – Carmine Persico's son; imprisoned sentenced to life 2009   
- 2019–present – Unknown
- 1900s–1910 – Ignazio "the Wolf" Lupo – imprisoned in 1910. 
- 1910–1928 – Salvatore "Toto" D'Aquila – took over the Brooklyn Camorra in 1916 and merged with Al Mineo's gang forming the largest family in New York. He was killed on orders of boss Joe Masseria in 1928. 
- 1928–1930 – Manfredi "Alfred" Mineo – killed in Castellammarese War in 1930.
- 1930–1931 – Frank Scalice – demoted after murder of boss of all bosses Salvatore Maranzano.
- 1931–1951 – Vincent Mangano – disappeared in April 1951, allegedly killed on orders of underboss Albert Anastasia.
- 1951–1957 – Albert Anastasia – murdered in October 1957 on orders of Carlo Gambino.
- 1957–1976 –
Carlo Gambino – died of natural causes 1976.
- Acting 1964–1976 – Paul Castellano – acting boss for Gambino, became official boss after his death.
- 1976–1985 – Paul Castellano – murdered in December 1985 on orders of capo John Gotti.
- 1985–2001 –
John Gotti – imprisoned in 1990, died in 2002.
- Acting 1993–1999 – John A. Gotti – imprisoned in 1999, later retired.
- Acting 1999–2001 – Peter Gotti – promoted to official boss.
- 2001–2011 – Peter Gotti – imprisoned in 2002, serving life sentence. 
- 2011–present – Domenico "Italian Dom" Cefalù
- 1890s–1909 – Giuseppe "the Clutch Hand" Morello – imprisoned
- 1910–1916 – Nicholas "Nick Morello" Terranova – murdered on September 7, 1916
- 1916–1920 – Vincenzo "Vincent" Terranova – stepped down becoming underboss
- 1920–1922 – Giuseppe "the Clutch Hand" Morello – stepped down becoming underboss to Masseria
- 1922–1931 – Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria – murdered on April 15, 1931
- 1931–1946 – Charles "Lucky" Luciano – imprisoned in 1936, deported to Italy in 1946
- 1946–1957 – Frank "the Prime Minister" Costello – resigned in 1957 after Genovese -Gigante assassination attempt  
- 1957–1969 – Vito "Don Vito" Genovese – imprisoned in 1959, died in prison in 1969
- 1969–1981 – Philip "Benny Squint" Lombardo – retired in 1981, died of natural causes in 1987
- 1981–2005 –
Vincent "Chin" Gigante – imprisoned in 1997, died in prison on December 19, 2005
- Acting 1989–1996 – Liborio "Barney" Bellomo – promoted to street boss
- Acting 1997–1998 – Dominick "Quiet Dom" Cirillo – suffered heart attack and resigned
- Acting 1998–2005 – Matthew "Matty the Horse" Ianniello – resigned when indicted in July 2005
- Acting 2005–2008 – Daniel "Danny the Lion" Leo  – imprisoned 2008–2013
- 2010–present – Liborio "Barney" Bellomo
- 1922–1930: Gaetano "Tommy" Reina:  murdered on February 26, 1930
- 1930: Bonaventura "Joseph" Pinzolo:  murdered on September 5, 1930
- 1930–1951: Tommaso "Tommy" Gagliano:  retired in 1951, died on February 16, 1953
- 1951–1967: Gaetano "Tommy Brown" Lucchese:  died on July 13, 1967   
- 1967–1973: Carmine "Mr. Gribbs" Tramunti:  imprisoned in October 1973
- 1973–1986: Anthony "Tony Ducks" Corallo:  indicted on February 15, 1985, convicted on November 19, 1986 in the Mafia Commission Trial and sentenced on January 13, 1987 to 100 years in prison.
Vittorio "Vic" Amuso:
 arrested in 1991, received a
life sentence in January 1993
- Acting 1990–1991: Alphonse "Little Al" D'Arco:  demoted, became a member of a ruling panel 
- Acting 1995–1998: Joseph "Little Joe" DeFede:  imprisoned in 1998
- Acting 1998–2000: Steven "Wonderboy" Crea:  imprisoned on September 6, 2000 
- Acting 2000–2003: Louis "Louie Bagels" Daidone:  imprisoned March 2003, received life sentence in January 2004
- Acting 2009–2017: Matthew "Matt" Madonna: indicted 2007 and 2009; imprisoned 2015–present; indicted 2017    
- Acting 2017–present: Michael "Big Mike" DeSantis 
- Sifakis, Carl (2005). The Mafia Encyclopedia. New York: Checkmark Books. p. 56. ISBN 978-0816056958.
- Sifakis, (2005). pp. 56–57
- Marc., Mappen (2013). Prohibition gangsters : the rise and fall of a bad generation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813561158. OCLC 852899302.
- Critchley, (2008). p. 165
- Nate., Hendley (2010). American gangsters, then and now : an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0313354519. OCLC 727948429.
- Raab, Selwyn (2006). Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 22–35. ISBN 978-0312361815.
- Sifakis, (2005). p. 323
- The Five Families. MacMillan. May 13, 2014. ISBN 9781429907989. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Reppetto, Thomas (2004).
American Mafia: a history of its rise to power (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company. p.
- Pollak, Michael (June 29, 2012). "Coney Island's Big Hit". The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
- Sifakis, (2005). pp. 87–88
- Martin A. Gosch; Richard Hammer; Lucky Luciano (1975). The Last Testament of Lucky Luciano. Little, Brown. pp. 130–132. ISBN 978-0-316-32140-2.
- Cohen, Rich (1999).
Tough Jews (1st Vintage Books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. pp.
- "Lucky Luciano: Criminal Mastermind," Time, Dec. 7, 1998
- "Genovese family saga". Crime Library.
- "The Genovese Family," Crime Library, Crime Library Archived December 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Critchley, The Origin of Organized Crime in America: The New York City Mafia, 1891-1931, p. 232
- Capeci, Jerry. The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia "The Mafia's Commission" (pp. 31–46)
- Humbert S. Nelli The business of crime: Italians and syndicate crime in the United States (pp. 206–208)
- David Wallace (2012). Capital of the World: A Portrait of New York City in the Roaring Twenties. ISBN 9780762768196.
- "The Commission's Origins". The New York Times. 1986. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Lupo, Salvatore (2015). The Two Mafias: a transatlantic history, 1888-2008. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-137-49135-0.
- "Jerry Capeci: Mob Murder In Montreal Could Trigger Bloodshed In New York". Huffington Post. January 11, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- The Changing Face of Organized Crime in New Jersey (A Status Report) (PDF). May 2004. pp. 105–114.
- Raab, Selwyn. The Five Families: The Rise, Decline & Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empire. New York: St. Martins Press, 2005.
- The Mafia Encyclopedia By Carl Sifakis pg.28–29
- The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra by Peter J. Devico (pg. 173)
- Gage, Nicholas (August 31, 1973). "Natale Evola, Mafia Figure, Is Dead at 66" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
- Bruno, Anthony. "The Bonanno Family: "What's There to Say?"". TruTV Crime Library. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Raab, pp. 203–205
- Donnie Brasco: My Undercover Life in the Mafia By Joseph D. Pistone read
- "Canadian officials aware of imminent return to Montreal of alleged Mafia boss" Archived January 28, 2013, at Archive.today Mafia Today April 20, 2009
- Marzulli, John (January 27, 2012). "Feds bust 5 mob suspects, including alleged Bonanno boss Vincent (Vinny TV) Badalamenti". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Marzulli, John (June 24, 2013). "Bonanno crime family sniffs out Michael 'The Nose' Mancuso as new boss: sources". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Capeci, Jerry (June 13, 2013). "New Bonanno Boss Speaks Softly; Hides in the Bushes". Gang Land News. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Yaniv, Oren (March 28, 2015). "Bonanno crime family street boss locked up after feds catch him meeting with other mobsters – violating his parole". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- Marzulli, John (January 18, 2016). "EXCLUSIVE: Mob boss rebuilding what's left of Bonanno crime family". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Marzulli, John. "EXCLUSIVE: Mob boss rebuilding what's left of Bonanno crime family – NY Daily News". nydailynews.com.
- McShane, VICTORIA BEKIEMPIS, Larry. "Acting Bonanno mob boss, high-ranking family leaders busted in racketeering takedown – NY Daily News". nydailynews.com.
- Bekiempis, Victoria; McShane, Larry (January 12, 2018). "Acting Bonanno mob boss, high-ranking family leaders busted in racketeering takedown". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Francesco Cali, Reputed Gambino Crime Boss, Shot and Killed on Staten Island, The New York Times, March 13, 2019
- DeVico, Peter J. The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra (pg. 174) Tate Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-60247-254-8[ unreliable source?]
- Machi, Mario American Mafia.com Archived December 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine New York
- MafiaNJ.com La Cosa Nostra State of New Jersey Commission of Investigation 1989 Report. pg.17
- Staff (January 6, 1981) "The City; Persico Trial Put Off On Bribery Charges" The New York Times
- Fried, Joseph P. (November 10, 1981) "Persico Rank Rankles as he is Given 5 Years" The New York Times
- Maas, Peter (1997) Underboss: Sammy the Bull Gravano's Story of Life in the Mafia HarperCollins. pp.191-92 ISBN 0060182563
- "Legendary New York Mob Boss Carmine Persico, Head of Colombo Family, Dead at Age 85". nbcnewyork.com. March 7, 2019.
- Staff (September 13, 1989) "Alphonse Persico, 61, Is Dead; Leader of Colombo Crime Family". The New York Times
- Buder, Leonard (December 19, 1987) "Colombo Figure Given 25 Years On '80 Charges" The New York Times
- Maas, Peter (1997) Underboss: Sammy the Bull Gravano's Story of Life in the Mafia. HarperCollins. p.155 ISBN 0060182563
- Raab (2006), pp.332-33
- Raab, Selwyn (December 10, 1991) "Even to the 5 Families, the Fighting Colombos Have Been Black Sheep" The New York Times
- Capeci (2001), pp.386-88
- Capeci, Jerry (August 5, 1999). "MOB BOSS RIPS JURY-TAMPERING SENTENCE". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- United States District Judge John F. Keenan Case 1:97-cv-08591-JFK Archived March 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (May 22, 2006)
- Marzulli, John (March 1, 2009). "Alphonse Persico life sentence may end control of Colombo crime family". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Updated Colombo Family Leadership being revealed?". Archived from the original on September 23, 2010.
- Colombo Organized Crime Family Acting Boss Alphonse T. Persico and Administration Member John J. Deross Sentenced to Life Imprisonment for the Murder of William "Wild Bill" Cutolo and Related Witness Tampering (February 27, 2009)
- Sifakis, Carl (2005). The Mafia Encyclopedia. New York: Facts on File. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-0-8160-5694-1.
- The complete idiot's guide to the Mafia by Jerry Capeci (read)
- Dash, Mike (August 4, 2009). The first family: terror, extortion, revenge, murder, and the birth of the American Mafia. p. 24. ISBN 9781588368638.
- Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers by H. Thomas Milhorn (pg.218)
-   
- John Marzulli (July 29, 2011). "Wiseguy Sicilian Domenico Cefalu takes reins of Gambino crime family, once ruled by Gottis". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on July 26, 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Capeci, Jerry (March 25, 2004). "Gang Land News: America's Expert on the American Mafia (paid subscription site)". www.ganglandnews.com. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Capeci, Jerry (December 15, 2005). "Gang Land News: America's Expert on the American Mafia (paid subscription site)". www.ganglandnews.com. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Staten Island mobster takes Gambino leadership: report, New York Daily News, August 21, 2015
- "Gambino crime family has a new boss". The US World Herald. May 12, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
- "The Strange Saga of the 'Odd Father,' the Mob Boss Who Faked Mental Illness". Vice. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- "Mob justice: A year of violence in gangland". Jay Maeder. New York Daily News. August 14, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- Raab, Selwyn (September 3, 1995). "With Gotti Away, the Genoveses Succeed the Leaderless Gambinos". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 12, 2010.
- " Charges against mob boss show Mafia alive and well in New York", June 1, 2007
- DeVico, Peter J. The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra. (pg. 175) Tate Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-60247-254-8[ unreliable source?]
- "White-Collar Mafioso: Tommy Lucchese (1899–1967)" By Thomas Hunt Onewal.com
- "Tommy Lucchese Biography" Bio website
- Harrell, G.T. For Members Only: The Story of the Mob's Secret Judge. Arthur House Publishing, 2009 (pg 99-101)
- Philip Carlo. Gaspipe: Confessions of a Mafia Boss (pg.296)
- Carlo, Philip Gaspipe: Confessions of a Mafia Boss p. 246
- "Declaration of Alphonse D'Arco by Allan N. Taffet
- Gearty, Robert (October 23, 2002). "Luchese Ex-Boss Singing for Feds". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- "Construction Indictments" District Attorney New York County Press release September 6, 2000
- United States Attorney’s Office Southern District of New York (May 31, 2017). "Alleged Street Boss And Underboss Of La Cosa Nostra Family Charged With Murder And Racketering Offenses In White Plains Federal Court". Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Jacobs, Shayna (May 31, 2017). "Luchese bosses among 15 cuffed in massive New York mob takedown". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Whitehouse, Kaja (May 31, 2017). "Nearly two dozen Lucchese crime family members arrested". New York Post. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Capeci, Jerry (May 30, 2019). "Lucheses leadership changed hands in bloodless coup orchestrated from prison". New York Post. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Raab, Selwyn (2006). Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. New York: St. Martins Press.