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May 1968 events in France
Part of the Protests of 1968 and the Cold War
Barricades in Bordeaux in May 1968
Date2 May – 23 June 1968
(1 month and 3 weeks)
Location
Methods Occupations, wildcat strikes, general strikes
Resulted in Snap legislative election
Parties
Lead figures
Casualties
Death(s)2 (only 25 May) [1]
Injuries887+ (only 25 May) [1]
Arrested1,000+ (only 25 May) [1]

Beginning in May 1968, a period of civil unrest occurred throughout France, lasting seven weeks and punctuated by demonstrations, general strikes, and the occupation of universities and factories. At the height of events, which have since become known as May 68 ( French: Mai 68), the economy of France came to a halt. [2] The protests reached a point that made political leaders fear civil war or revolution; the national government briefly ceased to function after President Charles de Gaulle secretly fled France to West Germany on the 29th. The protests are sometimes linked to similar movements around the same time worldwide [3] that inspired a generation of protest art in the form of songs, imaginative graffiti, posters, and slogans. [4] [5]

The unrest began with a series of far-left student occupation protests against capitalism, consumerism, American imperialism and traditional institutions. Heavy police repression of the protesters led France's trade union confederations to call for sympathy strikes, which spread far more quickly than expected to involve 11 million workers, more than 22% of France's population at the time. [2] The movement was characterized by spontaneous and decentralized wildcat disposition; this created contrast and at times even conflict among the trade unions and leftist parties. [2] It was the largest general strike ever attempted in France, and the first nationwide wildcat general strike. [2]

The student occupations and general strikes across France met with forceful confrontation by university administrators and police. The de Gaulle administration's attempts to quell the strikes by police action only inflamed the situation, leading to street battles with the police in Paris's Latin Quarter.

By late May the flow of events had changed. The Grenelle accords, concluded on 27 May between the government, trade unions and employers, won significant wage gains for workers. A counter-demonstration organised by the Gaullist party on 29 May in central Paris gave De Gaulle the confidence to dissolve the National Assembly and call parliamentary elections for 23 June 1968. Violence evaporated almost as quickly as it arose. Workers returned to their jobs, and after the June elections, the Gaullists emerged stronger than before.

The events of May 1968 continue to influence French society. The period is considered a cultural, social and moral turning point in the nation's history. Alain Geismar, who was one of the student leaders at the time, later said the movement had succeeded "as a social revolution, not as a political one". [6]

Background

Political climate

In February 1968, the French Communist Party and the French Section of the Workers' International formed an electoral alliance. Communists had long supported Socialist candidates in elections, but in the "February Declaration" the two parties agreed to attempt to form a joint government to replace President Charles de Gaulle and his Gaullist Party. [7]

University demonstration

On 22 March, far-left groups, a small number of prominent poets and musicians, and 150 students occupied an administration building at Paris University at Nanterre and held a meeting in the university council room about class discrimination in French society and the political bureaucracy that controlled the university's funding. The university's administration called the police, who surrounded the university. After the publication of their wishes, the students left the building without any trouble. After this, some leaders of what was named the " Movement of 22 March" were called together by the disciplinary committee of the university.

Events of May

Student protests

Public square of the Sorbonne, in the Latin Quarter of Paris

After months of conflicts between students and authorities at the Nanterre campus of the University of Paris (now Paris Nanterre University), the administration shut the university down on 2 May 1968. [8] Students at the University of Paris's Sorbonne campus (today Sorbonne University) met on 3 May to protest the closure and the threatened expulsion of several Nanterre students. [9] On 6 May, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (UNEF, the National Union of Students of France)—still France's largest student union today—and the union of university teachers called a march to protest the police invasion of the Sorbonne. More than 20,000 students, teachers and supporters marched toward the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to create barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time. The police then responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds more students were arrested.

Graffiti in a classroom
Graffiti on the school of law, "Vive de Gaulle" (Long live De Gaulle) with, at left, the word "A bas" (down with) written across "Vive"
University of Lyon during student occupation, May–June 1968

High school student unions spoke in support of the riots on 6 May. The next day, they joined the students, teachers and increasing numbers of young workers who gathered at the Arc de Triomphe to demand that (1) all criminal charges against arrested students be dropped, (2) the police leave the university, and (3) the authorities reopen Nanterre and Sorbonne.

Escalating conflict

Negotiations broke down, and students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover the police still occupying the schools. This led to near revolutionary fervor among the students.

On 10 May, another huge crowd congregated on the Rive Gauche. When the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité again blocked them from crossing the river, the crowd again threw up barricades, which the police then attacked at 2:15 a.m. after negotiations once again floundered. The confrontation, which produced hundreds of arrests and injuries, lasted until dawn. The events were broadcast on radio as they occurred and the aftermath shown on television the next day. It was alleged that the police had participated in the riots, through agents provocateurs, by burning cars and throwing Molotov cocktails. [10]

The government's heavy-handed reaction brought on a wave of sympathy for the strikers. Many of the nation's more mainstream singers and poets joined after the police brutality came to light. American artists also began voicing support of the strikers. The major left union federations, the Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) and the Force Ouvrière (CGT-FO), called a one-day general strike and demonstration for Monday, 13 May.

Well over a million people marched through Paris that day; the police stayed largely out of sight. Prime Minister Georges Pompidou personally announced the release of the prisoners and the reopening of the Sorbonne. However, the surge of strikes did not recede. Instead, the protesters became even more active.

When the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous "people's university". Public opinion at first supported the students, but turned against them after their leaders, invited to appear on national television, "behaved like irresponsible utopianists who wanted to destroy the 'consumer society'". [11] Nonetheless, in the weeks that followed, approximately 401 popular action committees were set up in Paris and elsewhere to take up grievances against the government and French society, including the Sorbonne Occupation Committee.

Worker strikes

Strikers in Southern France with a sign reading "Factory Occupied by the Workers." Behind them is a list of demands, June 1968.

By the middle of May, demonstrations extended to factories, though workers' demands significantly varied from students'. A union-led general strike on 13 May included 200,000 in a march. The strikes spread to all sectors of the French economy, including state-owned jobs, manufacturing and service industries, management, and administration. Across France, students occupied university structures and up to one-third of the country's workforce was on strike. [12]

These strikes were not led by the union movement; on the contrary, the CGT tried to contain this spontaneous outbreak of militancy by channeling it into a struggle for higher wages and other economic demands. Workers put forward a broader, more political and more radical agenda, demanding an ouster of de Gaulle's government and attempting, in some cases, to run their factories. When the trade union leadership negotiated a 35% increase in the minimum wage, a 7% wage increase for other workers, and half normal pay for the time on strike with the major employers' associations, the workers occupying their factories refused to return to work and jeered their union leaders. [13] [14] In fact, the May 68 movement included substantial "anti-unionist euphoria" [15] against the mainstream unions, the CGT, FO and CFDT, that were more willing to compromise with the government than enact the will of the base. [2]

On 24 May, two people died at the hands of out-of-control rioters. In Lyon, Police Inspector Rene Lacroix died when he was crushed by a driverless truck rioters sent careering into police lines. In Paris, Phillipe Metherion, 26, was stabbed to death during an argument among demonstrators. [1]

As the upheaval reached its apogee in late May, major trade unions met with employers' organizations and the French government to produce the Grenelle agreements, which would increase the minimum wage 35% and all salaries 10%, and granted employee protections and a shortened working day. The unions were forced to reject the agreement, based on opposition from their members, underscoring a disconnect in organizations that claimed to reflect working class interests. [16]

The UNEF student union and CFDT trade union held a rally in the Charléty stadium with about 22,000 attendees. Its range of speakers reflected the divide between student and Communist factions. While the rally was held in the stadium partly for security, the speakers' insurrectionist messages were dissonant with the relative amenities of the sports venue. [17]

Calls for new government

The Socialists saw an opportunity to act as a compromise between de Gaulle and the Communists. On 28 May, François Mitterrand of the Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left declared that "there is no more state" and said he was ready to form a new government. He had received a surprisingly high 45% of the vote in the 1965 presidential election. On 29 May, Pierre Mendès France also said he was ready to form a new government; unlike Mitterrand, he was willing to include the Communists. Although the Socialists lacked the Communists' ability to form large street demonstrations, they had more than 20% of the country's support. [11] [7]

De Gaulle flees

On the morning of 29 May, de Gaulle postponed the meeting of the Council of Ministers scheduled for that day and secretly removed his personal papers from Élysée Palace. He told his son-in-law Alain de Boissieu: "I do not want to give them a chance to attack the Élysée. It would be regrettable if blood were shed in my personal defense. I have decided to leave: nobody attacks an empty palace." De Gaulle refused Pompidou's request that he dissolve the National Assembly, as he believed that their party, the Gaullists, would lose the resulting election. At 11:00 am, he told Pompidou, "I am the past; you are the future; I embrace you." [11]

The government announced that de Gaulle was going to his country home in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises before returning the next day, and rumors spread that he would prepare his resignation speech there. However, the presidential helicopter did not arrive in Colombey, and de Gaulle had told no one in the government where he was going. For more than six hours the world did not know where he was. [18] The canceling of the ministerial meeting and de Gaulle's mysterious disappearance stunned the French, [11] including Pompidou, who shouted, "He has fled the country!" [19]

Government collapse

With de Gaulle's closest advisors saying they did not know what he intended, Pompidou scheduled a tentative appearance on television at 8 p.m. [18] The national government had effectively ceased to function. Édouard Balladur later wrote that as prime minister, Pompidou "by himself was the whole government", as most officials were "an incoherent group of confabulators" who believed that revolution would soon occur. A friend of Pompidou offered him a weapon, saying, "You will need it"; Pompidou advised him to go home. One official reportedly began burning documents, while another asked an aide how far they could flee by automobile should revolutionaries seize fuel supplies. Withdrawing money from banks became difficult, gasoline for private automobiles was unavailable, and some people tried to obtain private planes or fake national identity cards. [11]

Pompidou unsuccessfully requested that military radar be used to follow de Gaulle's two helicopters, but soon learned that he had gone to the headquarters of the French Forces in Germany, in Baden-Baden, to meet General Jacques Massu. Massu persuaded the discouraged de Gaulle to return to France; now knowing that he had the military's support, de Gaulle rescheduled the meeting of the Council of Ministers for the next day, 30 May, [11] and returned to Colombey by 6:00 pm. [18] However, his wife Yvonne gave the family jewels to their son and daughter-in-law—who stayed in Baden for a few more days—for safekeeping, indicating that the de Gaulles still considered Germany a possible refuge. Massu kept as a state secret de Gaulle's loss of confidence until others disclosed it in 1982; until then most observers believed that his disappearance was intended to remind the French people of what they might lose. Although the disappearance was real and not intended as motivation, it indeed had such an effect on France. [11]

Revolution prevented

Pierre Messmer

On 30 May, 400,000 to 500,000 protesters (many more than the 50,000 the police were expecting) led by the CGT marched through Paris, chanting: "Adieu, de Gaulle!" ("Farewell, de Gaulle!"). Maurice Grimaud, head of the Paris police, played a key role in avoiding revolution by both speaking to and spying on the revolutionaries, and by avoiding the use of force. While Communist leaders later denied that they had planned an armed uprising, and extreme militants only comprised 2% of the populace, they had overestimated de Gaulle's strength, as shown by his escape to Germany. [11] Historian Arthur P. Mendel, otherwise skeptical of French Communists' willingness to maintain democracy after forming a government, claims that the "moderate, nonviolent and essentially antirevolutionary" Communists opposed revolution because they sincerely believed that the party must come to power through legal elections, not armed conflict that might provoke harsh repression from political opponents. [7]

Not knowing that the Communists did not intend to seize power, officials prepared to position police forces at the Élysée with orders to shoot if necessary. That it did not also guard Paris City Hall despite reports that it was the Communists' target was evidence of governmental chaos. [18] The Communist movement largely centered around the Paris metropolitan area, and not elsewhere. Had the rebellion occupied key public buildings in Paris, the government would have had to use force to retake them. The resulting casualties could have incited a revolution, with the military moving from the provinces to retake Paris as in 1871. Minister of Defence Pierre Messmer and Chief of the Defence Staff Michel Fourquet prepared for such an action, and Pompidou had ordered tanks to Issy-les-Moulineaux. [11] While the military was free of revolutionary sentiment, using an army mostly of conscripts the same age as the revolutionaries would have been very dangerous for the government. [7] [18] A survey conducted immediately after the crisis found that 20% of Frenchmen would have supported a revolution, 23% would have opposed it, and 57% would have avoided physical participation in the conflict. 33% would have fought a military intervention, while only 5% would have supported it and a majority of the country would have avoided any action. [11]

Election called

At 2:30 p.m. on 30 May, Pompidou persuaded de Gaulle to dissolve the National Assembly and call a new election by threatening to resign. At 4:30 pm, de Gaulle broadcast his refusal to resign. He announced an election, scheduled for 23 June, and ordered workers to return to work, threatening to institute a state of emergency if they did not. The government had leaked to the media that the army was outside Paris. Immediately after the speech, about 800,000 supporters marched through the Champs-Élysées waving the national flag; the Gaullists had planned the rally for several days, which attracted a crowd of diverse ages, occupations, and politics. The Communists agreed to the election, and the threat of revolution was over. [11] [18] [20]

Aftermath

Protest suppression and elections

From that point, the revolutionary feeling of the students and workers faded away. Workers gradually returned to work or were ousted from their plants by police. The national student union called off street demonstrations. The government banned several leftist organizations. The police retook the Sorbonne on 16 June. Contrary to de Gaulle's fears, his party won the greatest victory in French parliamentary history in the legislative election held in June, taking 353 of 486 seats to the Communists' 34 and the Socialists' 57. [11] The February Declaration and its promise to include Communists in government likely hurt the Socialists in the election. Their opponents cited the example of the Czechoslovak National Front government of 1945, which led to a Communist takeover of the country in 1948. Socialist voters were divided; in a February 1968 survey a majority had favored allying with the Communists, but 44% believed that Communists would attempt to seize power once in government (30% of Communist voters agreed). [7]

On Bastille Day, there were resurgent street demonstrations in the Latin Quarter, led by socialist students, leftists and communists wearing red armbands and anarchists wearing black armbands. The Paris police and the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS) harshly responded starting around 10 pm and continuing through the night, on the streets, in police vans, at police stations, and in hospitals where many wounded were taken. There was, as a result, much bloodshed among students and tourists there for the evening's festivities. No charges were filed against police or demonstrators, but the governments of Britain and West Germany filed formal protests, including for the indecent assault of two English schoolgirls by police in a police station.

National feelings

Despite the size of de Gaulle's triumph, it was not a personal one. A post-crisis survey conducted by Mattei Dogan showed that a majority of the country saw de Gaulle as "'too sure of himself' (70%), 'too old to govern' (59%), 'too authoritarian' (64%), 'too concerned with his personal prestige' (69%), 'too conservative' (63%), and 'too anti-American' (69%)"; as the April 1969 referendum would show, the country was ready for " Gaullism without de Gaulle". [11]

Legacy

May 1968 is an important reference point in French politics, representing for some the possibility of liberation and for others the dangers of anarchy. [6] For some, May 1968 meant the end of traditional collective action and the beginning of a new era to be dominated mainly by the so-called new social movements. [21]

Someone who took part in or supported this period of unrest is known as a soixante-huitard (a "68-er")—a term that has entered the English language.

Slogans and graffiti

A slogan reading " It is forbidden to forbid," Paris, May 1968

Sous les pavés, la plage! ("Under the paving stones, the beach!") is a slogan coined by student activist Bernard Cousin [22] in collaboration with public relations expert Bernard Fritsch. [23] The phrase became an emblem of the events and movement of the spring of 1968, when the revolutionary students began to build barricades in the streets of major cities by tearing up street pavement stone. As the first barricades were raised, the students recognized that the stone setts were placed atop sand. The slogan encapsulated the movement's views on urbanization and modern society both literally and metaphorically.

Other examples: [24]

  • Il est interdit d'interdire ("It is forbidden to forbid") [25]
  • Jouissez sans entraves ("Enjoy without hindrance") [25]
  • Élections, piège à con ("Elections, a trap for idiots") [26]
  • CRS = SS [27]
  • Je suis Marxiste—tendance Groucho ("I'm a Marxist—of the Groucho persuasion") [28]
  • Marx, Mao, Marcuse! [29] [30] [31] Also known as "3M". [32]
  • Cela nous concerne tous. ("This concerns all of us")
  • Soyez réalistes, demandez l'impossible ("Be realistic, demand the impossible") [33]
  • "When the National Assembly becomes a bourgeois theater, all the bourgeois theaters should be turned into national assemblies." (Written above the entrance of the occupied Odéon Theater) [34]
  • "I love you!!! Oh, say it with paving stones!!!" [35]
  • "Read Reich and act accordingly!" (University of Frankfurt; similar Reichian slogans were scrawled on the walls of the Sorbonne, and in Berlin students threw copies of Reich's The Mass Psychology of Fascism at the police) [36]
  • Travailleurs la lutte continue[;] constituez-vous en comité de base. ("Workers[,] the fight continues; form a basic committee.") [37] [38] or simply La lutte continue ("The struggle continues") [38]

In popular culture

Cinema

  • François Truffaut's film Baisers volés (1968) ("Stolen Kisses") takes place in Paris during the time of the riots and while not overtly political, makes passing reference to and depicts the demonstrations. [39]
  • André Cayatte's film Mourir d'aimer (1971) ("To Die of Love") is based on the story of Gabrielle Russier [ fr], a classics teacher (played by Annie Girardot) who committed suicide after being sentenced for having had an affair with one of her students during the events of May 68.
  • Jean-Luc Godard's film Tout Va Bien (1972) examines the continuing class struggle within French society in the aftermath of May 68. [40]
  • Jean Eustache's film The Mother and the Whore (1973), winner of the Cannes Grand Prix, references the events of May 1968 and explores the aftermath of the social movement. [41]
  • Claude Chabrol's film Nada (1974) is based symbolically on the events of May 1968.
  • Diane Kurys's film Cocktail Molotov (1980) tells the story of a group of French friends heading toward Israel when they hear of the May events and decide to return to Paris.
  • Louis Malle's film May Fools (1990) satirically depicts the effect of the revolutionary fervor of May 1968 on small-town bourgeoisie.
  • Bernardo Bertolucci's film The Dreamers (2003), based on Gilbert Adair's novel The Holy Innocents, tells the story of an American university student in Paris during the protests.
  • Philippe Garrel's film Regular Lovers (2005) is about a group of young people participating in the Latin Quarter of Paris barricades and how they continue their life one year after.
  • In the spy-spoof OSS 117: Lost in Rio, the lead character Hubert ironically chides hippie students, "It's 1968. There will be no revolution. Get a haircut."
  • Olivier Assayas's film Something in the Air (2012) tells the story of a young painter and his friends who bring the revolution to their local school and have to deal with the legal and existential consequences.
  • Le Redoutable (2017), a biopic of Godard, covers the 1968 riots/Cannes festival, etc.
  • Roman Coppola's film CQ (2001), set in Paris in 1969, is about the making of a science-fiction film, Dragonfly, and shows the director discovering his starring actress during the 1968 demonstrations. During Dragonfly, set in the "future" Paris of 2001, the "1968 troubles" are explicitly mentioned.
  • Wes Anderson's film The French Dispatch (2021) includes a segment, Revisions to a Manifesto, inspired by the protests.

Music

  • Many of French anarchist singer-songwriter Léo Ferré's writings were inspired by those events. Songs directly related to May 1968 include "L'Été 68", "Comme une fille" (1969), " Paris je ne t'aime plus" (1970), " La Violence et l'Ennui" (1971), " Il n'y a plus rien" (1973), and "La Nostalgie" (1979).
  • Claude Nougaro's song "Paris Mai" (1969). [42]
  • The imaginary Italian clerk described by Fabrizio De André in his album Storia di un impiegato is inspired to build a bomb set to explode in front of the Italian parliament by listening to reports of the May events in France, drawn by the perceived dullness and repetitiveness of his life compared to the revolutionary developments unfolding in France. [43]
  • The Refused song "Protest Song '68" is about the May 1968 protests. [44]
  • The Stone Roses's song "Bye Bye Badman", from their eponymous album, is about the riots. The album's cover includes the tricolore and lemons, which were used to nullify the effects of tear gas. [45]
  • The music video for David Holmes's song "I Heard Wonders" is based entirely on the May 1968 protests and alludes to the influence of the Situationist International on the movement. [46]
  • The Rolling Stones wrote the lyrics to the song " Street Fighting Man" (set to music of an unreleased song they had already written with different lyrics) in reference to the May 1968 protests from their perspective, living in a "sleepy London town". The melody was inspired by French police car sirens. [47]
  • Vangelis released an album, Fais que ton rêve soit plus long que la nuit ("May you make your dreams longer than the night"), about the Paris student riots in 1968. It contains sounds from the demonstrations, songs, and a news report. [48]
  • Ismael Serrano's song "Papá cuéntame otra vez" ("Papa, tell me again") references the May 1968 events: "Papa, tell me once again that beautiful story, of gendarmes and fascists and long-haired students; and sweet urban war in flared trousers, and songs of the Rolling Stones and girls in miniskirts." [49]
  • The title of Brazilian singer Caetano Veloso's "É Proibido Proibir" is a Portuguese translation of the slogan "It is forbidden to forbid". It is a protest song against the military regime that assumed power in Brazil in April 1964. [50]
  • Many of the slogans from the May 1968 riots were included in Luciano Berio's seminal work Sinfonia.
  • The band Orchid references the events of May 68 as well as Debord in their song "Victory Is Ours".
  • The 1975's song " Love It If We Made It" makes reference to the Atelier Populaire's book supporting the events, Beauty Is in the Street.

Literature

Art

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "France Feared On Brink of Civil War". The Register-Guard. Vol. 101, no. 124. Eugene, Oregon. 25 May 1968 – via Google News Archive. Two persons were reported killed in the fighting Friday night and early today, more than 1,000 injured and more than 1,000 arrested.
    Police said in Paris battles alone 795 persons were arrested and that the hospitals and the Red Cross treated 447 wounded civilians, 176 of whom were hospitalized. The University of Paris estimated another 400 injuries were not reported.
  2. ^ a b c d e "The Beginning of an Era". Internationale Situationniste. Translated by Knabb, Ken. September 1969.
  3. ^ "1968 was no mere year". The Economist. 5 April 2018. ISSN  0013-0613. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  4. ^ "Mai 68 – 40 ans déjà". Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  5. ^ DeRoo, Rebecca J. (2014). The Museum Establishment and Contemporary Art: The Politics of Artistic Display in France after 1968. Cambridge University Press. ISBN  9781107656918.
  6. ^ a b Erlanger, Steven (29 April 2008). "May 1968 – a watershed in French life". New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e Mendel, Arthur P. (January 1969). "Why the French Communists Stopped the Revolution". The Review of Politics. 31 (1): 3–27. doi: 10.1017/s0034670500008913. JSTOR  1406452. S2CID  145306210.
  8. ^ Rotman, pp. 10–11; Damamme, Gobille, Matonti & Pudal, ed., p. 190.
  9. ^ Damamme, Gobille, Matonti & Pudal, ed., p. 190.
  10. ^ "Michel Rocard". Le Monde.fr. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dogan, Mattei (1984). "How Civil War Was Avoided in France". International Political Science Review. 5 (3): 245–277. doi: 10.1177/019251218400500304. JSTOR  1600894. S2CID  144698270.
  12. ^ Maclean, M. (2002). Economic Management and French Business: From de Gaulle to Chirac. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p.  104. ISBN  978-0-230-50399-1.
  13. ^ Viénet, René (1992). Enragés and situationists in the occupation movement, France, May '1968. New York: Autonomedia. p. 91. ISBN  0936756799. OCLC  27424054.
  14. ^ Singer, Daniel (2002). Prelude to Revolution: France in May 1968. South End Press. pp.  184–185. ISBN  9780896086821.
  15. ^ Derrida, Jacques (1991) "A 'Madness' Must Watch Over Thinking", interview with Francois Ewald for Le Magazine Litteraire, March 1991, republished in Points...: Interviews, 1974-1994 (1995).pp.347–9
  16. ^ Howell, Chris (2011). "The Importance of May 1968". Regulating Labor: The State and Industrial Relations Reform in Postwar France. Princeton University Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN  978-1-4008-2079-5 – via Project MUSE.
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  18. ^ a b c d e f Singer, Daniel (2002). Prelude to Revolution: France in May 1968. South End Press. pp.  195–196, 198–201. ISBN  978-0-89608-682-1.
  19. ^ Dogan, Mattéi (2005). Political Mistrust and the Discrediting of Politicians. Brill. p. 218. ISBN  9004145303.
  20. ^ "Lycos". Archived from the original on 22 April 2009.
  21. ^ Staricco, Juan Ignacio (2012) https://www.scribd.com/doc/112409042/The-French-May-and-the-Roots-of-Postmodern-Politics
  22. ^ Mai 68 : le créateur de "Sous les pavés, la plage" est mort, at La Nouvelle République du Centre-Ouest; published April 15, 2014; retrieved June 13, 2018
  23. ^ «Sous les pavés la plage», «Il est interdit d'interdire»... les slogans phares de mai 68, at CNews; published January 26, 2018; retrieved June 13, 2018
  24. ^ "Graffiti de Mai 1968".
  25. ^ a b Éditions Larousse. "Encyclopédie Larousse en ligne – événements de mai 1968". Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  26. ^ Par Sylvain BoulouqueVoir tous ses articles (28 February 2012). "Pour la gauche radicale, "élections, piège à cons" ?". L'Obs. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  27. ^ "CRS = SS". 16 April 1998. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  28. ^ Lejeune, Anthony (2001). The Concise Dictionary of Foreign Quotations. Taylor & Francis. p. 74. ISBN  0953330001. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
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  30. ^ Mervyn Duffy (2005). How Language, Ritual and Sacraments Work: According to John Austin, Jürgen Habermas and Louis-Marie Chauvet. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 80. ISBN  9788878390386. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  31. ^ Anthony Elliott (2014). Contemporary Social Theory: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN  9781134083237. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
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  33. ^ Watzlawick, Paul (1993). The Language of Change: Elements of Therapeutic Communication. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 83. ISBN  9780393310207. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
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  35. ^ Ken Knabb, ed. (2006). Situationist International Anthology. Bureau Of Public Secrets. ISBN  9780939682041.
  36. ^ Turner, Christopher (2011). Adventures in the Orgasmatron. HarperCollins, pp. 13–14.
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  43. ^ Giannini, Stefano (2005). "Storia di un impiegato di Fabrizio De André". La Riflessione. pp. 11–16.
  44. ^ Kristiansen, Lars J.; Blaney, Joseph R.; Chidester, Philip J.; Simonds, Brent K. (10 July 2012). Screaming for Change: Articulating a Unifying Philosophy of Punk Rock. Lexington Books. ISBN  978-0-7391-4276-9.
  45. ^ John Squire. "Bye Bye Badman". John Squire. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  46. ^ Cole, Brendan (25 August 2008). "David Holmes Interview" (Articles). RTE.ie. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  47. ^ "I wanted the [sings] to sound like a French police siren. That was the year that all that stuff was going on in Paris and in London. There were all these riots that the generation that I belonged to, for better or worse, was starting to get antsy. You could count on somebody in America to find something offensive about something – you still can. Bless their hearts. I love America for that very reason." "Keith Richards: 'These Riffs Were Built To Last A Lifetime'". NPR.org. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  48. ^ Griffin, Mark J. T. (13 March 2013). Vangelis: The Unknown Man. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN  978-1-4476-2728-9.
  49. ^ Mucientes, Esther. "Mayo del 68: La música de la revolución". elmundo.es. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  50. ^ Dunn, Christopher (2001). Brutality Garden: Tropicalia and the Emergence of a Brazilian Counterculture. University of North Carolina Press. p. 135.
  51. ^ Braun-Vega, Herman. "Liberté ? Égalité ? Fraternité ?" (Triptych, acrylic on canvas, 146 x 114 cm x 3).
  52. ^ "Braun y sus series parisinas". El Comercio (in Spanish). Lima. 29 June 1969. Un joven pintor peruano, Herman Braun, está alcanzando en París inusitados elogios de crítica mediante una original idea de trabajos seriados de titulos y temas atractivos y de muy buena factura. El primero fue Adán y Eva, hace dos años, seguido al siguiente por Libertad, igualidad y fraternidad, motivado por los conocidos sucesos de Mayo del 68.

Bibliography

  • Damamme, Dominique; Gobille, Boris; Matonti, Frédérique; Pudal, Bernard, eds. (2008). Mai-juin 68 (in French). Éditions de l'Atelier. ISBN  978-2708239760.
  • Rotman, Patrick (2008). Mai 68 raconté à ceux qui ne l'ont pas vécu (in French). Seuil. ISBN  978-2021127089.

Further reading

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