United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories

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UN General Assembly
Resolution 66 (I)
UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (1).pdf
United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/66 (I) dated 14 January 1946
Date14 December 1946
Meeting no.Sixty fourth
CodeA/RES/66(1) ( Document)
SubjectTransmission of information under Article 73e of the Charter [relating to non-self-governing territories]
ResultAdopted

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter refers to a non-self-governing territory (NSGT) as a territory “whose people have not yet attained a full measure of self-government.” In practice, a NSGT is a territory deemed by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to be "non-self-governing". Chapter XI of the UN Charter also includes a "Declaration on Non-Self-Governing Territories" that the interests of the occupants of dependent territories are paramount and requires member states of the United Nations in control of such territories to submit annual information reports concerning the development of those territories. Since 1946, the UNGA has maintained a list of non-self governing territories under member states' control. Since its inception, dozens of territories have been removed from the list, typically when they attained independence or internal self-government, while other territories have been added as new administering countries joined the United Nations or the General Assembly reassessed the status of certain territories.

Since 1961 the list has been maintained by the Special Committee on Decolonization.

History

Chapter XI of the UN Charter also contains a Declaration Concerning Non-Self-Governing Territories. [1] Article 73(e) requires all member States to report to the United Nations annually on the development of NSGTs under their control. From these initial reports the UNGA prepared a list of NSGTs. The initial list of NSGTs was created in 1946 by compiling lists of dependent territories submitted by the administering States themselves. [2] [3] In several instances, administering States were later allowed to remove dependent territories from the list, either unilaterally (as in the case of French overseas territories such as French Polynesia), [4] [5] or by a vote of the General Assembly (as in the cases of Puerto Rico, Greenland, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname).

Map of territories on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

The list draws its origins from the period of colonialism and the Charter's concept of non-self-governing territories. As an increasing number of formerly colonized countries became UN members, the General Assembly increasingly asserted its authority to place additional territories on the list and repeatedly declared that only the General Assembly had the authority to authorize a territory's being removed from the list upon attainment of any status other than full independence. For example, when Portugal joined the United Nations it contended that it did not control any non-self-governing territory, claiming that areas such as Angola and Mozambique were an integral part of the Portuguese state, but the General Assembly rejected this position. Similarly, Western Sahara was added in 1963 when it was a Spanish colony. Similarly with Namibia, which was seen, due to its former status as a League of Nations mandate territory, as a vestige of German colonial legacy in Africa, until it was removed in 1990 upon its independence. A set of criteria for determining whether a territory is to be considered "non-self-governing" was established in General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960. [6] Also in 1960, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1514 (XV), promulgating the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples", which declared that all remaining non-self-governing territories and trust territories were entitled to self-determination and independence. The following year, the General Assembly established the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (sometimes referred to as the Special Committee on Decolonization, or the " Committee of 24" because for much of its history the committee was composed of 24 members), which reviews the situation in non-self-governing territories each year and reports to the General Assembly.

Resolutions adopted

1946

  • UNGA Resolution 64(I) regarding the Establishment of the Trusteeship Council. [7]
  • UNGA Resolution 66(I) regarding Transmission of information under Article 73 e of the Charter. [8]

1947

  • UNGA Resolution 142(II) regarding Standard form for the guidance of Members in the preparation of information to be transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • UNGA Resolution 143(II) regarding Supplemental documents relating to information transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • UNGA Resolution 144(II) regarding Voluntary transmission of information regarding the development of self-governing institutions in the Non-Self-Governing Territories.
  • UNGA Resolution 145(II) regarding Collaboration of the specialized agencies in regard to Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • UNGA Resolution 146(II) regarding Creation of a special committee on information transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.

1960

1961

1966

1990–2000

2001–2010

2011–2020

Criticism

The list remains controversial for various reasons:

Referendum

One reason for controversy is that the list includes some dependencies that have democratically chosen to maintain their current status, or have had a referendum in which there were not enough votes for a change of status, or in some cases (such as United States Virgin Islands) simply had an insufficient number of voters participate.

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is largely a self-governing British territory on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula with a population of about 30,000 people, whose territory is claimed by Spain. It continues to be listed as a NSGT though its residents expressed a preference in two referendums to retain the status quo. In 1967, they were asked whether to retain their current status or to become part of Spain. The status quo was favoured by 12,138 votes to 44. In 2002, a proposal for a joint British–Spanish administration of the territory was voted down by 17,900 votes to 187. (The "no" vote accounted for more than 85% of Gibraltar's entire electorate). [11] The United Nations did not recognise either referendum, with the 1967 referendum being declared in contravention of previous UN resolutions. [12] The Spanish government does not recognize any right of the current Gibraltar inhabitants to self-determination, on the grounds that they are not the original population of the territory, but residents transferred by the colonial power, the United Kingdom. [13]

Tokelau

The territory of Tokelau divides political opinion in New Zealand. [14] In response to attempts at decolonizing Tokelau, New Zealand journalist Michael Field wrote in 2004: "The UN ... is anxious to rid the world of the last remaining vestiges of colonialism by the end of the decade. It has a list of 16 territories around the world, virtually none of which wants to be independent to any degree." [15] Field further notes that Patuki Isaako, who was head of Tokelau's government at the time of a UN seminar on decolonization in 2004, informed the United Nations that his country had no wish to be decolonized, and that Tokelauans had opposed the idea of decolonization ever since the first visit by UN officials in 1976.

In 2006, a UN-supervised referendum on decolonization was held in Tokelau, where 60.07% of voters supported the offer of self-government. However, the terms of the referendum required a two-thirds majority to vote in favor of self-government. A second referendum was held in 2007, in which 64.40% of Tokelauans supported self-government, falling short of the two-thirds majority by 16 votes. This led New Zealand politician and former diplomat John Hayes, on behalf of the National Party, to state that "Tokelau did the right thing to resist pressure from [the New Zealand government] and the United Nations to pursue self-government". [16] In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories". [17] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence from New Zealand". [18]

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands is a British Overseas Territory with a population of 2,500 people and an autonomous government, that is also claimed by Argentina. In March 2013, the government organised a referendum on the status of the territory. With a 92% turnout, 99.8% of Falkland Islanders voted to maintain the status quo, with only 3 islanders favoured a change. [19]

Viability

A lack of population and landmass is an issue for at least one territory included on the list: the British overseas territory Pitcairn Islands. With a population of around 50 and a total area of 47 km2 (18.1 sq mi), it is too small to be realistically viable as an independent state. [20] Four other territories—Tokelau, Montserrat, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena—are less populous than any UN member state presently.

In addition, some territories are financially dependent on their administering state.

Completely autonomous dependencies

  Currently listed territories
  Formerly listed territories

Another criticism is that a number of the listed territories, such as Bermuda (see Politics of Bermuda), the Falkland Islands [21] and Gibraltar, [22] [23] [24] [25] consider themselves completely autonomous and self-governing, with the "administering power" retaining limited oversight over matters such as defence and diplomacy. In past years, there were ongoing disputes between some administering powers and the Decolonization Committee over whether territories such as pre-independence Brunei and the West Indies Associated States should still be considered "non-self-governing", particularly in instances where the administering country was prepared to grant full independence whenever the territory requested it. These disputes became moot as those territories eventually received full independence.

Removed under other circumstances

Territories that have achieved a status described by the administering countries as internally self-governing – such as Puerto Rico, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Cook Islands – have been removed from the list by vote of the General Assembly,[ citation needed] often under pressure of the administering countries.

Some territories that have been annexed and incorporated into the legal framework of the controlling state (such as the overseas departments of France) are considered by the UN to have been decolonized, since they then no longer constitute "non-self-governing" entities; their populations are assumed to have agreed to merge with the former parent state. However, in 1961, the General Assembly voted to end this treatment for the "overseas provinces" of Portugal such as Angola and Mozambique, which were active foci of United Nations attention until they attained independence in the mid-1970s.

Territories have also been removed for other reasons. In 1972, for example, Hong Kong (then administered by the United Kingdom) and Macau (then administered by Portugal) were removed from the list at the request of the People's Republic of China, which had just been recognized as holding China's seat at the United Nations due to the PRC's belief that their status should be resolved by bilateral negotiations. [26]

Change of status

On 2 December 1986, New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France, was reinstated on the list of non-self-governing territories, an action to which France objected. Within France it has had the status of a collectivité sui generis, or a one-of-a-kind community, since 1999. Under the 1998 Nouméa Accord, its Territorial Congress has the right to call for three referendums on independence between 2014 and 2018. The first referendum was held on 4 November 2018, with independence being rejected.

French Polynesia was also reinstated on the list on 17 May 2013, in somewhat contentious circumstances. Having been re-elected President of French Polynesia in 2011 (leader of local government), Oscar Temaru asked for it to be re-inscribed on the list; it had been removed in 1947. (French Polynesia is categorised by France as an overseas country, in recognition of its self-governing status.) During the year 2012, Oscar Temaru engaged in intense lobbying with the micro-states of Oceania, many of which, the Solomon Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu, submitted to the UN General Assembly a draft of resolution to affirm "the inalienable right of the population of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".

On 5 May 2013, Temaru's Union for Democracy party lost the legislative election to Gaston Flosse's pro-autonomy but anti-independence Tahoera'a Huiraatira party; obtaining only 11 seats against the party of Gaston Flosse, with 38 seats, and the autonomist party A Ti'a Porinetia with 8 seats.

At this stage, the United Nations General Assembly was due to discuss French Polynesia's re-inscription on the list twelve days later, in accordance with a motion tabled by Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Nauru. On 16 May, the Assembly of French Polynesia, with its new anti-independence majority, adopted a motion asking the United Nations not to restore the country to the list. On 17 May, despite French Polynesia's opposition, and France's, the country was restored to the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Temaru was present for the vote, on the final day of his mandate as President. The United Nations affirmed "the inalienable right of the people of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".

A few hours before the UN review of the resolution, during its first meeting, the new Territorial Assembly adopted by 46 votes to 10 a "resolution" expressing the desire of Polynesians to maintain their autonomy within the French Republic. In spite of this resolution adopted by the parties representing 70% of the Polynesian voters, the UN General Assembly inscribed French Polynesia on the list of the territories to be decolonized during its plenary assembly of 17 May 2013. France did not take part in this session while the United States, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom disassociated themselves from this resolution. [27] [28]

List not complete

Also controversial are the criteria set down in 1960 to 1961 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV), [29] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), Principle 12 of the Annex, [30] and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI) [31] which only focused on colonies of the Western world, namely Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This list of administering states was not expanded afterwards. [32]

Nevertheless, some of the 111 members who joined the UN after 1960 gained independence from countries not covered by Resolution 1541 and were themselves not classified as "Non-Self-Governing Territories" by the UN. Of these that joined the UN between 1960 and 2008, 11 were independent before 1960 and 71 were included on the list (some as a group). Twenty new UN countries resulted from breakup of Second World states: six were part of Yugoslavia, two were part of Czechoslovakia, and 12 were part of the Soviet Union (Ukraine and Belarus already had UN seats before the dissolution of the USSR, whose seat was reused by the Russian Federation without acceding anew). Out of the other nine, seven[ which?] (mostly Arab) were colonies or protectorates of the "Western" countries, and one each was a non-self-governing part of Ethiopia (later independent Eritrea) and Pakistan (East Pakistan, later independent Bangladesh). Territories like Tibet (administered by China) and Siberia (or parts thereof; administered by the Soviet Union, later by Russia) have never been on the list. Western New Guinea (also known as West Papua) which ceded to Indonesia is also not on the list as well as Sarawak and Sabah which were handed to Malaya during its territorial expansion through the formation of Malaysia in 1963. In 2018, the government of Vanuatu started seeking international support to have West Papua added to the list in 2019. [33] [34]

Current entries

The following 17 territories are currently included on the list. [35]

Continent Name Administering state Domestic legal status Other claimant(s) Population Area Referendums See also
Africa   Western Sahara [A]   Spain
(formerly)
Disputed   Morocco
  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
619,060 266,000 km2 (102,703 mi2) The UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara has attempted to organize a referendum since 1991, but none has been held so far. Political status of Western Sahara
  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 5,396 310 km2 (120 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of Saint Helena
Europe   Gibraltar Disputed   Spain 29,752 6 km2 (2 mi2) There were referendums in 1967 and in 2002. Status of Gibraltar
North America   Anguilla Overseas Territory None 14,108 96 km2 (37 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of Anguilla
  Bermuda 62,000 57 km2 (22 mi2) A 1995 Bermudian independence referendum was held. 74% were not in favour of independence. Politics of Bermuda
  British Virgin Islands 28,103 153 km2 (59 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of the British Virgin Islands
  Cayman Islands 55,500 264 km2 (102 mi2) Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands
  Montserrat 5,000 103 km2 (40 mi2) Government of Montserrat
  Turks and Caicos Islands 31,458 948 km2 (366 mi2) Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands
  United States Virgin Islands   United States Unincorporated organized territory 106,405 352 km2 (136 mi2) A 1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum was held. The status quo was widely preferred among voters however the result was invalidated due to low turnout. [37] Politics of the United States Virgin Islands
Oceania   French Polynesia [B]   France Overseas country 271,000 4,000 km2 (1,544 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of French Polynesia
  New Caledonia Sui generis collectivity 252,000 18,575 km2 (7,172 mi2) There were referendums in 1987, 2018 and 2020. All three were disapproved but the 2018 and 2020 results were close. Politics of New Caledonia
  Tokelau New Zealand Territory 1,411 12 km2 (5 mi2) There were two referendums on self-determination in Tokelau in 2006 and 2007, however both failed to reach the required 2/3 yes margins. Politics of Tokelau
  Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands United Kingdom Overseas Territory 50 36 km2 (14 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of the Pitcairn Islands
  American Samoa   United States Unincorporated unorganized territory 55,519 200 km2 (77 mi2) Politics of American Samoa
  Guam Unincorporated organized territory 159,358 540 km2 (208 mi2) Three status referendums have been held in 1976 and two 1982, one in January and the other in September, with all of them supporting Commonwealth status. Politics of Guam
South America   Falkland Islands United Kingdom Disputed   Argentina 2,500 12,173 km2 (4,700 mi2) 2 status referendums have been held in 1986 and 2013, with both voting for continued British sovereignty of the islands. Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute

Notes

  1. ^ Formerly the Spanish Sahara up to 1976, disputed [36] between Morocco, who controls 80% of the territory and administers it as an integral part of its national territory, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, who controls and administers the remaining 20% as the " Liberated territories". The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara is the United Nations peacekeeping mission to the territory.
  2. ^ On 18 May 2013, the United Nations General Assembly voted to place French Polynesia back on the list. [38]

Former entries

The following territories were originally listed by UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (I) of 14 December 1946 as Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territory. The dates show the year of independence or other change in a territory's status which led to their removal from the list, [39] after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations. [40]

Change in status by administrating state

Continent Name [40] Change in status [40] Current status Administering state [40] Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed [40] See also
Africa   Réunion Became an overseas department ( full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France   France 793,000 2,512 970 1947 Politics of Réunion
Asia   Cocos (Keeling) Islands Voted to integrate into Australia External territory of Australia   Australia 596 14 5 1984 Shire of Cocos
Flag of the Government of Portuguese Macau (1976–1999).svg Portuguese Macau Removed from the list on request of China [26] Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (since 20 December 1999):
  Macau
  Portugal 545,674 28 11 1972 Politics of Macau
  British Hong Kong Removed from the list on request of China [26] Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (since 1 July 1997):
  Hong Kong
United Kingdom 7,018,636 1,092 422 Politics of Hong Kong
North America   Greenland Incorporated into Denmark as Greenland County (1953). Gained home rule as a Country within the Kingdom of Denmark (1979). Increased autonomy (2009). Autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark [41] [42] Denmark 57,564 2,166,086 836,330 1954 Politics of Greenland
  Guadeloupe Became two overseas departments ( full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France:
  Guadeloupe

Overseas collectivities of France:
  Saint Barthélemy
Saint Martin
  France 408,000 1,628 629 1947 Politics of Guadeloupe, Saint Barthélemy, and Saint Martin
  Martinique Overseas department and region of France 401,000 1,128 436 Politics of Martinique
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic) Overseas collectivity of France 7,044 242 93 Politics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  Netherlands Antilles Granted more autonomy Constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands:
  Aruba
  Curaçao
  Sint Maarten

Special municipalities of the Netherlands:
  Bonaire
  Sint Eustatius
  Saba
  Netherlands 225,369 960 371 1951 Politics of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Netherlands Antilles
  Alaska Granted statehood 49th State of the United States   United States 683,478 1,700,130 656,424 1959 Legal status of Alaska
  Panama Canal Zone Removed from the list on request of Panama[ citation needed] Part of Colón and Panamá provinces of Panama 1947 Politics of Panama
  Puerto Rico Became a Commonwealth Commonwealth of the United States 3,958,128 8,870 3,420 1952 Political status of Puerto Rico
Oceania   French Polynesia [a] Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic) Overseas country of France:
  French Polynesia

Overseas collectivity of France:
  Wallis and Futuna
  France 298,256 4,441 1,715 1947 Politics of French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna
  New Caledonia [b] Sui generis collectivity of France 224,824 19,060 7,359 Politics of New Caledonia
  Cook Islands Gained self-rule Free association with New Zealand New Zealand 12,271 237 92 1965 Politics of the Cook Islands
  Niue 1,444 260 100 1974 Politics of Niue
  Hawaii Granted statehood 50th State of the United States   United States 1,283,388 28,311 10,931 1959 Legal status of Hawaii
  Northern Mariana Islands Became a Commonwealth Commonwealth of the United States 53,883 168 65 1990 Politics of the Northern Mariana Islands
South America   French Guiana Became an overseas department ( full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France   France 209,000 83,534 32,253 1947 Politics of French Guiana

Joined another state

Continent Non-self-governing territory [40] State joined [40] Current status Administering state Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed [40] See also
Africa Portugal São João Batista de Ajuda Integrated into the Republic of Dahomey (now Benin) Ouidah commune, Atlantique department, Benin   Portugal 1961 Politics of Benin
Spain Ifni Integrated into Morocco Sidi Ifni, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Morocco   Spain 51,517 1,502 580 1969 Politics of Morocco
British Cameroons Northern Cameroons joined Nigeria
Southern Cameroons joined Cameroon
Adamawa and Taraba states of Nigeria, Northwest and Southwest provinces of Cameroon   United Kingdom 1961 Politics of Nigeria
Politics of Cameroon
United Kingdom British Togoland Joined British Gold Coast colony Volta, Northern and Upper East Region of Ghana 1957 Foreign relations of Ghana
Asia France French India Integrated into India Puducherry union territory and Chandannagar of West Bengal state of India   France 973,829 492 190 1947 Coup d'état of Yanaon, Puducherry Legislative Assembly
  Netherlands New Guinea Integrated into Indonesia as Irian Jaya Papua and West Papua provinces of Indonesia   Netherlands 420,540 162,371 1963 Act of Free Choice
  Portuguese India Annexed by India The Indian state of Goa and the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and of Daman and Diu   Portugal 1961 Annexation of Goa
North Borneo Integrated into Malaya to form Malaysia [43] [44] Malaysian state of Sabah and the federal territory of Labuan.   United Kingdom 285,000 76,115 29,388 1963 Malaysia Agreement

Independence

Continent Non-self-governing territory [40] Sub-unit
(Independent as) [40] Administering state Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed [40] See also
Asia Colony of Aden Aden Protectorate   South Yemen   United Kingdom 285,192 111,013 1967
  French Indochina North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam   France 1945
South Vietnam State of Vietnam 1949
  Kingdom of Laos
Cambodia Cambodia 1953
Portugal Portuguese Timor   Indonesia   Portugal 15,007 5,794 1975 Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Indonesia East Timor   East Timor   Indonesia 688,711 15,007 5,794 2002 Politics of East Timor
  Dutch East Indies   Indonesia (excluding Western New Guinea)   Netherlands 1950
Africa   Portuguese Angola Angola Angola   Portugal 1,246,700 481,354 1975 Including the enclave of Cabinda
Basutoland   Lesotho   United Kingdom 30,355 12,727 1966
  Bechuanaland Protectorate   Botswana
  British Somaliland Somalia State of Somaliland   United Kingdom 1960 Joined the Trust Territory of Somalia within a week to form Somalia
Flag of The Gambia (1889–1965).svg Gambia Colony and Protectorate   The Gambia   United Kingdom 10,380 4,007 1965
  Gold Coast   Ghana 1957
Kenya Colony of Kenya   Kenya   United Kingdom 1963 Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate
  Sultanate of Zanzibar Protectorate of Kenya. Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate.Under Zanzibari sovereignty, administered by the UK [45]
Nigeria British Nigeria   Nigeria   United Kingdom 1960
  Northern Rhodesia   Zambia 3,545,200 [46] 752,618 290,587 1964
  Nyasaland   Malawi 752,618 290,587
Flag of Sierra Leone (1916–1961).gif Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate   Sierra Leone   United Kingdom 71,740 27,699 1961
  Southern Rhodesia   Zimbabwe   United Kingdom 6,930,000 [47] 390,580 150,804 1980
  Swaziland   Swaziland 17,364 6,704 1968
Flag of Tanganyika (1923–1961).svg Tanganyika   Tanganyika 1963 Trust Territory. Later joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
Uganda Uganda Protectorate   Uganda   United Kingdom 1962
  Zanzibar Flag of Zanzibar (January-April 1964).svg People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba   United Kingdom 2,643 1,020 1963 Later joined with the Republic of Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
Mauritius British Mauritius   Mauritius   United Kingdom 2,040 787 1968
  Belgian Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo Léopoldville   Belgium 16,610,000 [48] 2,344,858 905,355 1960
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi   Burundi   Belgium 1962
  Rwanda
  Spanish Guinea   Equatorial Guinea   Spain 28,051 10,828 1968
France French Algeria   Algeria   France 1962
France French Cameroun   Cameroon   France 1960 Trust Territory
Togo French Togoland   Togo
  French Equatorial Africa France French Chad   Chad   France 1960
France French Gabon   Gabon
France French Congo   Republic of the Congo
France Ubangi Shari   Central African Republic
Morocco French protectorate of Morocco   Morocco   France 1956
France French Madagascar   Madagascar   France 1960
  Comoros 1975
Trust Territory of Somaliland   Somalia   Italy 1960 Joined the State of Somaliland to form Somalia
  Portuguese Cape Verde   Cape Verde   Portugal 4,033 1,557 1975
  Portuguese Mozambique   Mozambique   Portugal 7,300,000 [49] 784,955 303,073 1975
  Portuguese Guinea   Guinea-Bissau   Portugal 36,125 13,948 1974
Portugal Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe   São Tomé and Príncipe   Portugal 1,001 372 1975
  French Somaliland   Djibouti   France 200,000 [50] 23,200 8,958 1977
French Tunisia   Tunisia   France 163,610 63,170 1956
  French West Africa France French Dahomey   Dahomey   France 1960
France French Guinea   Guinea 1958
  French Sudan   Mali 1960
  Ivory Coast
  Mauritania
France Colony of Niger   Upper Volta
  Niger
  Senegal
South Africa South West Africa   Namibia   South Africa 2,088,669 825,418 318,696 1990 Foreign relations of Namibia
  Seychelles   Seychelles   United Kingdom 451 174 1976
Asia Flag of the Federation of South Arabia.svg Federation of South Arabia   South Yemen 1967
  Brunei   Brunei Darussalam 5,765 2,226 1984
  Malayan Union   Federation of Malaya 132,364 51,106 1957 Later became Malaysia
Singapore Singapore 4,608,167 693 268 1963 Singapore briefly joined Malaysia incorporated into Malaya to form a state of Malaysia in 1963
Malaysia Singapore   Singapore   Malaysia 4,608,167 693 268 1965 Regained independence in 1965.
Colony of Sarawak   Sarawak   United Kingdom 124,450 48,050 1963 Later Incorporated into Malaya to form a state of Malaysia [43] [44]
Europe Cyprus British Cyprus   Cyprus   United Kingdom 9,251 3,572 1960
Malta Colony of Malta   Malta 316 121 1964
North America   Bahamas   The Bahamas 13,878 5,358 1973
  Barbados   Barbados 431 167 1966
  British Leeward Islands Antigua   Antigua and Barbuda 1981
  Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla   St. Kitts and Nevis 1983 Separated from Anguilla, which is still a non-self-governing territory
Jamaica Colony of Jamaica   Jamaica 11,100 4,444 1962
  Trinidad and Tobago   Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 1,978
  British Windward Islands   Dominica 1978
  Grenada 1974
  St. Lucia 1979
  St. Vincent and the Grenadines
  British Honduras   Belize 145,000 [51] 22,966 8,867 1981
Oceania Fiji Fiji Islands   Fiji   United Kingdom 1970
  Gilbert and Ellice Islands   Kiribati 1979
  Tuvalu 1978
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Trust Territory of Nauru   Nauru   Australia 21 8 1968
  New Hebrides   Vanuatu United Kingdom France Anglo- French Condominium 100,000 [52] 12,189 4,706 1980
Flag of Papua New Guinea (1970–1971).svg Territory of Papua and New Guinea   Papua New Guinea   Australia 1975
Solomon Islands British Solomon Islands   Solomon Islands   United Kingdom 28,896 11,157 1978
Flag of the Samoa Trust Territory.svg Western Samoa Trust Territory   Western Samoa   New Zealand 1962
  Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands   Marshall Islands   United States 68,000 180 70 1990 An independent state in free association with the United States
  Federated States of Micronesia 111,000 702 271
  Palau 20,956 459 177 1994
South America   Dutch Guiana   Suriname   Netherlands 475,996 163,270 63,039 1975 Politics of Suriname
  British Guiana   Guyana   United Kingdom 1966

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  2. ^ Simon, Sven (5 June 2014), Walter, Christian; von Ungern-Sternberg, Antje; Abushov, Kavus (eds.), "Western Sahara", Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford University Press, p. 259, doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702375.003.0013, ISBN  978-0-19-870237-5, retrieved 5 August 2020
  3. ^ Nations, United. "International Week of Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  4. ^ Gonschor, Lorenz (2013). "Mai te hau Roma ra te huru: The Illusion of "Autonomy" and the Ongoing Struggle for Decolonization in French Polynesia". The Contemporary Pacific. 25 (2): 260. ISSN  1043-898X.
  5. ^ "French Polynesia Battles for Independence". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  6. ^ i.e. extenuating circumstance, historical control, longstanding/stagnated issue, etc.
  7. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64(I)
  8. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66(I)
  9. ^ "UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  10. ^ UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  11. ^ "Q&A: Gibraltar's referendum". BBC News. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  12. ^ "Resolution 2353" (PDF). UN. 19 December 1967. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  13. ^ Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal, Antonio Cassese, Cambridge University Press, 1995, page 209
  14. ^ Election 2011, Radio New Zealand
  15. ^ "Tokelau wonders 'What have we done wrong?'" Archived 21 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Michael Field, AFP, 2 June 2004
  16. ^ "Congratulations Tokelau", National Party press release, 26 October 2007
  17. ^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia". United Nations press release, 14 May 2008
  18. ^ "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  19. ^ "Falklands referendum: Voters choose to remain UK territory", BBC News, 12 March 2013
  20. ^ "Brexit will hit Britain's overseas territories hard – why is no one talking about it?". The Independent. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  21. ^ "New Year begins with a new Constitution for the Falklands". MercoPress. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  22. ^ Parliament.uk, UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007–2008 Report, pg 16
  23. ^ Telegraph.co.uk, David Blair, Gibraltar makes plans for self-government, Daily Telegraph, 28 February 2002 "GIBRALTAR'S parliament approved an ambitious package of constitutional reform yesterday designed to give the colony almost complete self-government."
  24. ^ "Gibraltar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 August 2009. Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defence.
  25. ^ "Laws of Gibraltar – On-line Service". Gibraltarlaws.gov.gi. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  26. ^ a b c Carroll, John M. (2007). A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 176.
  27. ^ "Tahiti assembly votes against UN decolonisation bid", Radio New Zealand International, 17 May 2013
  28. ^ "L'ONU adopte une résolution sur la décolonisation de la Polynésie française". Le Monde, 17 May 2013
  29. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) Archived 24 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  30. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) adopted by United Nations General Assembly on the reports of the Sixth Committee
  31. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI) Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  32. ^ United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing
  33. ^ "Vanuatu will continue West Papua initiative", One PNG, 6 September 2018
  34. ^ "Pacific Forum backs ‘constructive engagement’ over West Papua", Asia Pacific Report, 7 September 2018
  35. ^ "Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations.
  36. ^ CIA's The World Factbook entry for Western Sahara: "Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast of Africa bordered by Morocco, Mauritania, and Algeria. After Spain withdrew from its former colony of Spanish Sahara in 1976, Morocco annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara and claimed the rest of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal"
  37. ^ United States Virgin Islands, 11 October 1993: Status Direct Democracy (in German)
  38. ^ General Assembly adds French Polynesia to UN decolonization list
  39. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66 (I)
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945–2002) listed by General Assembly of the United Nations
  41. ^ Infobox image in "History" section of "About Greenland", English version of the official country government website. Accessed online 2008-09-28, Sunday.
  42. ^ http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2009/06/greenland-takes-over-courts-police.php
  43. ^ a b See: The UK Statute Law Database: the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Malaysia Act 1963
  44. ^ a b Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945–1999) listed by General Assembly of the United Nations.
  45. ^ "Agreement between the government of the United Kingdom, His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, the government of Kenya and the government of Zanzibar", London, 8 October 1963
  46. ^ 1963 estimate, see: Northern Rhodesia#Demographics
  47. ^ 1978 estimate
  48. ^ 1960 estimate
  49. ^ 1967 estimate
  50. ^ 1963 estimate
  51. ^ 1980 estimate, see: British Honduras#Demographics
  52. ^ 1976 estimate

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