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US Open
Official website
Founded1881; 143 years ago (1881)
Editions143 (2023)
LocationNew York City
United States
Venue USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center (since 1978)
Surface Hard – outdoors [a] [b] (since 1978)
Clay – outdoors (1975–1977)
Grass – outdoors (1881–1974)
Prize money US$65,000,020 (2023) [1]
Men's
Draw S (128 Q) / 64 D (16 Q) [c]
Current champions Novak Djokovic (singles)
Rajeev Ram
Joe Salisbury (doubles)
Most singles titles7
Bill Tilden
Most doubles titles6
Mike Bryan
Women's
Draw S (128 Q) / 64 D (16 Q)
Current champions Coco Gauff (singles)
Gabriela Dabrowski
Erin Routliffe (doubles)
Most singles titles8
Molla Mallory
Most doubles titles13
Margaret Osborne duPont
Mixed doubles
Draw32
Current champions Anna Danilina
Harri Heliövaara
Most titles (male)4
Bill Tilden
Bill Talbert
Bob Bryan
Most titles (female)9
Margaret Osborne duPont
Grand Slam
Last completed
2023 US Open

The US Open Tennis Championships, commonly called the US Open, is a hardcourt tennis tournament held annually in Queens, New York. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tournament of the year (except in 2020, when the French Open was delayed to occur after the US Open due to the COVID-19 lockdowns). The other three, in chronological order, are the Australian Open, French Open and Wimbledon. The US Open starts on the last Monday of August and continues for two weeks, with the middle weekend coinciding with the US Labor Day holiday. The tournament is one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, originally known as the U.S. National Championship, for which men's singles and men's doubles were first played in August 1881. It is the only Grand Slam that was not affected by cancellation due to World War I and World War II, nor interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. All the players participating should be at least fourteen (14) years old.

The tournament consists of five primary championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles. The tournament also includes events for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hardcourts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens, New York City. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association (USTA), a non-profit organization, and the chairperson of the US Open is Patrick Galbraith. Revenue from ticket sales, sponsorships, and television contracts is used to develop tennis in the United States.

This tournament, from 1971 to 2021, employed standard tiebreakers (first to seven points, win by two) in every set of a singles match. [2] Since 2022, new tiebreak rules were initiated and standardized in the final set for all four majors, where if a match reaches six-all in the final set (the third for women and fifth for men), an extended tiebreaker (first to ten points, win by two) is played.

History

1881–1914: Newport Casino

The tournament was first held in August 1881 on grass courts at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island, which is now home to the International Tennis Hall of Fame. That year, only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) were permitted to enter. [3] Richard Sears won the men's singles at this tournament, which was the first of his seven consecutive singles titles. [4] From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final, where he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament.

In the first years of the U.S. National Championship, only men competed and the tournament was known as the U.S. National Singles Championships for Men. In September 1887, six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club. The winner was 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell. In that same year, the men's doubles event was played at the Orange Lawn Tennis Club in South Orange, New Jersey. [5]

Semifinal at the 1890 U.S. Tennis Championships at Newport, Rhode Island. Match between Oliver Campbell and Bob Huntington

The women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917. Between 1890 and 1906, sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off for the right to compete against the defending champions in the challenge round. [6]

The 1888 and the 1889 men's doubles events were played at the Staten Island Cricket Club in Livingston, Staten Island, New York. [7] In the 1893 Championship, the men's doubles event was played at the St. George Cricket Club in Chicago. [8] [9] [10] In 1892, the US Mixed Doubles Championship was introduced and in 1899 the US Women's National Doubles Championship.

In 1915, the national championship was relocated to the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, Queens, New York City. The effort to relocate it to New York City began as early as 1911 when a group of tennis players, headed by New Yorker Karl Behr, started working on it. [11]

1915–1977: West Side Tennis Club

In early 1915, a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of moving the tournament. They argued that most tennis clubs, players, and fans were located in the New York City area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there. [12] This view was opposed by another group of players that included eight former national singles champions. [13] [14] This contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5, 1915, with 128 votes in favor of and 119 against relocation. [15] [16] [17] In August 1915, the men's singles tournament was held at the West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills in New York City for the first time while the women's tournament was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club in Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia (the women's singles event was not moved until 1921). From 1917 to 1933, the men's doubles event was held at the Longwood Cricket Club in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. In 1934, both men's and women's doubles events were held at Longwood Cricket Club. [18]

From 1921 through 1923, the men's singles tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia. [19] It returned to the West Side Tennis Club in 1924 following completion of the 14,000-seat Forest Hills Stadium. [6] Although many already regarded it as a major championship, the International Lawn Tennis Federation did not officially designate it as one of the world's major tournaments until 1924. [20] At the 1922 U.S. National Championships, the draw seeded players for the first time to prevent the leading players from playing each other in the early rounds. [21] [22] From 1935 to 1941 and from 1946 to 1967, the men's and women's doubles were held at the Longwood Cricket Club. [23]

Open era

The open era began in 1968 when professional tennis players were allowed to compete for the first time at the Grand Slam tournament held at the West Side Tennis Club. The previous U.S. National Championships had been limited to amateur players. Except for mixed doubles,[ citation needed] all events at the 1968 national tournament were open to professionals. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered, and prize money totaled $100,000. In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreaker to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games. From 1970 through 1974, the US Open used a best-of-nine-point sudden-death tiebreaker before moving to the International Tennis Federation's (ITF) best-of-twelve points system. [4] In 1973, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women, with that year's singles champions, John Newcombe and Margaret Court, receiving $25,000 each. [4] From 1975, following complaints about the surface and its impact on the ball's bounce, the tournament played on clay courts instead of grass. This was also an experiment to make it more "TV friendly". The addition of floodlights allowed matches to be played at night. [24] [25]

Since 1978: USTA National Tennis Center

Arthur Ashe stadium in 2010, before the retractable roof was added.

In 1978, the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club to the larger and newly constructed USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, Queens, 3 miles (4.8 km) to the north. The tournament's court surface also switched from clay to hardcourt. Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces (grass, clay, and hardcourt), while Chris Evert is the only woman to have won US Open singles titles on two surfaces (clay and hardcourt). [4]

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has been played every year since its inception. [26]

During the 2006 US Open, the complex was renamed to "USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center" in honor of Billie Jean King, a four-time US Open singles champion and one of women's tennis's early pioneers. [27]

With the move to Flushing, the women's final was played between the two men's semi-finals on Saturday, creating a block that came to be known as "Super Saturday". While fan-friendly, the concept proved divisive among players because it gave them less than a day's rest between the semifinal and championship matches. A number of spectators also tended to leave after the women's final, and not stay for the second men's semifinal. [28] [29]

This ended in 2001, when the women's final was moved to prime time to encourage television viewership, citing a major growth in popularity for women's tennis among viewers. [30] This practice was eventually discontinued, and the women's final is currently played in the late afternoon.

For five consecutive tournaments between 2008 through 2012, the men's final was postponed to Monday due to weather. In 2013 and 2014, the USTA intentionally scheduled the men's final on a Monday—a move praised for allowing the men's players an extra day's rest following the semifinals, but drew the ire of the ATP for further deviating from the structure of the other Grand Slams. [31] [28]

In 2015, the US Open returned to a format similar to the other Grand Slams, with women's and men's finals on Saturday and Sunday, and players having an extra day of rest. However, weather delays forced both sets of semifinals to be held on Friday of that year. [32] [29]

In 2018, the tournament was the first Grand Slam tournament that introduced the shot clock to keep a check on the time consumed by players between points. [d] The reason for this change was to increase the pace of play. [34] The clock is placed in a position visible to players, the chair umpire and fans. [35] Since 2020, all Grand Slams, ATP, and WTA tournaments apply this technology. [36]

In 2020, the event was held without spectators due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the Western & Southern Open was also re-located from Cincinnati in order to create a bio-secure bubble for both events due to their proximity. [37] An announcement that the wheelchair tennis competition would not be held caused controversy, because the USTA did not consult with athletes prior to it, as it had with the players' organizations for the able-bodied competitions. After accusations of discrimination, the USTA was forced to backtrack, admitting that it should have discussed the decision with the wheelchair competitors and offering them either $150,000 to be split between them (compared with $3.3m to be split between the players affected by the cancellation of each of the men's and women's qualifying competition and reductions in the mixed-doubles pool), a competition as part of the Open with 95% of the 2019 prize fund, or a competition to be held at the USTA base in Florida. [38]

Grounds

Arthur Ashe Stadium with the roof closed in 2018.

The grounds of the US Open have 22 outdoor courts (plus 12 practice courts just outside the East Gate) consisting of four "show courts" (Arthur Ashe Stadium, Louis Armstrong Stadium, the Grandstand, and Court 17), 13 field courts, and 5 practice courts.

The main court is the 23,771-seat [39] Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened in 1997. A US$180 million [40] retractable roof was added in 2016. [41] The stadium is named after Arthur Ashe, who won the men's singles title at the inaugural US Open in 1968, and was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985. The next largest court is the 14,061-seat Louis Armstrong Stadium, which cost US$200 million to build and opened in 2018. [40] The 6,400-seat lower tier of this stadium is separately ticketed, reserved seating while the 7,661-seat upper tier is general admission and not separately ticketed. [40] [42] The third largest court is the 8,125-seat Grandstand in the southwest corner of the grounds, which opened in 2016. [41] Court 17 in the southeast corner of the grounds is the fourth largest stadium. It opened with temporary seating in 2011 and received its permanent seating the following year. [43] It has a seating capacity of 2,800, all of which is general admission and not separately ticketed. [43] It is nicknamed "The Pit", partly because the playing surface is sunk 8 feet into the ground. [43] [44] The total seating capacity for practice courts P1-P5 is 672 and for competition Courts 4–16 is 12,656, itemized as follows: [45]

  • Courts 11 & 12: 1,704 each
  • Court 7: 1,494
  • Court 5: 1,148
  • Courts 10 & 13: 1,104 each
  • Court 4: 1,066
  • Court 6: 1,032
  • Court 9: 624
  • Courts 14 & 15: 502 each
  • Courts 8 & 16: 336 each

All the courts used by the US Open are illuminated, allowing matches and television coverage to extend into the evening.

Surface

From 1978 to 2019, the US Open was played on a hardcourt surface called Pro DecoTurf. It is a multi-layer cushioned surface and classified by the International Tennis Federation as medium-fast. [46] Each August before the start of the tournament, the courts are resurfaced. [47] In March 2020, the USTA announced that Laykold would become the new court surface supplier beginning with the 2020 tournament. [48]

Since 2005, all US Open and US Open Series tennis courts have been painted a shade of blue (trademarked as "US Open Blue") inside the lines to make it easier for players, spectators, and television viewers to see the ball. [49] The area outside the lines is still painted "US Open Green". [49]

Player line call challenges

In 2006, the US Open introduced instant replay reviews of line calls, using the Hawk-Eye computer system. It was the first Grand Slam tournament to use the system. [50] The Open felt the need to implement the system because of the controversial quarterfinal match at the 2004 US Open[ citation needed] between Serena Williams and Jennifer Capriati, where a number of important line calls went against Williams. Replays on TV showed these calls were incorrect, including one critical point in the match that was incorrectly overruled by the chair umpire. [51] Instant replay was available only on the Arthur Ashe Stadium and Louis Armstrong Stadium courts through the 2008 tournament. In 2009, it became available on the Grandstand court.[ citation needed] In 2018, all competition courts were outfitted with Hawk-Eye, and all matches in the main draws (Men's and Women's Singles and Doubles) followed the same procedure, whereby each player was allowed three incorrect challenges per set, with one more given in a tiebreak. Player challenges were eliminated in 2021, when the tournament became the second Grand Slam to fully incorporate Hawk-Eye Live, where all line calls are made electronically; the previous year's tournament had also incorporated Hawk-Eye Live on all courts except for Arthur Ashe and Louis Armstrong stadiums to reduce personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. [52]

In 2007, JPMorgan Chase renewed its sponsorship of the US Open and, as part of the arrangement, the replay system was renamed to "Chase Review" on in-stadium video and television. [53]

Point and prize money distribution

Ranking points for the men ( ATP) and women ( WTA) have varied at the US Open through the years. Below is a series of tables for each of the competitions showing the ranking points on offer for each event:

Senior

Event W F SF QF R4 R3 R2 R1 Q Q3 Q2 Q1
Men's singles 2000 1200 720 360 180 90 45 10 25 16 8 0
Men's doubles 0
Women's singles 1300 780 430 240 130 70 10 40 30 20 2
Women's doubles 10


Prize money

The total prize money for the 2023 US Open was $65,000,020 and is the largest package of all Grand Slams and the largest in tournament history. The package is divided as follows: [54]

Event W F SF QF Round of 16 Round of 32 Round of 64 Round of 128 Q3 Q2 Q1
Singles $3,000,000 $1,500,000 $775,000 $455,000 $284,000 $191,000 $123,000 $81,500 $45,000 $34,500 $22,000
Doubles $700,000 $350,000 $180,000 $100,000 $58,000 $36,800 $22,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Mixed doubles $170,000 $85,000 $42,500 $23,200 $14,200 $8,300 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

The men's and women's singles prize money (US$44,700,000) accounts for 68.7 percent of total player base compensation, while men's and women's doubles (US$7,133,600), men's and mixed doubles (US$679,200) account for 11.0 percent and 1.0 percent, respectively. All prize money for the doubles competitions are distributed per team. The prize money for the wheelchair draw amounts to a total of US$1,366,800, which accounts for a total of 2.1 percent of the package, and additional expenses, such as per diem and direct hotel payments of US$4,656,420 account for a total of 7.2 percent. [54]

In 2012, the USTA agreed to increase the US Open prize money to $50,400,000 by 2017. As a result, the prize money for the 2013 tournament was US$33.6 million, a record US$8.1 million increase from 2012. The champions of the 2013 US Open Series also had the opportunity to add US$2.6 million in bonus prize money, potentially bringing the total 2013 US Open purse to more than US$36 million. [55] In 2014, the prize money was US$38.3 million. [56] In 2015, the prize money was raised to US$42.3 million. [57] In 2021, the USTA set a new record for the highest prize money and total player compensation in the tournament's history with $57,462,000, and also boosted the prize money for the qualifying tournament to $6,000,000, a 66% increase over the package in 2019. [58]

The 2023 tournament saw another record, with total prize money reaching US$65,000,020. Efforts were also undertaken to enhance support for participants across all events by implementing expanded player expense assistance measures. This iteration of the tournament introduced substantial changes in player per diem allowances, extending to all competitors. Notably, travel vouchers worth $1,000 have been newly introduced. Moreover, players can receive an additional hotel room or witness a twofold increase in their daily hotel allowance, which has been raised from $300 to $600, provided they choose alternate lodging. Additionally, an elevation in meal allowances and provision of racquet stringing services are also in effect for all participating players. [59]

Champions

Former champions

Current champions

Most recent finals

2023 Event Champion Runner-up Score
Men's singles Serbia Novak Djokovic Daniil Medvedev 6–3, 7–6(7–5), 6–3
Women's singles United States Coco Gauff Aryna Sabalenka 2–6, 6–3, 6–2
Men's doubles United States Rajeev Ram
United Kingdom Joe Salisbury
India Rohan Bopanna
Australia Matthew Ebden
2–6, 6–3, 6–4
Women's doubles Canada Gabriela Dabrowski
New Zealand Erin Routliffe
Germany Laura Siegemund
Vera Zvonareva
7–611–9, 6–3
Mixed doubles Kazakhstan Anna Danilina
Finland Harri Heliövaara
United States Jessica Pegula
United States Austin Krajicek
6–3, 6–4
Wheelchair men's singles United Kingdom Alfie Hewett United Kingdom Gordon Reid 6–4, 6–3
Wheelchair women's singles Netherlands Diede de Groot Japan Yui Kamiji 6–2, 6–2
Wheelchair quad singles Netherlands Sam Schröder Netherlands Niels Vink 6–3, 7–5
Wheelchair men's doubles France Stéphane Houdet
Japan Takashi Sanada
Japan Takuya Miki
Japan Tokito Oda
6–4, 6–4
Wheelchair women's doubles Japan Yui Kamiji
South Africa Kgothatso Montjane
Netherlands Diede de Groot
Netherlands Jiske Griffioen
Walkover
Quad doubles Netherlands Sam Schröder
Netherlands Niels Vink
United Kingdom Andy Lapthorne
South Africa Donald Ramphadi
6–1, 6–2

Records

Richard Sears, a joint all-time record-holder in men's singles
Bill Larned, a joint all-time record holder in men's singles
Bill Tilden, a joint all-time record holder in men's singles
Molla Mallory, the all-time record holder in women's singles
Record Era Player(s) Count Years
Men since 1881
Most singles titles Amateur Era United States Richard Sears 7 1881–87
United States William Larned 1901–02, 1907–11
United States Bill Tilden 1920–25, 1929
Open Era United States Jimmy Connors 5 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982–83
United States Pete Sampras 1990, 1993, 1995–96, 2002
Switzerland Roger Federer 2004–08
Most consecutive singles titles Amateur Era United States Richard Sears 7 1881–87
Open Era Switzerland Roger Federer 5 2004–08
Most doubles titles Amateur Era United States Richard Sears 6 1882–84, 1886–87 with James Dwight
1885 with Joseph Clark
United States Holcombe Ward 1899–1901 with Dwight F. Davis
1904–06 with Beals Wright
Open Era United States Mike Bryan 6 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 with Bob Bryan
2018 with Jack Sock
Most consecutive doubles titles Amateur Era United States Richard Sears 6 1882–87
Open Era United States Rajeev Ram 3 2021–23
United Kingdom Joe Salisbury 2021–23
Most mixed doubles titles Amateur Era United States Edwin P. Fischer 4 1894–96 with Juliette Atkinson
1898 with Carrie Neely
United States Wallace F. Johnson 1907 with May Sayers
1909, 1911, 1915 with Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman
United States Bill Tilden 1913–14 with Mary Browne
1922–23 with Molla Mallory
United States Bill Talbert 1943–46 with Margaret Osborne duPont
Open Era Australia Owen Davidson 1966 with Donna Floyd
1967, 1971, 1973 with Billie Jean King
United States Marty Riessen 1969–70, 1972 with Margaret Court
1980 with Wendy Turnbull
United States Bob Bryan 2003 with Katarina Srebotnik
2004 with Vera Zvonareva
2006 with Martina Navratilova
2010 with Liezel Huber
Most Championships
(singles, doubles & mixed doubles)
Amateur Era United States Bill Tilden 16 1913–29 (7 singles, 5 doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Open Era United States Bob Bryan 9 2003–14 (5 doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Women since 1887
Most singles titles Amateur Era Norway/ United States Molla Mallory 8 1915–18, 1920–22, 1926
Open Era United States Chris Evert 6 1975–78, 1980, 1982
United States Serena Williams 1999, 2002, 2008, 2012–14
Most consecutive singles titles Amateur Era Norway/ United States Molla Mallory 4 1915–18
United States Helen Jacobs 1932–35
Open Era United States Chris Evert 4 1975–78
Most doubles titles Amateur Era United States Margaret Osborne duPont 13 1941 with Sarah Palfrey Cooke
1942–50, 1955–57 with Louise Brough
Open Era United States Martina Navratilova 9 1977 with Betty Stöve
1978, 1980 with Billie Jean King
1983–84, 1986–87 with Pam Shriver
1989 with Hana Mandlíková
1990 with Gigi Fernández
Most consecutive doubles titles Amateur Era United States Margaret Osborne duPont 10 1941 with Sarah Palfrey Cooke
1942–50 with Louise Brough
Open Era Spain Virginia Ruano Pascual 3 2002–04
Argentina Paola Suárez 2002–04
Most mixed doubles titles Amateur Era United States Margaret Osborne duPont 9 1943–46 with Bill Talbert
1950 with Ken McGregor
1956 with Ken Rosewall
1958–60 with Neale Fraser
Open Era Australia Margaret Court 3 1969–70, 1972 with Marty Riessen
United States Billie Jean King 1971, 1973 with Owen Davidson
1976 with Phil Dent
United States Martina Navratilova 1985 with Heinz Günthardt
1987 with Emilio Sánchez
2006 with Bob Bryan
Most Championships
(singles, doubles & mixed doubles)
Amateur Era United States Margaret Osborne duPont 25 1941–60 (3 singles, 13 doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
Open Era United States Martina Navratilova 16 1977–2006 (4 singles, 9 doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
Miscellaneous
Unseeded champions Men United States Andre Agassi 1994
Women Belgium Kim Clijsters
United States Sloane Stephens
United Kingdom Emma Raducanu
2009
2017 (the only Protected ranking to win a major title)
2021 (the only qualifier to win a major title)
Youngest singles champion Men United States Pete Sampras 19 years and 1 month ( 1990) [60]
Women United States Tracy Austin 16 years and 8 months ( 1979) [60]
Oldest singles champion Men United States William Larned 38 years and 8 months ( 1911) [60]
Women Norway/ United States Molla Mallory 42 years and 5 months ( 1926) [60]

Media and attendance

Media coverage

The US Open's website allows viewing of live streaming video, but unlike other Grand Slam tournaments, does not allow watching video on demand. The site also offers live radio coverage.

United States

ESPN took full control of televising the event in 2015. When taking over, ESPN ended 47 years of coverage produced and aired by CBS. [61] ESPN uses ESPN, ESPN2, and ABC for broadcasts, while putting outer court coverage on ESPN+. [62]

Other regions

Exceptions

Source [67]

Recent attendance

Sources: US Open, [70] Record Attendance 2019, [71] City University of New York (CUNY) [72] [73]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ DecoTurf was used from 1978 to 2019, and Laykold since 2020.
  2. ^ Except Arthur Ashe Stadium and Louis Armstrong Stadium during rain delays.
  3. ^ In the main draws, there are 128 singles players (S) and 64 doubles teams (D), and there are 128 and 16 entrants in the respective qualifying (Q) draws.
  4. ^ Once the chair umpire has announced the score following the previous point, the countdown starts and players have 25 seconds to begin their service motion. However, the chair umpire has the ability and discretion to pause or reset the clock to 25 seconds the clock if a point with a particularly long rally merits a pause for the players to recover their breath. In normal circumstances during the game, if the player has not started the service motion at the completion of the 25-second countdown, the chair umpire issues a time violation. The server will receive a warning and for each subsequent violation, the player loses a first serve (second serves are supposed to happen without delay, so the clock won't be used). In the case of the receiver, if it isn't ready at the end of 25 seconds, the chair umpire first issues a warning, then the loss of a point with every other violation. After even-numbered games, the chair umpire will start the clock when the balls are all in place on the server's end of the court. [33]
  5. ^ The 2020 US Open was played behind closed doors due to the COVID-19 pandemic in New York.

References

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  21. ^ "Recommendation is made for the abolition of blind draw in promotion of tennis tourneys". Newspapers.com. Evening Public Ledger. December 19, 1921. p. 21. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  22. ^ E. Digby Baltzell (2013). Sporting Gentlemen: Men's Tennis from the Age of Honor to the Cult of the Superstar. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 182. ISBN  978-1-4128-5180-0.
  23. ^ "New England youths spring net upset". Minneapolis Morning Tribune. August 22, 1960. p. 18. Archived from the original on March 5, 2021. Retrieved November 7, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Paul Sullivan and Ned Weld, two youngsters from New England, toppled Antonio Palafox and Joaquin Reyes of Mexico, 6 up, 8-6, 3-6, 1-6, 6-3 Sunday in the only opening day upset of the national doubles tennis championships at Longwood Cricket club.
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External links

Preceded by Grand Slam Tournament
August–September
Succeeded by
Preceded by US Open Series
July–September
Succeeded by
None