Back to the Future

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Back to the Future
The poster shows a teenage boy coming out from a nearly invisible DeLorean with lines of fire trailing behind. The boy looks astonishedly at his wristwatch. The title of the film and the tagline "He was never in time for his classes... He wasn't in time for his dinner... Then one day... he wasn't in his time at all" appear at the extreme left of the poster, while the rating and the production credits appear at the bottom of the poster.
Theatrical release poster by Drew Struzan
Directed by Robert Zemeckis
Written by
Produced by
Starring
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Edited by
Music by Alan Silvestri
Production
company
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date
  • July 3, 1985 (1985-07-03)
Running time
116 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$19 million
Box office$388.8 million

Back to the Future is a 1985 American science fiction film directed by Robert Zemeckis, and written by Zemeckis and Bob Gale. It stars Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd, Lea Thompson, Crispin Glover, and Thomas F. Wilson. Set in 1985, the story follows Marty McFly (Fox), a teenager accidentally sent back to 1955 in a time-traveling DeLorean automobile built by his eccentric scientist friend Emmett "Doc" Brown (Lloyd). While in the past, Marty inadvertently prevents his future parents from falling in love—threatening his existence—and is forced to reconcile the pair and somehow get back to the future.

Gale and Zemeckis conceived the idea for Back to the Future in 1980. They were desperate for a successful film after numerous collaborative failures, but the project was rejected over 40 times by various studios because it was not considered raunchy enough to compete with the successful comedies of the era. A development deal was secured with Universal Pictures following Zemeckis's success directing Romancing the Stone (1984). Fox was the first choice to portray Marty but was unavailable; Eric Stoltz was cast instead. Shortly after principal photography began in November 1984, Zemeckis determined Stoltz was not right for the part and made the concessions necessary to hire Fox, including re-filming scenes already shot with Stoltz and adding $4 million to the budget. Back to the Future was filmed in and around California and on sets at Universal Studios. Filming concluded the following April.

Following highly successful test screenings, the release date was brought forward to July 3, 1985, giving Back to the Future more time in theaters during the busiest period of the theatrical year. The change resulted in a rushed post-production schedule, and some incomplete special effects. Back to the Future was a critical and commercial success, earning $381.1 million to become the highest-grossing film of 1985 worldwide. Critics praised the story, humorous elements, and the cast—particularly Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, and Glover. It received multiple award nominations and won an Academy Award, three Saturn Awards, and a Hugo Award. Its theme song, " The Power of Love" by Huey Lewis and the News, was also a success.

Back to the Future has since grown in esteem and is now considered by critics and audiences to be one of the greatest science-fiction films and among the best films ever made. In 2007, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry. The film was followed by two sequels, Back to the Future Part II (1989) and Back to the Future Part III (1990). Spurred by the film's dedicated fan following and effect on popular culture, Universal Studios launched a multimedia franchise, which now includes video games, theme park rides, an animated television series, and a stage musical. Its enduring popularity has prompted numerous books about its production, documentaries, and commercials.

Plot

In 1985, teenager Marty McFly lives in Hill Valley, California, with his depressed alcoholic mother, Lorraine; his older siblings, who are professional and social failures; and his meek father, George, who is bullied by his supervisor, Biff Tannen. After Marty's band is rejected from a music audition, he confides in his girlfriend, Jennifer Parker, that he fears becoming like his parents despite his ambitions.

That night, Marty meets his eccentric scientist friend, Emmett "Doc" Brown, in the Twin Pines mall parking lot. Doc unveils a time machine built from a modified DeLorean, powered by plutonium he swindled from Libyan terrorists. After Doc inputs a destination time of November 5, 1955—the day he first conceived his time travel invention—the terrorists arrive unexpectedly and gun Doc down. Marty flees in the DeLorean, inadvertently activating time travel when he reaches 88 miles per hour (142 km/h).

Arriving in 1955, Marty discovers he has no plutonium to return. While exploring a burgeoning Hill Valley, Marty encounters his teenage father and discovers Biff was bullying George even then. George falls into the path of an oncoming car while spying on the teenage Lorraine changing clothes, and Marty is knocked unconscious while saving him. He wakes to find himself tended to by Lorraine, who becomes infatuated with him. Marty tracks down and convinces a younger Doc that he is from the future, but Doc explains the only source available in 1955 capable of generating the power required for time travel is a lightning bolt. Marty shows Doc a flyer from the future that documents an upcoming lightning strike at the town's courthouse. As Marty's siblings begin to fade from a photo he is carrying with him, Doc realizes Marty's actions are altering the future and jeopardizing his existence; Lorraine was supposed to tend to George instead of Marty after the car accident. Early attempts to get his parents acquainted fail, and Lorraine's infatuation with Marty deepens.

Lorraine asks Marty to the school dance, and he plots to feign inappropriate advances on her, allowing George to intervene and "rescue" her, but the plan goes awry when Biff's gang locks Marty in the trunk of the performing band's car, while Biff forces himself onto Lorraine. George arrives expecting to find Marty but is assaulted by Biff. After Biff hurts Lorraine, an enraged George knocks him unconscious and escorts the grateful Lorraine to the dance. The band frees Marty from their car, but the lead guitarist injures his hand in the process, and Marty takes his place, performing while George and Lorraine share their first kiss. With his future no longer in jeopardy, Marty heads to the courthouse to meet Doc.

Doc discovers a letter from Marty warning him about his future and destroys it, worried about the consequences. To save Doc, Marty re-calibrates the DeLorean to return ten minutes before he left the future. The lightning strikes, sending Marty back to 1985, but the DeLorean breaks down, forcing Marty to run back to the mall. He arrives as Doc is being shot. While Marty grieves at his side, Doc sits up, revealing he pieced Marty's note back together and wore a bulletproof vest. He takes Marty home and departs to 2015 in the DeLorean. Marty wakes the next morning to discover his father is now a confident and successful science fiction author, his mother is fit and happy, his siblings are successful, and Biff is a servile valet in George's employ. As Marty reunites with Jennifer, Doc suddenly reappears in the DeLorean, insisting they return with him to the future to save their children from terrible fates. [a]

Cast

A photograph of Michael J Fox
A photograph of Christopher Lloyd
Michael J. Fox in 2020 (left) and Christopher Lloyd in 2015
  • Michael J. Fox as Marty McFly: A high school student and aspiring musician [1]
  • Christopher Lloyd as Emmett "Doc" Brown: An eccentric scientist experimenting with time travel [2]
  • Lea Thompson as Lorraine Baines-McFly: A 1955 teenager who grows into Marty's unhappy, alcoholic mother [3]
  • Crispin Glover as George McFly: A nerdy 1955 high schooler who grows into Marty's cowardly, submissive father [3]
  • Thomas F. Wilson as Biff Tannen: A 1955 high school bully turned George's 1985 boss [4]

The 1985 portion of the film features a cast that includes Claudia Wells as Marty's girlfriend Jennifer Parker, and Marc McClure and Wendie Jo Sperber as Marty's siblings Dave McFly and Linda McFly, respectively. [5] Elsa Raven portrays the Clocktower Lady. Singer Huey Lewis cameos as a judge for the Battle of the Bands contest. [6] [7] Richard L. Duran and Jeff O'Haco portray the Libyan terrorists. [8]

Cast appearing in the 1955 portion includes George DiCenzo and Frances Lee McCain as, respectively, Lorraine's parents Sam and Stella Baines, [5] and Jason Hervey as Lorraine's younger brother Milton. Biff's gang includes Jeffrey Jay Cohen as Skinhead, Casey Siemaszko as 3-D, and Billy Zane as Match. Norman Alden plays the cafe owner Lou and Donald Fullilove appears as his employee (and future mayor) Goldie Wilson. Harry Waters Jr. portrays Chuck Berry's cousin Marvin Berry, Will Hare appears as Pa Peabody, and Courtney Gains portrays Dixon, the youth who interrupts George's and Lorraine's dance. [8] James Tolkan portrays Hill Valley high school principal Strickland in both 1955 and 1985. [5]

Production

Conception and writing

Robert Zemeckis
Director Robert Zemeckis in 2010. He developed Back to the Future with his longtime friend Bob Gale.

Long-time collaborators Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis conceived of Back to the Future in 1980. [9] [10] [11] They wanted to develop a film about time travel but were struggling for a satisfying narrative and were desperate for a successful project following the critical or commercial failures of their recent efforts, made in collaboration with Zemeckis' mentor Steven Spielberg. [9] [10] [11]

Following the release of their comedy Used Cars (1980), Gale visited his parents and came across his father's high school yearbook. [11] [12] Gale questioned whether he and his father would have been friends had they attended school together. He did not think so but realized he could test his theory if he could travel back to a time when he and his parents were a similar age. [12] He shared the idea with Zemeckis, who recalled his mother's childhood stories were often contradictory. [11]

Gale and Zemeckis began a draft in late 1980. They sketched and acted out each scene to help develop the dialogue and actions. [12] They believed many time travel films focused on the past being immutable and wanted to show the past being altered and the impact those changes would have on the future. [11] In the draft, video pirate Professor Brown builds a time machine that sends his young friend Marty back to the 1950s where he interrupts his parents' first meeting. [13] In September 1980, Gale and Zemeckis pitched their idea to Columbia Pictures president Frank Price, who had liked Used Cars and was keen to work with the pair. Gale recalled having to rein in Zemeckis' enthusiastic pitch before Price had time to change his mind. [10] Gale and Zemeckis completed the first draft for Price on February 21, 1981, but Price believed it needed significant refinement. [13]

Some early concepts were abandoned. Originally, Marty's actions in 1955 had a more significant impact on the future, making 1985 more futuristic and advanced, but every person who read the script took issue with the idea. [9] [14] Marty's father also became a boxer, a result of his knockout punch on Biff. [14] The time machine was a stationary object moved around on the back of a truck. [7] [14] [15] Inspired by the documentary The Atomic Cafe, the drained time machine was written to be powered by Marty driving it into a nuclear explosion, combined with an additional ingredient— Coca-Cola. [b] Gale and Zemeckis took inspiration from tales of legendary scientists, opting to make the time machine's creator an individual instead of a faceless corporation or government. [9] The pair wanted the inciting time travel incident to be an accident so that it would not appear that the hero was seeking personal gain. [14]

Gale and Zemeckis drew humor from the cultural contrasts between 1955 and 1985, such as Marty entering a 1955 soda shop while wearing 1985 clothing. The shop owner asks Marty if he is a sailor because his down vest resembles a life preserver. They also identified conveniences of 1985 that Marty had taken for granted, but would be denied in 1955. Gale and Zemeckis struggled as they were in their 30s and did not particularly self-identify with either era. [12] They were inspired by the All-American aesthetic of films by Frank Capra featuring white picket fences and exaggerated characters like Biff, [18] The Twilight Zone, science-fiction films, and books by Robert Silverberg and Robert A. Heinlein. [19] The romantic relationship between 1955 Lorraine and her future son was one of the more difficult writing challenges. [20] Gale and Zemeckis attempted to take the concept as far as possible to keep the audience on edge. They believed it had to be Lorraine who stopped the relationship; she remarks that kissing Marty feels like kissing her brother. Gale jokingly said no one asked how she could make that comparison, but that audiences would accept it because they did not want the relationship to happen. [10] The second draft was completed by April 7, 1981. [13]

Development

Steven Spielberg shown talking into a microphone
Steven Spielberg in 2018. He mentored Zemeckis and lent his experience and Hollywood studio clout to support the production of Back to the Future.

Price opted not to green-light the second draft; although he liked it, he did not believe it would appeal to anyone else. [21] The most successful comedies at the time, such as Animal House (1978), Porky's (1981), and Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982), featured sexual and bawdy elements; Back to the Future was considered too tame in comparison. [22] [10] The project went into turnaround—a process allowing other studios to purchase the idea. [10] [23] The script was rejected some 40 times, sometimes multiple times by the same studios. [9] Reasons given included the concept being unappealing to contemporary rebellious youth [23] and the failures of other time travel films, such as The Final Countdown (1980) and Time Bandits (1981). [10] [24] Walt Disney Productions turned it down because they considered Marty's fighting off his future mother's advances too risqué for their brand. [22] The only supporter of the project was Spielberg, but with their previous collaborations considered relative failures, Gale and Zemeckis feared another misstep would suggest they could only get work through being friends with Spielberg. [9] [22]

Zemeckis accepted the next project offered to him, Romancing the Stone (1984). [11] [22] [25] Against expectations, the film was a significant success, and gave Zemeckis enough credibility to return to Back to the Future. [c] Zemeckis held a grudge against the studios that had rejected the project and turned to Spielberg, who had set up his own production company, Amblin Entertainment, at Universal Studios, where Price now worked. [18] [27] Spielberg disliked Price because he had rejected E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) and demanded his involvement in Back to the Future be minimal. Sidney Sheinberg installed himself as chief executive to oversee the studio's investment in the project. [28] Amblin executives Kathleen Kennedy and Frank Marshall joined Spielberg as the film's executive producers. [10] [29]

However, rights to Back to the Future remained with Columbia Pictures. Price's successor at Columbia Pictures, Guy McElwaine, was developing a satire of the Universal-owned noir film Double Indemnity (1944) called Big Trouble (1986). Its similarities to Double Indemnity meant the studio would violate Universal Pictures' copyright. With production imminent, McElwaine asked for the rights from Price; in exchange, Price obtained the rights to Back to the Future. [30]

Sheinberg suggested modifications to the film including changing the title to Space Man from Pluto, believing Back to the Future would not resonate with audiences. [19] [31] Gale and Zemeckis did not know how to reject Sheinberg's suggestions without risking his ire. Spielberg intervened, sending Sheinberg a memo reading: "Hi Sid, thanks for your most humorous memo, we all got a big laugh out of it, keep 'em coming." Spielberg knew Sheinberg would be too embarrassed to admit his memo was to be taken seriously. [18] [31] Sheinberg later claimed the story was "bullshit". [32] Sheinberg also wanted to change the name of Marty's mother from Meg to Lorraine (a tribute to his wife Lorraine Gary), and rename Professor Brown to Doc Brown because he considered it more accessible. [19] [33] The third draft was completed by July 1984. [33] The lengthy development allowed Gale and Zemeckis to refine the script's jokes, especially ones that had become dated since 1980. [12] The joke about former actor Ronald Reagan becoming president of the United States remained following his re-election in 1984. [12]

Casting

Portrait of Eric Stoltz
Eric Stoltz (pictured in 2012) was cast as Marty McFly and spent several weeks filming Back to the Future before the role was re-cast.

Michael J. Fox was the first choice to portray Marty McFly. Gale and Zemeckis believed his acting timing in the sitcom Family Ties (1982–1989) as the sophisticated Alex P. Keaton could be translated to Marty's clumsiness. [11] [34] Spielberg asked the show's producer Gary David Goldberg to have Fox read the script. Concerned Fox's absence would damage Family Ties' success—especially with fellow star Meredith Baxter on maternity leave—Goldberg did not give Fox the script. [35] Other young stars were considered, including: John Cusack, C. Thomas Howell, Johnny Depp, Ralph Macchio, Charlie Sheen, Jon Cryer, Ben Stiller, Peter DeLuise, Billy Zane, George Newbern, Robert Downey Jr., Christopher Collet, Matthew Modine, and Corey Hart (who declined to audition). [d] Howell was the frontrunner, [37] but Sheinberg preferred Eric Stoltz, who had impressed with his portrayal of Rocky Dennis in an early screening of the drama film Mask (1985). [40] [38] With the filming date approaching, Zemeckis opted for Stoltz. [40] Sheinberg promised that if Stoltz did not work out they could reshoot the film. [10] The character's name was derived from Used Cars production assistant Marty Casella. Zemeckis suggested McFly because it sounded "All-American". [9]

Among others, Jeff Goldblum, John Lithgow, Dudley Moore, Ron Silver, Robin Williams, John Cleese, Mandy Patinkin, Gene Hackman, and James Woods were considered for the role of Doc Brown. [7] [38] [41] Producer Neil Canton suggested Lithgow, having worked with him and Christopher Lloyd on Buckaroo Banzai (1984). Lithgow was unavailable, and the role was offered to Lloyd. He was reluctant to join the production until a friend encouraged him to take the part. [42] Albert Einstein and conductor Leopold Stokowski inspired Lloyd's wild, white hair. [43] Lloyd affected a hunched posture to lower his 6 feet 1 inch (1.85 m) height closer to the 5 feet 5 inches (1.65 m) tall Fox. [38]

The filmmakers became aware of Lea Thompson while researching Stoltz in the comedy-drama The Wild Life (1984). [44] Crispin Glover used many of his own mannerisms in portraying George McFly. Gale described his performance as "nuts", and Zemeckis was reportedly unhappy with Glover's performance choices, instructing him to be more restrained as the older George. [14] [45] Glover lost his voice during filming and later dubbed in some lines. [7] Deluise, Zane, Tim Robbins, and J. J. Cohen were considered to play Biff Tannen. [7] [46] [47] Cohen was not considered intimidating enough against Stoltz, and the role went to Thomas F. Wilson; his first feature starring role. [48] [49] Zane and Cohen were cast as Biff's minions Match and Skinhead instead. [46] [50] Tannen's name was taken from Universal Studios executive Ned Tanen, who had been unpleasant with Gale and Zemeckis. [7]

Melora Hardin was cast as Jennifer Parker on a two-film contract. After Stoltz's replacement, the crew were polled about Hardin being taller than Fox; the female crew overwhelmingly voted Marty should not be shorter than his girlfriend. [38] [51] [52] Hardin was replaced by Claudia Wells, who had previously declined the role because of her commitment to the short-lived television series Off the Rack (1984). [38] [51] [53] Actresses Kyra Sedgwick and Jill Schoelen were also considered; Schoelen was told she looked too "exotic" and not sufficiently All-American. [54] [55] Doc Brown's pet, a dog named Einstein, was originally scripted as a chimpanzee named Shemp. Sheinberg insisted films featuring chimps never did well. [7] [24] James Tolkan was the first choice for Principal Strickland after Zemeckis saw him in the crime drama Prince of the City (1981). [56] Singer and soundtrack contributor Huey Lewis cameos as a Battle of the Bands judge. Lewis agreed to appear as long as he was uncredited and could wear a disguise. [6] Gale cameos as the hand in the radiation suit tapping the DeLorean time display. [57]

Filming with Stoltz

A bungalow with an attached garage with a tower and power lines in the background
A house in Arleta, Los Angeles, served as the McFlys' home.

Principal photography began November 26, 1984, on a 14-week schedule set to conclude on February 28, 1985, with an estimated $14 million budget. [58] [59] Filming took place mainly at the Universal Studios lot and on location in California. [14] Dean Cundey served as the cinematographer; he and Zemeckis had collaborated on Romancing the Stone. [14] Editor Arthur Schmidt was hired after Zemeckis saw his work on Firstborn (1984); Schmidt recommended hiring Harry Keramidas as co-editor. [60] Frank Marshall also served as a second unit director. [61]

Owing to the tight schedule, editing occurred concurrently with filming. [62] On December 30, 1984, Zemeckis reviewed the existing scenes with Schmidt and Keramidas. [63] Zemeckis was reluctant to review the footage because he would be self-critical, [64] but he believed Stoltz's acting was not working, and had already listed several scenes he wanted to reshoot. [9] [14] [64] Zemeckis called in Gale and the producers to show them the footage; they agreed Stoltz was not right for the part. [9] Stoltz was performing the role with an intense and serious tone, not the "screwball" energy they desired. [34] [48] Gale characterized Stoltz as a good actor in the wrong role. [65]

Stoltz utilized method acting and stayed in character as Marty when not filming, refusing to answer to his own name. [48] This resulted in feuding with some of the cast and crew, including Wilson. Stoltz put his full strength into pushing Wilson rather than imitating doing so, despite Wilson's protests. [48] Spielberg said Zemeckis needed a replacement in place before firing Stoltz, or he risked the production being canceled. [66] Zemeckis and the producers asked Sheinberg for permission to do whatever was necessary to accommodate Fox's participation; [48] Spielberg made another call to Goldberg. On January 3, 1985, Goldberg told Fox about withholding the Back to the Future script from him, and the filmmakers wanted to know if he was interested. Baxter had returned to the show, and they could be more flexible with Fox as long as Family Ties took priority. Fox agreed to join without reading the script. [67] The transition could not take place immediately and filming continued with Stoltz in the lead role, unaware he was to be replaced. [48]

On January 10, 1985, Zemeckis informed Stoltz that he was no longer a part of the film. [10] [48] [68] Zemeckis described it as "the hardest meeting I've ever had in my life and it was all my fault. I broke [Stoltz's] heart." [10] Stoltz was reported to have told his make-up artist he was not a comedian and did not understand why he was cast. [69] The producers informed the principal cast and the rest of the crew much of the film would be re-shot. [48] [70] Cundey said most of the crew saw Stoltz's removal as "good news". [14] Crew members later said there were obvious signs Stoltz would be replaced; the set designers were told not to change the 1955 set, and a scene involving a discussion between Marty and Doc was filmed only showing Doc. [48] Stoltz had shot numerous key scenes including Marty traveling to 1955 in the DeLorean, it breaking down as he prepares to return to 1985, and his final scene was Marty's return to 1985. [45] [48] Filming fell behind schedule, with 34 days of filming lost and an additional cost of $3.5–$4 million, including Stoltz receiving his salary in full. [10] [65] [71] Universal Pictures' marketing team was tasked with mitigating the negative publicity from a project replacing its main star. [72]

Filming with Fox

The courthouse with its clock tower set used in the film on Universal Studios' backlot.
The Hill Valley town square and clock tower were a set built on the Universal Studios' backlot

Fox's first day on set was January 15, 1985. [73] He filmed Family Ties during the day before traveling to the Back to the Future filming location. Often, he would not return home until early the following morning, and on weekends, the schedule was pushed back further as Family Ties was filmed in front of a live audience. [10] [14] [34] The teamsters dropping Fox at home regularly had to carry the actor to bed. [10] This continued until April, when Family Ties finished filming. [74] Gale said Fox's youth meant he could cope with less sleep than usual; [14] Fox described it as exhausting, but worth the effort. [34] Further into the filming schedule, Fox was energetic during his scenes but struggled to stay awake off set. He ad-libbed some lines when he forgot the intended dialog, [14] [75] and recalled looking for a camcorder on the Family Ties set, before realizing it was a prop on Back to the Future. [75] He also had to learn to mimic playing the guitar and choreographed skateboarding routines taught by Per Welinder and Bob Schmelzer. [76]

To compensate for his conflicting schedules and reduce production costs, some scenes involving Marty were shot without Fox, who filmed his part separately. [14] [11] Re-shooting scenes gave the filmmakers the opportunity to identify problems and implement new ideas. To avoid building an additional classroom set, the opening pan across the array of clocks in Doc Brown's laboratory replaced an opening scene where Marty sets off a fire alarm to get out of detention. [77] [17] The height differences between Stoltz and Fox necessitated other changes, such as a scene of Fox teaching George how to punch, because Fox could not reach the necessary prop. [78] According to Gale, once Fox replaced Stoltz, the atmosphere on set improved. [10] Thompson anecdotally said while Stoltz ate lunch alone in his trailer, Fox ate lunch with the cast and crew. [79]

The production used many locations in and around Los Angeles. The clock tower is a structure on the Universal Studios Lot in Universal City, California. [80] [81] When filmed from below, Lloyd was positioned on a recreation of the clock tower, but when filmed from above, Lloyd stood atop the tower itself. [82] Production designer Lawrence G. Paull insisted on using the Universal backlot sets because of the difficulties and costs involved in making an on-location area look 1955 appropriate. [83] Whittier High School in the city of Whittier is the Hill Valley high school. Marty's home and the surrounding Lyon estates are in Arleta, Los Angeles. Several of the residential locations were filmed in Pasadena: Lorraine's and George's 1955 homes, and Doc Brown's 1955 home—its exterior is the Gamble House—and interiors were shot at the historic Blacker House. [81] Puente Hills Mall in Rowland Heights serves as the Twin Pines mall, that later becomes the Lone Pine mall after Marty knocks over one of the trees at Twin Pines ranch in 1955, which was filmed at the Walt Disney Studios-owned Golden Oak Ranch in Newhall, Santa Clarita, California. [48] [81] Other locations include the basement of the Hollywood United Methodist Church where the school dance was filmed, and Griffith Park, where Marty begins his drive to the courthouse to return to 1985, passing by a lamp post outside of the Greek Theatre. [81]

Filming concluded after 107 days on April 26, 1985. The final day of filming included pick-up shots of Marty and Einstein the dog in the DeLorean. [74]

Post-production

The Century 22 Theater in San Jose where the film was test screened with a parking lot in front of it
A rough cut of the film was test screened for audiences at Century 22 theater in San Jose, California, only three weeks after filming concluded.

Arthur F. Repola served as the post-production supervisor, but he became responsible for many aspects outside of his role, including budgets, storyboarding, and general problem-solving. Those roles belonged to Kennedy and Marshall but both were occupied on other films. [84] Schmidt found editing the film difficult because he had to imagine where the special effects would later be added; there was no time or budget to re-edit afterward. [85]

A rough version of the movie was cut together for a test screening at Century 22 theater in San Jose, California, in mid-May 1985, just three weeks after filming concluded. The audience was seemingly uninterested at the exposition-heavy opening but became engaged after the DeLorean appeared. [86] At a test screening in Long Beach, California, 94% of the audience responded they would definitely recommend the film; 99% rated it very good or excellent. [22] Gale said there was some concern when Doc's dog Einstein was sent through time, as the audience believed he had been killed. [14] The film was re-cut and screened again at the Alfred Hitchcock theater at Universal Studios for executives, including Sheinberg. [87] He was so impressed he moved the scheduled release date forward to July 3, 1985, to give it more time in theaters during the peak summer season. [65] The new date reduced the post-production schedule to just nine weeks for special effects and editing. [14] [65] Zemeckis spent much of June rushing to finish the film. [22]

Deleted scenes include: Doc looking at an issue of Playboy, remarking the future looks better; a scene of 1985 George being coerced into buying a large amount of peanut brittle from a young girl; [9] [88] a scene of young George being trapped in a phone booth by the man who interrupts his dance with Lorraine; [89] and the scene of Marty pretending to be "Darth Vader", which was shortened. [88] Zemeckis considered cutting the "Johnny B. Goode" performance because it did not advance the story, but test audiences reacted well to it. [90] There is a dispute if a shot of Stoltz's hand is in the finished film in the scene where Marty punches Biff. Gale noted it is impossible to tell without checking the original film negative, which would risk damaging it. [50] [91] The final 116 minute cut was completed on June 23, 1985. [92] [93] Universal Studios took out a full-page advertisement in Variety magazine, thanking the post-production crew for completing their work on time. [92] The final budget was $19 million. [94] [95]

Music

Alan Silvestri composed the score for Back to the Future; he had worked with Zemeckis on Romancing the Stone. The only direction Zemeckis gave him was "it's got to be big". Silvestri used an orchestral score to create a sound that contrasted with the small-town setting and the significant time-changing events occurring within it. He wanted a heroic theme that would be instantly recognizable. [10]

Huey Lewis was approached to write a theme song for the film; he was coming off the success of his recent album Sports. He met with Gale, Spielberg, and Zemeckis, who intended that Huey Lewis and the News be Marty's favorite band. Though flattered, Lewis did not want to participate because he did not know how to write film songs and did not want to write one called "Back to the Future". Zemeckis assured Lewis he could write any song he wanted. Lewis agreed to submit the next song he wrote, which was " The Power of Love". [6] Lewis maintains "Power of Love" was his first submission, but Zemeckis recalled a different first song that was rejected. [96] [97] Lewis later acquiesced to Zemeckis' request for a second song, " Back in Time". [6]

Musician Eddie Van Halen performed the guitar riff Marty (dressed as "Darth Vader") uses to wake George. The filmmakers wanted to use Van Halen's music, but the band refused to take part, so Eddie took part on his own. Mark Campbell provided Marty's singing voice, but did not receive credit as the filmmakers wanted to pretend Fox was singing. When music supervisor Bones Howe learned of this, he secured Campbell a small percentage of the soundtrack revenue as compensation. [88] [98] Paul Hanson taught Fox how to use a guitar to play " Johnny B. Goode", and choreographer Brad Jeffries spent four weeks teaching Fox to replicate various rock star moves popularized by artists like Pete Townshend, Jimi Hendrix, and Chuck Berry. [99] [100] Berry withheld permission to use "Johnny B. Goode" until the day before filming, receiving $50,000 for the rights. [101] Harry Waters Jr. provided the vocals on " Earth Angel". [102]

Design

Special effects

Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) developed the film's special effects under the supervision of Ken Ralston and Kevin Pike. [2] [103] It contains approximately 27–32 special effects shots, compared to the 300 such shots typical in contemporaneous higher-budget films. [2] [7] [84] Despite working simultaneously on The Goonies and Cocoon, Ralston took on the additional project because it required relatively few effects, and he wanted to realize the planned ending of Marty driving the time machine into a nuclear explosion. [2] [84] The team had a nine-and-a-half-week schedule, reduced to less than nine once Universal Pictures moved up the release date. ILM was working on Back to the Future up to the moment it had to be handed over to print the theatrical film reels. [2] [104]

The tight schedule affected the special effects' quality. Ralston was disappointed by the scene where Marty's hand fades away as his future is altered. Fox was filmed separately from his hand and the two were composited together; the hand was filmed with a wide-angle lens, making it appear too large and it had to be scaled down. Zemeckis wanted a subtle fade, but it resulted in a small circle of the hand fading away and there was no time to fix it. [2] [105] In the same scene, Marty and his siblings fade away from a photo. ILM found it difficult to fade the photo's individual aspects, especially as it was moving on the neck of a guitar. [105] A replica of the guitar neck was constructed at four times the normal size; the guitar strings were made of cable up to a quarter-inch thick. An 11 by 14 inch aluminum plate was attached to hold the enlarged photograph. [105] ILM used a version of the photo without Marty or his siblings and individually pasted each character into the photo. [105] When this failed, four different photos were used: one containing the background, and one for each McFly sibling. A mechanical camera cycled through each photo and printed it to the film. [105] The enlarged guitar was moved around to add to the realism. [2]

The original nuclear explosion ending was considered too complicated and expensive, with an estimated cost of $1 million. [2] [17] [15] Art director Andrew Probert storyboarded the scene which would have been created using sets and miniatures. [15] [105] With the ending moved to the clock tower, ILM researched storms to achieve the right aesthetic. [105] Clouds were constructed from polyester fiberfill, suspended in a net and filmed from above while Ralston shone a powerful light from below. [82] He used a rheostat to rapidly change the lights' intensity to imitate lightning. [82]

Developed by Wes Takahashi's animation department, the lightning bolt that strikes the clock tower was described as "the largest bolt of lightning in cinematic history". It was intended to originate in the distance and move closer, but the footage was filmed too close to the tower and there was insufficient space between it and the top of the frame. [106] There was also an issue with showing the bolt onscreen for too long as it made it more obviously animated. [82] [106] The frame count was reduced but the bolt did not look chaotic enough. [82] Zemeckis picked out a single frame of the bolt in an "S" formation and asked that the effect focus on that shape and be reduced to 20 frames. [82] [106] The bolt was drawn in black ink on white paper; diffusion effects and a glow were added by the optical department. [106]

The DeLorean time machine

Silver-grey Back to the Future Delorean
The DeLorean time machine on display in 2011

The DeLorean was developed under the supervision of Lawrence Paull, [103] who designed it with artist Ron Cobb and illustrator Andrew Probert. [24] [107] They intended for the vehicle to look fixed together from common parts. [103] The time machine was originally conceived as a stationary device; at one point it was a refrigerator. Spielberg vetoed the idea, concerned child viewers might attempt to climb into one. [15] Zemeckis suggested the DeLorean because it offered mobility and a unique design; the gull-wing doors would appear like an alien UFO to a 1950s family. [9] [10] [11] The Ford Motor Company offered $75,000 to use a Ford Mustang instead; Gale responded, "Doc Brown doesn't drive a fucking Mustang". [10] Michael Fink was hired as the art department liaison and tasked with realizing Cobb's sketches and overseeing the car's construction. He was recruited by Paull and Canton, who had worked with him on Blade Runner (1982) and Buckaroo Bonzai, respectively. Fink had a project lined up but agreed to help in the free weeks he had remaining. [103] Three DeLoreans used were purchased from a collector—one for stunts, one for special effects, and a more detailed hero version for close-up shots. [107] [108] They were unreliable and often broke down. [10] 88 mph (142 km/h) was chosen as the time travel speed because it was easy to remember and looked "cool" on the speedometer. [101]

The flying DeLorean in the final scene used a combination of live-action footage, animation, and a 1:5 scale (approximately 33 inches (840 mm) long) model built by Steve Gawley and the model shop crew. [2] [109] [2] The act of the DeLorean traveling through time was called the 'time slice' effect. Zemeckis knew only that he wanted the transition to be violent. He described it like a " Neanderthal sitting on the hood of the DeLorean and chipping away the fabric of time in front of him". [106] The effect is so quick as to be imperceptible. Zemeckis preferred this as he did not want the audience to think too much about how everything worked. [110]

Art direction and makeup

Drw Struzan looking to his left
Artist Drew Struzan in 2012. He designed the Back to the Future theatrical release poster.

Actual brand names, such as Texaco, were used to make the sets more realistic, and the producers mandated the inclusion of certain brands that had paid to appear in the film. An unidentified gas company offered a large sum to be included, but Paull used Texaco because it reminded him of a joke from The Milton Berle Show. [9] [111] This choice led to some disputes, such as Pepsi parent company, PepsiCo, wanting to omit a joke about the Tab drink made by its rival Coca-Cola. [9] Twenty clock wranglers were needed to synch up the many clocks in the opening scene, and pulleys were used to start them simultaneously. [101] Drew Struzan produced the film's poster. [112] The producers hoped his in-demand poster artwork would generate further interest in the film. [113]

The film uses a stylized adaptation of 1950s aesthetics closer to television show interpretations than an exact recreation. Modern technologies were used—such as contemporary fabrics—because the designers believed the fashions of the time were not interesting. [20] To represent characters across three decades, the filmmakers did not want to have older actors stand in for the younger ones, believing the change would be obvious and distracting. Special effects artist Ken Chase performed make-up tests on the young actors to age them; initial results were discouraging. He created a prosthetic neck and a bald cap with a receding hairline for Glover, but considered them excessive. Chase found it difficult to balance aging the actors while retaining enough of their natural appearance so they remained recognizable. [107]

Casts were made of the actors' faces, from which plaster molds were made. Chase sculpted more subtle effects over the plaster molds using latex. For Lorraine, he crafted jowls and eye bags, plus body padding to reflect her increased weight and alcohol abuse. [114] Instead of a receding hairline, Chase only changed the style of George's hair and used prosthetics to give him a less-defined jawline. [115] Biff's character changed more significantly because Chase wanted him to look "obnoxious"; he was fattened, given sideburns, and a comb over hairstyle to hide a growing bald spot. [115] The prosthetics were combined with makeup and lighting to further age the characters. [107]

Chase found the work frustrating compared to his experiences with more fantastical prostheses that made it easier to hide defects. [107] The rubber latex did not reflect light the same way as natural skin, so Chase used a stippling process—creating a pattern with small dots—to variegate the actors' faces to better conceal where the skin and prosthetics met; [115] close-up shots were avoided. [115] Doc's appearance was not altered significantly. Chase painted latex on Lloyd which, when removed, caused crinkles in the skin, onto which other elements, such as liver spots and shadows, were painted. [115]

Release

Context

The Back to the Future logo
The logo for Back to the Future

By June 1985, the theatrical industry had experienced a 14% decline in ticket sales over the previous year's $4 billion record sales. The summer period (beginning the final week of May) had 45 films scheduled for release, including Rambo: First Blood Part II, The Goonies, Brewster's Millions, Fletch, and the latest James Bond film A View to a Kill. [116] This 25% increase over the previous year's releases led to concerns among industry professionals the competition would divide audiences and limit financial returns, at a time when the average cost of making and marketing a film had increased to $14.5 million and $7 million, respectively. [116] A higher budget to secure a popular, and thus profitable, cast was considered a suitable risk. [116] Most films scheduled for release were aimed at younger audiences, focusing on fantasy and the supernatural. Reflecting the times, these fantasy elements often employed a technological source instead of a magical one. [117] Only a few films, like Cocoon and Prizzi's Honor, targeted adults. [118]

Initially, Back to the Future was scheduled to be released in May 1985, [119] but was pushed back to June 21, the earliest Zemeckis could have the film ready. The delay caused by Stoltz's replacement pushed the release back to July 19, and later to August. [10] Sheinberg moved the release date forward to July 3, giving it an extra 16 days of theatrical screen time during the industry's most profitable period of the year. The move offered about 100,000 extra screenings, together worth an estimated $40 million. He said he also wanted to avoid the negative perception of films released later in the summer period; other blockbuster films were usually released early. [65] The change required renegotiations with theater owners to secure screens in an already-crowded marketplace. In some cities, it was legally required that exhibitors be shown a film prior to purchase; an unfinished cut of the film was shown to theater owners and young test audiences. They described it as lesser than E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial or Ghostbusters, but still a guaranteed box office hit. [65] Fox was unavailable for promotional work because he was filming Family Ties Vacation (1985) in London. [120]

Box office

In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, Back to the Future received a wide release on July 3, 1985, ahead of the Independence Day holiday weekend. [5] [121] The film earned $3.6 million during the opening Wednesday and Thursday, [121] and a further $11.3 million during its inaugural weekend from 1,420 theaters—an average of $7,853 per theater. [122] Back to the Future finished as the number one film of the weekend ahead of Western, Pale Rider ($7 million), in its second weekend, and Rambo: First Blood Part II ($6.4 million) in its seventh. [123] It retained the number one position in its second weekend with a further gross of $10.6 million, ahead of the debuting action film Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome ($7.8 million) and Cocoon ($5 million), [124] and in its third weekend, ahead of the re-release of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial ($8.8 million) and Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome ($5.4 million). [125] Although it fell to number two in its fourth weekend, behind the debuting National Lampoon's European Vacation ($12.3 million), Back to the Future regained the number one position in its fifth weekend and remained there for the following eight weeks. [122] [126] Recalling the opening weeks, Gale said, "our second weekend was higher than our first weekend, which is indicative of great word of mouth." [9]

The film remained a steady success, earning $155 million by October, surpassing Rambo: First Blood Part II's $149 million box office earnings to become the year's highest-grossing film. [127] [118] In total, Back to the Future was the number one film for 11 of its 12 first weeks of release and remained in the top ten highest-grossing films for a total 24 weeks. [122] By the end of its theatrical run, Back to the Future earned an approximate box office gross of $210.6 million, [95] [e] making it the highest-grossing film of 1985, ahead of Rambo: First Blood Part II ($150.4 million), the sports drama Rocky IV ($127.9 million), and the drama The Color Purple ($94.2 million). [128] [129] Box Office Mojo estimated over 59 million tickets were sold. [130] Industry experts suggest as of 1997, the box office returns to the studio—minus the theaters' share—was $105.5 million. [131] [f]

The year was considered an unsuccessful one for film. Despite a record number of film releases, ticket sales were down 17% compared with 1984. [118] [132] Industry executives blamed the problem, in part, on a lack of originality, [133] and a glut of youth-oriented films targeted at those under 18. [118] [134] Only Back to the Future and Rambo: First Blood Part II were considered blockbusters, earning more than double the box office of Cocoon. [118] Films offering escapism and pro-America themes also fared well. [134] After years of poor performances, Back to the Future, alongside Fletch, Brewster's Millions, and Mask, reversed Universal Pictures' fortunes. [134] [135]

Outside the U.S. and Canada, the film earned a further estimated $170.5 million, [136] [g] making it the third-highest-grossing film of the year, behind the romantic drama Out of Africa ($179.1 million) and Rocky IV ($172.6 million). [136] Cumulatively, Back to the Future earned a worldwide gross of $381.1 million, making it the highest-grossing film of 1985, ahead of Rocky IV ($300.5 million) and Rambo: First Blood Part II ($300.4 million). [95] [137] [138] [h] Back to the Future has received several theatrical re-releases to celebrate anniversaries, including a remastered version screened in 2010. These releases have raised the film's worldwide total to $388.8 million. [139] [140]

Reception

Critical response

A photograph of Lea Thompson
A photograph of Crispin Glover
Lea Thompson in 2008 (left) and Crispin Glover in 2012. Critics praised the central cast, including Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, and Glover.

Back to the Future received generally positive reviews from critics. [141] [142] [143] Most reviewers agreed Back to the Future was among the year's most entertaining films, partly because of its focus on storytelling instead of pure spectacle. [144] [145] Attansio and Gene Siskel argued that while Back to the Future appeared to be "everything wrong" with youth-targeted films, it successfully subverted expectations by focusing on a relatable narrative with an emotional core, and employed irreverent, good-natured humor. They, alongside Richard Corliss, agreed that it would endure because it offered something for children and adults. [145] [146] [147] Some reviewers, such as Corliss and Leonard Maltin agreed that the exposition-heavy opening was Back to the Future's weakest part, but led into a stronger half filled with "wit", "wonder", "comic epiphany", and original ideas. [3] [141] [146]

Dave Kehr remarked that Gale and Zemeckis were among the first generation of filmmakers openly influenced by growing up on televised entertainment, and their inspirations are evident throughout. The Hollywood Reporter said that despite Spielberg's producer role, it was clearly Zemeckis' vision, being more subtle, gentler, and "less noisy." [148] [149] Some reviewers compared it favorably to the 1946 fantasy drama It's a Wonderful Life, which offered a similar premise of a central character changing his future. Roger Ebert said the film offered humanity, charm, humor, and many surprises that were among its "greatest pleasures". [3] [149] [150] Sheila Benson was more critical; she found Back to the Future to be overproduced and underdeveloped, featuring a hollow ending focused on materialistic rewards and lacking tension because Marty's success never seemed in doubt. Siskel countered that the tension came from defying the expectations of a typical time travel film by making the past mutable and the future uncertain. [147] [151] Paul Attanasio criticized some aspects that seemed to be "mechanically" designed to create the broadest audience appeal. [144] [145]

The cast performances were generally well received, particularly those of Fox, Lloyd, Thompson, and Glover. [117] [145] [149] Reviewers consistently praised Fox's "appealing" performance, although some believed Lloyd's performance outshone the rest. [i] Kehr and Attanasio considered his uncontrolled performance and unique "intensity" a tribute to mad scientist characters, portrayed by the likes of Sid Caesar and John Belushi, while creating the definitive scientist archetype for modern audiences. [145] [148] [149] In contrast, Vincent Canby and Variety's review said that Thompson's "deceptively passionate" performance and Glover's bumbling-to-confident character provided Back to the Future's standout performances. [3] [117] Some reviewers considered the use of Libyan terrorists, an actual fear at the time, to be in poor taste. [149] [151]

Accolades

Back to the Future received four nominations at the 43rd Golden Globe Awards, for Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy), Best Actor in a Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy) (Fox), Best Original Song ("The Power of Love"), and Best Screenplay (Gale and Zemeckis). [11] [152] The film was also named Favorite Motion Picture at the 12th People's Choice Awards. [153] At the 1986 Academy Awards, Back to the Future received one award for Best Sound Effects Editing ( Charles L. Campbell and Robert Rutledge). It received a further three nominations: Best Original Screenplay (Gale and Zemeckis); Best Sound ( Bill Varney, B. Tennyson Sebastian II, Robert Thirlwell, and William B. Kaplan); and Best Original Song ("The Power of Love"). [154]

At the 39th British Academy Film Awards, Back to the Future received five nominations, including Best Film, Best Original Screenplay (Gale and Zemeckis), Best Visual Effects (Pike and Ralston), Best Production Design (Paull), and Best Editing (Schmidt and Keramidas). [155] At the 13th Saturn Awards, the film won three awards: Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actor (Fox), and Best Special Effects (Pike). [156] It also won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. [157] Back to the Future performed well internationally: it won Best Foreign Producer (Spielberg) and Best Foreign Screenplay at the David di Donatello awards (Italy), Outstanding Foreign Film from the Japan Academy, and the Goldene Leinwand (Germany) for selling more than 3 million tickets in its first 18 months. [158]

Post-release

Home media

Back to the Future was released on VHS on May 22, 1986, priced at $79.95, [159] [160] becoming the first film to sell 450,000 units at that price point, and was also the most-rented cassette of the year. [161] [162] A sequel was not planned until after Back to the Future's theatrical release, and a "To Be Continued..." graphic was appended to the end of the home release to promote awareness of future films. [163] When Back to the Future was released on DVD in 2002, the graphic was removed because Gale and Zemeckis wanted it to be faithful to an in-theater experience. [160] [163] [164] It debuted on Blu-ray in 2010 for the film's 25th anniversary. The release featured a six-part documentary including interviews with the cast and crew, behind-the-scenes footage, deleted scenes, and associated music videos from all three films. The release also included the public debut of footage of Stoltz portraying Marty McFly. [j] For its 35th anniversary in 2020, a remastered 4K Ultra HD version was released on Blu-ray and Ultra HD Blu-ray. Along with extras included in previous releases, this edition included audition footage and an exploration of the film's props hosted by Gale. Limited edition steelbook cases and a display replicate of the levitating hoverboard from Back to the Future Part II were also available. [166]

The Back to the Future soundtrack was released in July 1985 on cassette tape, LP record, and Compact disc (CD). [167] The soundtrack's lead single, "The Power of Love", peaked at number one on the US Billboard Hot 100. Sales were initially slow, but it eventually peaked at number 12 on the Billboard 200, in part because of the success of "The Power of Love". [168] Silvestri's score received a limited release in 2009 on CD, containing the film score and unreleased variations. [169] The scores for all three Back to the Future films were first released on LP record in 2016, individually and as a collection. Silvestri supervised the remaster of the original master recordings, including previously unreleased tracks, and Gale contributed liner notes. [170]

Other media

In 1985, film merchandising was a relatively new concept, popularized by the original Star Wars film trilogy (1979–1983). [171] As Back to the Future was not specifically aimed at children, there was no significant merchandising accompanying its release. [172] Although a novelization by George Gipe was released in 1985, [173] [174] one of the earliest items for children, a rideable DeLorean, was not released until 1986. [172] The film and its sequels have since been represented across a wide variety of merchandise including: Playmobil, playing cards, clothing, pottery, posters, [175] board games, [175] [176] sculpted figures, plush toys, [176] Funko POP! figures, action figures, [172] Hot Wheels and die-cast vehicles, [172] [177] books, music albums, [178] and Christmas ornaments. [177]

Back to the Future received several video game adaptations. Back to the Future was released alongside the film for the Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, and ZX Spectrum. [179] [180] [181] An arcade-adventure game, Back to the Future, was released in 1989 for the Nintendo Entertainment System. Gale called it one of the worst games ever made and advised people against purchasing it. [180] [182] Back to the Future: The Pinball was released in 1990, although Fox refused permission for the game to use his likeness. [182] An episodic graphic adventure game, Back to the Future: The Game, was released in 2010. Gale contributed to the game's narrative, which takes place after the events of the third film. [182] [183] An area in Lego Dimensions is based on Back to the Future and features voice work by Lloyd. [182] [184]

Back to the Future: The Ride, a simulator ride, ran from 1991 to 2007 at Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal Studios Florida. The ride's development was supervised by Spielberg and featured Doc Brown (Lloyd) chasing down Biff (Wilson) who has stolen the DeLorean. A version of the ride at Universal Studios Japan ran from 2001 to 2016. [183] [185] A Back to the Future-themed Monopoly board-game was released in 2015. [175] [186] A Funko board game was released in 2020. It casts players as one of the main characters from the films to battle different Tannens across history. [176] [187]

There have been several books about the making of the film series. We Don't Need Roads: The Making of the Back to the Future Trilogy is an oral history by those involved in the production. [185] Back to the Future: The Ultimate Visual History—a book chronicling the development of the entire Back to the Future franchise—was released in 2015. [188] The British Film Institute released BFI Film Classics: Back to the Future about the film's background. [178] The series also includes comic books detailing Doc's and Marty's adventures before and after the events depicted in the films. [189] A crossover between the Back to the Future and Transformers franchises included a transforming DeLorean toy and associated comic books. [190]

Thematic analysis

Parental relationships and fate

The main theme of Back to the Future concerns taking control and personal responsibility over one's own destiny: A situation can be changed even if it seems otherwise impossible to overcome. [9] Thompson said the film represents how one moment can have a significant and lasting impact on a person's life. [14] [44] Gale believed Doc provided the perfect summary of the series' running theme, when in Back to the Future Part III he said: "Your future is whatever you make it, so make it a good one." [9]

At the start of the film, Marty is rejected at Battle of the Bands and admits he fears his ambitions will remain unrealized. He worries he will end up like his parents and sees direct evidence in 1955 of George, also afraid of rejection, being unable to approach Lorraine; his fears risk Marty's future. [88] [191] Marty sets about manipulating the past to ensure his own survival without concern for what impact his presence in 1955 is having on others. On his return to 1985, he is rewarded with wealthier parents and a nicer car, but he has simultaneously damaged Biff's future, reducing him to a valet for the McFlys. [45] [192] Glover criticized the morality of the film's ending, believing Marty's reward should be happy parents in love with each other, and considered it a result of the film serving corporate interests, promoting the accumulation of wealth and purchasing material objects. [45] In 2015, Zemeckis said the ending was perfect for its time but would be different if he made it now, although Gale disagreed and said he did not apologize for the scene. American audiences generally had no issue with this ending, but it was criticized by some international audiences. [193]

Despite rejection by film studios for not being raunchy enough, [10] Back to the Future alludes to sexual assault, racism, and the Oedipus complex—a psychiatric theory suggesting a child holds an unconscious sexual desire for their opposite-sexed parent, as in the relationship between Marty and his future mother Lorraine in 1955. [117] [192] The relationships between parents and children are the basis of many elements of the film. Thompson believed the film had remained relevant to new generations because of its core idea that Marty's and the viewer's parents were once children and had the same dreams and ambitions they do. [14] [19] [44]

Reaganism and American anxieties

Nancy McKeon, Michael J. Fox, Nancy Reagan, and then-United States President Ronald Reagan in October 1985
(Left to right) Nancy McKeon, Michael J. Fox, Nancy Reagan, and United States President Ronald Reagan in October 1985. Back to the Future has been interpreted as an endorsement of Reagan-era policies concerning the American dream, self-reliance, initiative, and technological advancement.

Critics Justin Chang and Mark Olsen suggest the film can be seen as promoting Reaganism—the political positions of president Ronald Reagan—which endorses older values of the American dream, initiative, and technological advancement. The Hill Valley of 1985 is depicted as run down and in decay, while in 1955 it is presented as a more simplistic and seemingly safer time, seen through a nostalgic lens. [192] Marty's future is bettered because he goes back to 1955 and teaches George to be more assertive and self-reliant; his initiative leads to more prosperous future for Marty with materialistic rewards. [191] [192] The film uses many brand names of the time, ostensibly to make the setting more realistic—such as Mountain Dew, Pepsi, and Texaco—but the filmmakers received financial compensation from the brand owners, making their inclusion promotional and commercialistic instead of artistic. [9] [191]

Film studies lecturer Sorcha Ní Fhlainn argues that many 1980s films resulted from the American public's desire for escapism from cultural anxieties and fears, including nuclear proliferation, unemployment, crime, growing inequality, and the AIDS crisis. In her view, films like those of the Star Wars series and Back to the Future offered a childlike reassurance of safety and comfort, emphasizing idealized American values and the positive effects of instilling power in a patriarchal figure like George McFly or Darth Vader. [194] English professor, Susan Jeffords, considered Doc Brown to be an analog for Reagan, a man who embraces technological advancement, who is in conflict with Libyan terrorists, and provides the means for a failing family to better themselves. [195]

The song "Johnny B. Goode" by Chuck Berry is used during the film's final act. Berry initially resisted allowing the song to be used in the film. NPR argued that while Berry's resistance may have been a matter of money, there are underlying racial issues involved in Marty, a white male, seemingly rewriting history to invent the rock and roll music genre, which was heavily influenced by African-American music. [185] [192] The 1955 segment also presents a distorted view of America, showing an African-American band playing at the high school dance, which would have been disallowed. [151] Similarly, the African-American character Goldie Wilson is seemingly inspired to work towards becoming mayor by Marty's intervention, inspiring a Reagan-style initiative and self-reliance. [191]

Influences

As film fans, Gale and Zemeckis' influences are seen throughout Back to the Future. There are references to The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Shaggy Dog (1959), Dr. Strangelove (1964), Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), the Star Wars film series, and television shows including Mister Peabody, Star Trek: The Original Series, The Outer Limits, and The Twilight Zone. [19] [88] There are also allusions to The Time Machine (1960)—based on the 1895 novella of the same name by H. G. Wells—and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court by Mark Twain, in which the central character seemingly moves through time. [196] The DeLorean dashboard chronometer uses the same color scheme as the time device of The Time Machine. [197] Critic Ray Loynd opined that Doc can be seen as a King Arthur–type, with Marty serving as his knight. [3]

Legacy

Cultural influence

A left-profile picture of actor Thomas F. Wilson smiling
Actor Thomas F. Wilson (in 2011). He began carrying cards containing answers to the repetitive questions he was asked by fans about the Back to the Future series.

Since its release, Back to the Future has remained an enduring popular culture touchstone, [185] and in 2007, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry for being culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. [198] The film elevated Fox from financially struggling actor to one of the most in-demand and globally recognized stars in Hollywood, [199] [34] and Gale received fan mail for decades after its release. He said he understood the continuing appreciation for the original film as it was the "purest" and "most complete" in the series. [9] Fox compared it to The Wizard of Oz (1939), saying it still appeals to children because they do not think of it as an old film. [200] In 2012, Thompson called it the greatest role of her career. [44] Dean Cundey believed it resonated with fans because it offers the fantasy of going back in time to change things and make the present better. [14] [201] Lloyd described being approached by fans from around the world, who have said the film inspired them to become a scientist. [202]

Many of the principal cast have reunited since the film's release. Often these reunions are for charity, including The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's disease (Fox was diagnosed with the disease at age 29), and Project HOPE. [k] A 2019 reunion for the TCM Classic Film Festival featured the 4K restoration premiere of Back to the Future. [206] During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, Josh Gad hosted a Back to the Future retrospective featuring many cast and crew. [207] The cast has also appeared in advertisements only loosely related to Back to the Future, trading on their associated popularity. [208]

The film has global popular appeal, particularly in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Argentina, the Netherlands, and Japan. [209] On October 21, 2015—the day Doc and Marty travel to at the end of Back to the Future, as depicted in Back to the Future II—an estimated 27 million social media users discussed the films; the most active users were in the United States, Mexico, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Brazil. [185] [210] Ronald Reagan was also a fan, referencing the film during his 1986 State of the Union Address to appeal to America's young voters, saying, "Never has there been a more exciting time to be alive, a time of rousing wonder and heroic achievement. As they said in the film Back to the Future, 'Where we're going, we don't need roads.'" [185] [211] [212] Although Gale has said that Reagan, after enjoying the joke about Doc Brown's incredulous response to him becoming president, ordered the theater's projectionist to stop the film, roll it back, and run it again, this is disputed by Reagan's advisor, Mark Weinberg. [191] [213] [214] Back to the Future is also seen as responsible for a resurgence of skateboarding in the 1980s. [215] [19] It made skateboarding a mainstream pastime acceptable for all, not just rebellious teenagers. [216]

Back to the Future has been referred to in a variety of media, including television, [153] [217] films, [218] [219] and video games. [220] [221] Doc and Marty, respectively, inspired the eponymous characters of the 2013 animated television show Rick and Morty. [222] The British pop rock band McFly are named for Marty McFly. [223] The 2011 novel Ready Player One by Ernest Cline and the 2018 film adaptation (directed by Spielberg) both heavily reference the film, including the central character using a DeLorean for transport. [224] [225] Filmmaker J. J. Abrams has also cited it as an inspiration. [51]

The 2015 crowdfunded documentary Back in Time follows various fans of the series and details the impact it has had on their lives, interspersed with interviews from the crew including Fox and Lloyd. [226] The DeLorean is considered one of the most iconic vehicles in film history. [227] DeLorean's creator John DeLorean was a fan of the film and sent personal letters to Gale and Zemeckis, thanking them for using his vehicle. [10] The DeLorean was not a popular vehicle before the film's release. However, in the years since it has become a popular collector's item, and the DeLorean Motor Company issued kits enabling fans to make their vehicle look like the DeLorean time machine. [38] [183] Gale led a restoration of one of the original screen-used Deloreans in 2011, documented in Out of Time: Saving the DeLorean Time Machine. [183] [228] [229]

Modern reception

Back to the Future is considered a landmark of American cinema, and one of the greatest films ever made. [l] In 2004, The New York Times listed it as one of the 1,000 Best Movies Ever, [232] and the following year its screenplay was listed as the 56th greatest screenplay of the preceding 75 years by the Writers Guild of America. [233] [234] Throughout the rest of the 2000s, it appeared on Film4's 50 Films to See Before You Die (number 10), [235] Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time (number 23), behind the 1977 space opera Star Wars, [230] and the American Film Institute listed it as the number 10 best science-fiction film, based on a poll of 1,500 people from the creative community. [236] In 2010, Total Film named it one of the 100 greatest movies ever made, and the following year it was voted by BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra listeners as their fourth favorite film of all time. [237] [238] It is also listed in the film reference book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. [239] A 2014 poll of 2,120 entertainment-industry members by The Hollywood Reporter ranked it as the 12th best film of all time, again behind Star Wars. [231] In 2015, the screenplay was listed as the 67th funniest on the WGA's 101 Funniest Screenplays list, [240] [241] and Rotten Tomatoes also listed the film at number 84 on its list of 200 essential movies to watch. [242]

Several publications have named it as one of the best science-fiction films ever made, [m] and one of the best films of the 1980s. [n] Popular Mechanics and Rolling Stone listed it as the number one and number four best time-travel film ever made respectively. [270] [271] Entertainment Weekly named it the 40th most essential film to be watched by pre-teens and the 28th best high-school movie. [272] [273] Marty McFly appeared at number 39 on Empire's 2006 list of its "100 Greatest Movie Characters"; Doc Brown followed at number 76. [274] [275]

Rotten Tomatoes assesses a 96% approval rating from the aggregated reviews of 84 critics, with an average rating of 8.8/10. The site's consensus reads: "Inventive, funny, and breathlessly constructed, Back to the Future is a rousing time-travel adventure with an unforgettable spirit." [276] Based on this score, Rotten Tomatoes also listed it as the 87th best Action and Adventure film. [277] The film has a score of 87 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 15 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". [278] In the United Kingdom, readers of Empire voted the film as 11th on their 2017 list of "The 100 Greatest Movies". [279]

Sequels and adaptations

A sequel was not initially planned and the teaser ending of Doc, Marty, and Jennifer flying off in the DeLorean suggested their adventures would continue off-screen. [88] Universal Pictures was eager to pursue a sequel based on the significant financial and critical success of Back to the Future. However, Zemeckis and Gale were reluctant to participate, believing sequels often retreaded the best elements of the original film. They were also concerned that a poor follow-up could alienate Back to the Future's passionate fan base, and undermine the pair after their first major joint success. Zemeckis and Gale acquiesced by 1987, once Universal Pictures clarified they would, if necessary, make a sequel without them. [280] The pair's sequel script was so long it was split into two films, Back to the Future Part II (1989) and Back to the Future Part III (1990); the films were shot back to back. [14] [281]

Part II depicts Marty and Doc traveling to 2015, inadvertently enabling the now-elderly Biff Tannen to steal the DeLorean and return to 1955, rewriting history in his favor. [281] Wells and Glover did not return for the sequels. [o] Part II was a financial success but was criticized for its complex, convoluted narrative. [283] Zemeckis has said it is his least favorite film in the series. [281] The final film, Part III follows Marty as he travels to 1885 to rescue a time-stranded Doc. [284] While the film fared less well financially than the two earlier films, it was more critically well-received than Part II. [283] A 2018 poll by The Hollywood Reporter of 2,200 people found 71% wanted a Back to the Future sequel, ahead of another Toy Story or Indiana Jones film. [285] Gale has said there will never be a fourth film, likening it to "selling your kids into prostitution". He added a Back to the Future film could never happen without Fox, who could not participate because of the effects of his Parkinson's disease. [286] [287]

An animated television series, Back to the Future, aired on CBS between 1991 and 1992. It follows Doc's and Marty's adventures through various historical periods, intercut with live-action segments featuring Doc (Lloyd), performing science experiments alongside Bill Nye. [183] A short film, Doc Brown Saves the World (2015), celebrated the film's 30th anniversary. Lloyd reprised his role as Doc, who must travel to the future to prevent a nuclear holocaust in 2045. [288] A musical theater production, Back to the Future, debuted in February 2020 at the Manchester Opera House, England, to positive reviews. The musical was written by Gale and Zemeckis, with music written by Silvestri and Glen Ballard. [289] [290] [291] Gale described it as the best way to give fans more Back to the Future without adding to the film series. [286] Overall, the Back to the Future franchise is considered one of the most successful film franchises. [19] [189]

References

Notes

  1. ^ As depicted in Back to the Future Part II (1989).
  2. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [14] [15] [16] [17]
  3. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [9] [14] [22] [26]
  4. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [7] [16] [24] [33] [36] [37] [38] [39]
  5. ^ The 1985 United States and Canada box office gross of $210.6 million is equivalent to $531 million in 2021.
  6. ^ The estimated returns to the studio from the United States and Canada box office gross is $105.5 million, equivalent to $266 million in 2021.
  7. ^ The 1985 worldwide box office gross of $170.5 million is equivalent to $430 million in 2021.
  8. ^ The 1985 worldwide box office gross of $381.1 million is equivalent to $960 million in 2021.
  9. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [141] [145] [147] [149]
  10. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [19] [139] [165]
  11. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [57] [203] [204] [205]
  12. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [11] [185] [192] [230] [231]
  13. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254]
  14. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269]
  15. ^ Attributed to multiple references: [7] [45] [185] [282]

Citations

  1. ^ Levy, Emanuel (October 2, 2015). "Back To The Future: Revisiting 1985's Most Popular Film, Directed By Robert Zemeckis And Starring Michael J. Fox". Emanuellevy.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2021. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Turner, George E. (March 20, 2020). "Back To The Future: Wheels On Fire". American Cinematographer. Archived from the original on March 28, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Loynd, Ray (June 25, 1985). "Film Review: Back To The Future". Variety. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  4. ^ Cipriani, Casey (July 23, 2020). "Marty McFly's Entire Backstory Explained". Looper.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Maslin, Janet (July 3, 1985). "The Screen: In Future, Boy Returns To The Past". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d della Cava, Marco (October 20, 2015). "Huey Lewis Almost Passed On Going Back To The Future". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 26, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chacksfield, Marc (May 10, 2020). "Back To The Future facts: 20 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know". ShortList. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Back To The Future". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Holleran, Scott (November 18, 2003). "Brain Storm: An Interview With Bob Gale". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Koknow, David (June 9, 2015). "How Back To The Future Almost Didn't Get Made". Esquire. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bahiana, Ana Maria (October 21, 2015). "An Oral History Of Back To The Future, By Robert Zemeckis". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on June 24, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Fein, Esther B. (July 21, 1985). "Three New Films: From Vision To Reality". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Gaines 2015, p. 12.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Gilbey, Ryan (August 25, 2014). "How We Made Back To The Future". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 15, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  15. ^ a b c d e Sciretta, Peter (July 15, 2009). "How Back To The Future Almost Nuked The Fridge". Slashfilm. Archived from the original on August 4, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  16. ^ a b Lussier, Germain (July 29, 2020). "Jon Cryer And Ben Stiller Auditioned For A Very Different Back To The Future". io9. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  17. ^ a b c Chitwood, Adam (October 19, 2020). "How the Original Back To The Future Ending Inspired Indiana Jones 4". Collider. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  18. ^ a b c Chacksfield, Marc (October 20, 2014). ""Back To The Future Wouldn't Have Been The Same Without Spielberg"". ShortList. Archived from the original on May 14, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Hanks, Henry (October 26, 2010). "Going Back To The Future, 25 Years Later". CNN. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  20. ^ a b Maslin, Janet (June 28, 1985). "At The Movies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  21. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 12, 13.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Friendly, David T. (June 27, 1985). "Zemeckis' Future In High Gear". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  23. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 13.
  24. ^ a b c d Anders, Charlie Jane (June 17, 2015). "11 Incredible Secrets About The Making Of Back To The Future". io9. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  25. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 14.
  26. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 15–16.
  27. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 16.
  28. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 17.
  29. ^ Ellison, Sarah (February 8, 2016). "Meet The Most Powerful Woman In Hollywood". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  30. ^ Fleming, Mike (October 21, 2015). "Blast From The Past On Back To The Future: How Frank Price Rescued Robert Zemeckis' Classic From Obscurity". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  31. ^ a b Harrison, Ellie (August 30, 2016). "Back To The Future Almost Had A Really Bad Title: Here's A Memo To Prove It..." Radio Times. Archived from the original on September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
  32. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 111.
  33. ^ a b c Gaines 2015, p. 18.
  34. ^ a b c d e Fein, Esther B. (July 26, 1985). "New Face: Michael J. Fox; Conversation With A Time Traveler". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  35. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 4–5.
  36. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 2, 3.
  37. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 19.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g "The Lost Roles Of Back To The Future". Vulture. Archived from the original on December 28, 2019. Retrieved December 28, 2019.
  39. ^ Stolworthy, Jacob (February 21, 2021). "Matthew Modine: 'America Has Never Dealt Honestly With What Its History Is'". The Independent. Archived from the original on February 23, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  40. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 20.
  41. ^ Schneider, Caitlin (October 20, 2015). "See A List Of All The Actors Who Could Have Played Doc Brown". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on October 19, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  42. ^ Girolamo, Dan (February 22, 2020). "Back To The Future: The Actor Who Almost Played Doc Brown". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  43. ^ Gouras, Matt (June 12, 2009). "Lloyd: Back To The Future Still Gratifying". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  44. ^ a b c d Harris, Will (February 21, 2012). "Random Roles: Lea Thompson". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  45. ^ a b c d e Robinson, Tasha (January 13, 2012). "Crispin Glover". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  46. ^ a b Burns-Fusaro, Nancy (July 15, 2020). "Back To The Future's J.J. Cohen To Make Appearance At Misquamicut Drive-in". The Westerly Sun. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  47. ^ Polowy, Kevin (October 19, 2020). "Watch Billy Zane Audition For Marty McFly-Tormenting Biff Tannen In Never-released Back To The Future Footage (Exclusive)". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gaines, Caseen (October 1, 2015). "How The Back To The Future Cast And Crew Knew Eric Stoltz Would Be Fired". Vulture. Archived from the original on August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  49. ^ Sharp, Nathan (June 17, 2015). "10 Things You Didn't Know About The Making Of Back To The Future". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  50. ^ a b Bui, Hoai-Tran (October 21, 2015). "15 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Back To The Future". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  51. ^ a b c Mattise, Nathan (December 8, 2011). "Marty McFly's Original Girlfriend Goes Back To The Future". Wired. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  52. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 42–43.
  53. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 43.
  54. ^ Gingold, Michael (June 13, 2011). "Jill's Spielberg Memories". Fangoria. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  55. ^ Fernández, Alexia (October 16, 2020). "See A Young Kyra Sedgwick Audition For Back To The Future As Movie Turns 35". People. Archived from the original on November 2, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  56. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 84, 85.
  57. ^ a b Parker, Ryan (July 3, 2020). "Back To The Future At 35: It's Time To Decipher An Eric Stoltz Fan Theory". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  58. ^ Klastorin & Atamaniuk 2015, pp. 47, 61.
  59. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 2, 32.
  60. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 2–3, 23.
  61. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 87.
  62. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 1–2.
  63. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 21–22, 27.
  64. ^ a b Gaines 2015, pp. 21, 22.
  65. ^ a b c d e f Mathews, Jack (June 14, 1985). "Universal Speeds Up Release Of Back To Future". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  66. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 28–29.
  67. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 31–33.
  68. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 35–36.
  69. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 25–26.
  70. ^ Klastorin & Atamaniuk 2015, pp. 61, 66.
  71. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 33, 52.
  72. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 52.
  73. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 41, 43–44.
  74. ^ a b Gaines 2015, pp. 103–04.
  75. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 114.
  76. ^ Cronin, Brian (February 9, 2019). "Did Tony Hawk Choreograph The Skateboarding In Back To The Future?". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  77. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 50.
  78. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 51.
  79. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 47.
  80. ^ Rudolph, Christopher (November 12, 2013). "The Surprising History Of The Back To The Future Clock Tower". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  81. ^ a b c d Chiland, Elijah; Staff, Curbed (March 31, 2020). "The Ultimate Back To The Future Filming Locations Map". Curbed. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  82. ^ a b c d e f Pourro 1985, p. 64.
  83. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 143.
  84. ^ a b c Pourro 1985, p. 40.
  85. ^ Shaffer, Mark (February 10, 2014). "About Schmidt". Low Country Weekly. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  86. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 104, 106–07.
  87. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 108–09.
  88. ^ a b c d e f Patrick, Seb (November 22, 2019). "Back To The Future: 88 Things You Missed In The Trilogy". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  89. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 108.
  90. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 107–08.
  91. ^ Anderton, Joe (June 7, 2020). "Back To The Future Writer Responds To Marty Mcfly Fan Theory". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on August 21, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  92. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 109.
  93. ^ "Back to the Future (PG)". British Board of Film Classification. July 8, 1985. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  94. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 132.
  95. ^ a b c "Back to the Future". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  96. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 96.
  97. ^ "Ghostbusters (1984)". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  98. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 88.
  99. ^ Travis, Ben (July 9, 2020). "Back To The Future: Michael J. Fox On Shooting The Iconic Johnny B. Goode Scene". Empire. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  100. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 90.
  101. ^ a b c "Back To The Future: 13 Things You May Not Know". The Daily Telegraph. October 21, 2015. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  102. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 92–93.
  103. ^ a b c d "Interview: Special Effects Consultant Michael Fink". BacktotheFuture.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  104. ^ Pourro 1985, pp. 40, 59.
  105. ^ a b c d e f g Pourro 1985, p. 63.
  106. ^ a b c d e Failes, Ian (October 21, 2015). "The Future Is Today: How ILM Made Time Travel Possible". Fxguide. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  107. ^ a b c d e Pourro 1985, p. 56.
  108. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 63.
  109. ^ Pourro 1985, pp. 66, 67.
  110. ^ Pourro 1985, p. 62.
  111. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 143–44.
  112. ^ Walsh, Michael (June 29, 2020). "Mondo Goes Back To The Future For 35th Anniversary". Nerdist.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  113. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 53.
  114. ^ Pourro 1985, pp. 56, 59.
  115. ^ a b c d e Pourro 1985, p. 59.
  116. ^ a b c Harmetz, Aljean (June 11, 1985). "Industry Fears A Summer Film Glut". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  117. ^ a b c d Canby, Vincent (September 8, 1985). "Film: Season Preview; Even Wands Can't Create Magic At The Box Office". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  118. ^ a b c d e Harmetz, Aljean (September 2, 1985). "A Bleak Summer For Movie Makers". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  119. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 2.
  120. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 113.
  121. ^ a b "Back To The Future". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  122. ^ a b c "Back to the Future – Domestic Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  123. ^ "Domestic 1985 Weekend 27 – July 5–7, 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  124. ^ "Domestic 1985 Weekend 28 – July 12–14, 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  125. ^ "Domestic 1985 Weekend 29 – July 19–21, 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  126. ^ "Back To The Future Leads Box Office Sales". The New York Times. Associated Press. August 7, 1985. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  127. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (October 4, 1985). "At The Movies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  128. ^ "Top 1985 Movies At The Domestic Box Office". The Numbers. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  129. ^ "Domestic Box Office For 1985". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  130. ^ "Back To The Future (1985)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  131. ^ "Rental Champs: Rate Of Return". Variety. December 15, 1997. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  132. ^ Canby, Vincent (December 29, 1985). "Film View; Vivid Joys Among The Vast Array Of Failures". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  133. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (July 3, 1985). "Pale Rider Heads List In Theaters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  134. ^ a b c Harmetz, Aljean (January 15, 1986). "Christmas Film Sales Set Record". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  135. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (October 20, 1985). "A Movie Giant's Unfinished Script". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  136. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 115.
  137. ^ "Top 1985 Movies At The Worldwide Box Office". The Numbers. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  138. ^ "1985 Worldwide Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  139. ^ a b "Back To The Future 25 Years Later". The Independent. September 29, 2010. Archived from the original on April 10, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  140. ^ "Back to the Future". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  141. ^ a b c Rome, Emily (July 3, 2015). "Back To The Future: What The Critics Said In 1985". Uproxx. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  142. ^ "Back to the Future (1985)". BBC Online. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  143. ^ Bledenharn, Isabella (July 2, 2015). "Back To The Future Anniversary: What Critics Thought 30 Years Ago". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  144. ^ a b Maslin, Janet (July 21, 1985). "Film View; Maverick Tales Add Spice To Summer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 2017. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  145. ^ a b c d e f Attanasio, Paul (July 3, 1985). "The Future Is Wow! Comedy With A Story To Tell". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  146. ^ a b Corliss, Richard (July 1, 1985). "Cinema: This Way To The Children's Crusade". Time Out. Archived from the original on April 12, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  147. ^ a b c Siskel, Gene (July 3, 1985). "Future's Sci-fi Twist A Warm Look At Family". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  148. ^ a b Kehr, Dave (October 26, 1985). "Back To The Future". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on July 30, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  149. ^ a b c d e f Ellis, Kirk (July 3, 1985). "Back To The Future: THR's 1985 Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  150. ^ Ebert, Roger (July 3, 1985). "Back To The Future". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on May 6, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  151. ^ a b c Benson, Sheila (July 3, 1985). "Movie Review : An Underpowered Trip Back To The Future". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  152. ^ "Winners & Nominees 1986". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  153. ^ a b Ní Fhlainn 2014, p. 2.
  154. ^ "The 58th Academy Awards (1986) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  155. ^ "Film In 1986". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  156. ^ "Past Saturn Awards". SaturnAwards.org. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  157. ^ "1986 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  158. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 116.
  159. ^ "In Brief: Recent Films". The New York Times. June 29, 1986. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  160. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 122.
  161. ^ Bierbaum 1990, p. 78.
  162. ^ Holden, Stephen (December 31, 1986). "The Pop Life; 1986, A Musically Conservative Year". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 16, 2022. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  163. ^ a b Cronin, Brian (October 21, 2015). "Did Back To The Future Originally Not End With 'To Be Continued'?". HuffPost. Archived from the original on April 24, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  164. ^ Conrad, Jeremy (April 25, 2020). "Back To The Future Trilogy DVD Box Set Review". IGN. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  165. ^ Lawler, Richard (June 28, 2010). "Back To The Future's 25th Anniversary Celebrated By A Blu-ray Box Set October 26". Engadget. Archived from the original on October 8, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  166. ^ Goldberg, Matt (July 27, 2020). "Back To The Future Trilogy Coming To 4K With New Bonus Features". Collider. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  167. ^ "Music From The Motion Picture Soundtrack". BacktotheFuture.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  168. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 94.
  169. ^ Clemmensen, Christian (April 11, 2016). "Back To The Future". Filmtracks.com. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  170. ^ Gross, Joe (September 4, 2016). "'Ain't It Cool' TV Show Jumps To New Markets". Austin American-Statesman. Archived from the original on June 13, 2022. Retrieved June 13, 2022.
  171. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (June 14, 1989). "Movie Merchandise: The Rush Is On". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  172. ^ a b c d Stone, Loryn (July 2, 2020). "Back To The Future's 35th Anniversary Shows Just How Far Toy Collecting Has Come". Syfy. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  173. ^ "Back to the Future Paperback – 15 Nov. 1985". Amazon. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  174. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane (June 17, 2015). "Is The Novelization Of Back To The Future A Literary Masterpiece? Shockingly, No". io9. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  175. ^ a b c White, James (June 10, 2020). "The Best Back To The Future Merchandise". Empire. Archived from the original on October 2, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  176. ^ a b c Marrongelli, Rocco (October 6, 2020). "Back To The Future 35th Anniversary Blasts Off With New Toys From Funko, Playmobil & More". Newsweek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  177. ^ a b Gaines 2015, p. 232.
  178. ^ a b Jensen, K. Thor. "10 Must-Have Gifts For Back To The Future Superfans". PCMag. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  179. ^ "Back To The Future". ComputingHistory.org.uk. Archived from the original on January 13, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  180. ^ a b Birch, Aaron (July 30, 2015). "The Back To The Future Game You've Probably Never Played". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  181. ^ AmstradAction 1987, p. 13.
  182. ^ a b c d Workman, Robert (October 21, 2015). "The Bumpy History Of Back To The Future Video Games". Nerdist. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  183. ^ a b c d e Coulston, John Connor (July 6, 2015). "Cultural Legacy: Back to the Future". Paste. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  184. ^ Dornbush, Jonathon (September 29, 2015). "Doc Brown Saves The World Back To The Future Teaser". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  185. ^ a b c d e f g h Valentine, Genevieve (July 1, 2015). "For This Nostalgia Trip, 'We Don't Need Roads'". NPR. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  186. ^ Sciretta, Peter (August 6, 2015). "Cool Stuff: Back to the Future Monopoly". Slashfilm. Archived from the original on August 28, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  187. ^ Edwards, Chris (June 21, 2020). "Back To The Future's New Board Game Will Let You Battle Biff Just Like Marty Mcfly". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  188. ^ Rome, Emily (June 25, 2015). "Exclusive: Your First Look At Back to the Future: The Ultimate Visual History". Uproxx. Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  189. ^ a b McMillan, Graeme (October 4, 2017). "Back To The Future Writer Finally Addresses The Last Line Of Part III". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  190. ^ Walsh, Michael (July 22, 2020). "Transformers Unveils Back To The Future Bot". Nerdist.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  191. ^ a b c d e Mancini, Vince (July 2, 2020). "Back To The Future At 35: Looking Back On The Movie That Made America Great Again". Uproxx. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  192. ^ a b c d e f Chang, Justin; Olsen, Mark (July 16, 2020). "Has Back To The Future Aged Well? Our Critics Take A Closer Look At A Summer Fave". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  193. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 124.
  194. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2014, p. 5.
  195. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2014, p. 7.
  196. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2015, pp. 165, 166.
  197. ^ Ní Fhlainn 2015, p. 167.
  198. ^ "National Film Registry 2007, Films Selected For The 2007 National Film Registry". loc.gov. Archived from the original on January 31, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
  199. ^ Holden, Stephen (August 8, 1986). "At The Movies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  200. ^ Gettell, Oliver (December 24, 2016). "Back to the Future: Michael J. Fox On Film's Timeless Nature". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  201. ^ Busis, Hillary (August 3, 2020). "All Your Back To The Future Questions Answered". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  202. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 241.
  203. ^ Huff, Lauren (March 5, 2020). "Great Scott! Michael J. Fox And Christopher Lloyd Have A Back To The Future Reunion". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  204. ^ Cordero, Rosy (May 11, 2020). "Great Scott! Watch Back To The Future Cast Have Virtual Reunion Hosted By Josh Gad". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  205. ^ Pasquini, Marla (August 12, 2018). "Back To The Future Stars Reunite At Fan Convention: 'This Was Special'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  206. ^ Lenker, Maureen Lee (December 11, 2019). "Back To The Future Cast To Reunite For 35Th Anniversary At Tcm Classic Film Festival". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  207. ^ Blistein, Jon (May 12, 2020). "Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd Lead Back To The Future Reunion On Josh Gad's 'Reunited Apart'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  208. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 242.
  209. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 240–41.
  210. ^ Gettell, Oliver (October 22, 2015). "Back To The Future Day: 27 Million Facebook Users Went On A Nostalgia Trip". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  211. ^ "President Ronald Reagan's Address Before A Joint Session Of Congress On The State Of The Union". C-SPAN. February 4, 1986. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
  212. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (February 5, 1986). "State Of The Union: Reagan Reports To The Nation; President Reagan's Speech Before Joint Session Of Congress". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  213. ^ Weinberg 2019, pp. 144–151.
  214. ^ Weinberg, Mark (February 27, 2018). "What I Learned Watching Back to the Future With Ronald Reagan". Politico. Archived from the original on August 21, 2022.
  215. ^ Cavanaugh, Jack (May 10, 1987). "Towns Cite Safety Cares As Skateboarding Gains". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  216. ^ Gaines 2015, p. 236.
  217. ^ Chaney, Jen (July 19, 2019). "Stranger Things 3 Is Basically One Big Back To The Future Homage". Vulture. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  218. ^ Ray, Amber (May 24, 2014). "See Doc Brown's Cameo In A Million Ways to Die in the West". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  219. ^ Parker, Ryan (May 10, 2019). "Back To The Future Writer "Delighted" By Those Avengers: Endgame References". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  220. ^ Roberts, Samuel; Senior, Tom (December 21, 2017). "Flying Cars Are Rad As Hell In GTA Online's Doomsday Heist". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  221. ^ Dornbush, Jonathon (October 12, 2015). "Rocket League Adds Back To The Future DeLorean". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  222. ^ Sims, David (December 2, 2013). "Dan Harmon's New Series Is A Warped Take On The Doc Brown/Marty Mcfly Dynamic". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  223. ^ "McFly Biography". Contactmusic.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  224. ^ Gilsdorf, Ethan (June 5, 2012). "Ready Player One Author To Give Away DeLorean". Wired. Archived from the original on August 1, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  225. ^ Power, Ed (March 29, 2018). "Ready Player One: A Guide To The Legal Nightmare Of Spielberg's Pop Culture References". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  226. ^ Estrella, Ernie (April 23, 2015). "Exclusive: Back In Time Director Jason Aron On Making The Definitive Back To The Future Documentary". Syfy. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  227. ^ Slead, Evan (October 20, 2016). "Back To The Future: Michael J. Fox, Lea Thompson Talk About The Iconic Delorean". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  228. ^ Silknitter, Tom (February 18, 2013). "Restored Back To The Future Hero Delorean Time Machine Now On Display At Universal Studios". BacktotheFuture.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  229. ^ Toor, Amar (February 19, 2013). "Restoring The Delorean Time Machine To Its Original Glory". The Verge. Archived from the original on September 9, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  230. ^ a b "The 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Empire. October 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  231. ^ a b "Hollywood's 100 Favorite Films". The Hollywood Reporter. June 25, 2014. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  232. ^ "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  233. ^ "101 Greatest Screenplays". WGA.org. 2005. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  234. ^ "101 Greatest Screenplays". WGA.org. 2005. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  235. ^ "Film4's 50 Films To See Before You Die". Film4. August 28, 2015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  236. ^ "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films In 10 Classic Genres". ComingSoon.net. June 17, 2008. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
  237. ^ "Total Film features: 100 Greatest Movies Of All Time". Total Film. January 25, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  238. ^ Chris, Producer (March 10, 2011). "Your Favourite Movies!". BBC Radio 1. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  239. ^ Schneider 2013.
  240. ^ "101 Funniest Screenplays List". WGA.org. November 11, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  241. ^ "Writers Choose 101 Funniest Screenplays". WGA.org. November 11, 2015. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  242. ^ "200 Essential Movies To Watch Now". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on December 16, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  243. ^ "150 Essential Sci-Fi Movies To Watch Now". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  244. ^ "The Top 10 Science Fiction Films Of All Time". SyFy. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  245. ^ Travis, Ben; White, James (May 27, 2020). "The 50 Greatest Sci-Fi Movies". Empire. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  246. ^ Shepherd, Jack (2020). "The 30 Best Sci-fi Movies Of All Time". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  247. ^ Burgin, Michael (November 13, 2018). "The 100 Best Sci-Fi Movies of All Time". Paste. Archived from the original on April 30, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  248. ^ "Top 100 Sci-Fi Movies". IGN. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  249. ^ Lynch, John. "The 100 Best Science Fiction Movies Of All Time, According To Critics". Business Insider. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  250. ^ Fischer, Russ (April 1, 2018). "The 50 Greatest Sci-Fi Films Of All Time". Thrillist. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  251. ^ Hersey, Will; Nicholson, Tom (September 23, 2020). "The 23 Best Sci-Fi Movies Of All Time". Esquire. Archived from the original on August 30, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  252. ^ "The Best Sci-fi And Fantasy Films: In Pictures". The Guardian. October 21, 2010. Archived from the original on March 31, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  253. ^ Plim, Alex; Huddleston, Tom; Andrew, Geoff; Bray, Catherine; Calhoun, Dave; Clarke, Cath; Dudok de Wit, Alex; Frankel, Eddy; Johnston, Trevor; Kheraj, Alim; Rothkopf, Joshua; de Semlyen, Phil; Smith, Anna; Uhlich, Keith (February 20, 2020). "The 100 Best Sci-fi Movies". Time Out. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  254. ^ "The Best Sci-fi Movies Everyone Should Watch Once". Wired. September 4, 2020. Archived from the original on April 2, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  255. ^ "The 80 Greatest Movies Of The '80s". Consequence of Sound. July 2, 2019. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  256. ^ "140 Essential '80s Movies". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on July 18, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  257. ^ Chacksfield, Marc (September 9, 2020). "Best '80s Movies: The Greatest Films Of The 1980S". ShortList. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  258. ^ Blair, Olivia (August 8, 2020). "The Best 80s Movies To Give You All The Nostalgic Feels". Elle. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  259. ^ de Semlyen, Phil; Nugent, John; Thrower, Emma; White, James; Williams, Owen; Jolin, Dan (May 11, 2016). "The 80 Best '80s Movies: 39-1". Empire. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  260. ^ Watkins, Gwynne (August 16, 2020). "The 80 Best Movies Of The '80s – From The Breakfast Club To The Princess Bride". Parade. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  261. ^ Rothkpf, Joshua (June 11, 2020). "The 30 Best '80s Movies". Time Out. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  262. ^ Edwards, Richard (July 1, 2019). "The 25 Best 80s Movies, From Back To The Future To Blade Runner And Beyond". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  263. ^ Thomas, Leah Marilla (May 11, 2020). "These '80s Movies Are Here to Inject Some Nostalgia Into Your Movie Night". Cosmopolitan. Archived from the original on July 22, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  264. ^ Carey, Emma (September 6, 2020). "The Best '80s Movies To Pair With An Ice-Cold New Coke". Esquire. Archived from the original on September 17, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  265. ^ Janes, Deanna (April 21, 2020). "25 Totally '80s Movies We All Need Right Now". Harper's Bazaar. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  266. ^ Banks, Alec (2020). "68 Classic '80s Movies Every Highsnobiety Reader Should See". Highsnobiety. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  267. ^ Buddemeyer, Ruby; Roberts, Kayleigh (March 20, 2020). "The 68 Best '80s Movies Ever Made". Marie Claire. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  268. ^ Rathe, Adam (June 12, 2020). "54 Of The Best Movies From The 1980's". Town & Country. Archived from the original on October 7, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  269. ^ Stockdale, Charles. "The 75 Best Movie Comedies Of The '80s". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 14, 2020. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  270. ^ Orf, Darren (November 19, 2019). "The 30 Best Time Travel Movies". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on October 5, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  271. ^ Edwards, Gavin (June 29, 2020). "Future Tense: The 20 Best Time-Travel Movies". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  272. ^ "50 Best High School Movies". Entertainment Weekly. August 28, 2015. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  273. ^ "The 55 Essential Movies Your Child Must See (Before Turning 13)". Entertainment Weekly. June 23, 2014. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  274. ^ "The 100 Greatest Movie Characters – 39. Marty McFly". Empire. Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  275. ^ "The 100 Greatest Movie Characters – 76. Dr. Emmett Brown". Empire. Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  276. ^ "Back to the Future". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2022. Edit this at Wikidata
  277. ^ "Top 100 Action & Adventure Movies". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  278. ^ "Back To The Future Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  279. ^ "The 100 Greatest Movies". Empire. June 23, 2017. Archived from the original on November 29, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  280. ^ Gaines 2015, pp. 117–118, 128.
  281. ^ a b c Brew, Simon (October 21, 2015). "Giving Back To The Future Part II Its Due". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  282. ^ Banks, Alec (October 22, 2015). "Why Crispin Glover Refused To Do the Back to the Future Sequels". Highsnobiety. Archived from the original on September 13, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  283. ^ a b Pirello, Phil (May 25, 2020). "How Back To The Future III Got Better With Age". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  284. ^ Brew, Simon (October 20, 2010). "Looking Back At Back To The Future Part III". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on July 5, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  285. ^ "Back To The Future Tops Poll Of Most Wanted Film Sequels – But Which Movie Series Should Return?". Sky News. November 23, 2018. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  286. ^ a b Cremona, Patrick (February 18, 2020). "Back To The Future Creator Explains Why Franchise Will Never Get A Fourth Film". Radio Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  287. ^ McComb, David (May 15, 2012). "Back to the Future: The Game Review". Empire. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  288. ^ Cotter, Padraig (August 15, 2019). "Doc Brown Saves The World Isn't Back To The Future 4 (But It's Great)". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on November 30, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  289. ^ "Back To The Future Musical Announced". BBC News Online. January 31, 2014. Archived from the original on January 31, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  290. ^ Edmonds, Lizzie (September 8, 2020). "Back To The Future Musical Heading To London's West End Next Year". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  291. ^ Campbell, Lucy (February 23, 2020). "'This Is The New Standard For Spectacle': Fans React To The Back To The Future Musical". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 13, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.

Works cited

External links