Term limit
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A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semipresidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes " president for life". This is intended to protect a republic from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an absolute or lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve; sometimes, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms he or she may serve.
History
Ancient
Term limits have a long history. Ancient Athens and Ancient Rome, two early classic republics, had term limits imposed on their elected offices as did the citystate of Venice.^{ [1]}
In ancient Athenian democracy, only offices selected by sortition were subject to term limits (one term of one year for each office, except members of the council of 500 ( boule), where it was possible to serve two oneyear terms, nonconsecutively). Elected offices were all subject to possible reelection, although they were minoritarian, these positions were more prestigious and those requiring the most experience, such as military generals and the superintendent of springs.
In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor. The annual magistrates— tribune of the plebs, aedile, quaestor, praetor, and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.^{ [2]} (see cursus honorum, Constitution of the Roman Republic). Additionally, there was a term limit of 6 months for a dictator.
Modern
Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices. The United States placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for Vice Presidency, Representatives and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws, some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, and the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the Provincial Council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.^{ [3]} (See also term limits in the United States).
The Russian Federation has a rule for the head of state that allows the President of Russia to serve more than two terms if not consecutive (as in the case of Vladimir Putin). For governors of federal subjects, the same twoterm limit existed until 2004, but now there are no term limits for governors.
Term limits are also common in Latin America, where most countries are also presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección (effective suffrage, no reelection). In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico (the Chamber of Deputies and Senate) cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917. Likewise, the President of Mexico is limited to a single sixyear term, called the Sexenio. This makes every presidential election in Mexico a nonincumbent election.
Countries that operate a parliamentary system of government are less likely to employ term limits on their leaders. This is because such leaders rarely have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could potentially last for life. Many parliaments can be dissolved for snap elections which means some parliaments can last for mere months while others can continue until their expiration dates. Nevertheless, such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit, especially if the office holds reserve powers.
Types
Term limits may be divided into two broad categories: consecutive and lifetime. With consecutive term limits, an officeholder is limited to serving a particular number of terms in that particular office. Upon hitting the limit in one office, an officeholder may not run for the same office again (though he/she may run for any other elective office). After a set period of time (usually one term), the clock resets on the limit, and the officeholder may run for election to his/her original office and serve up to the limit again.
With lifetime limits, once an officeholder has served up to the limit, he/she may never again run for election to that office. Lifetime limits are much more restrictive than consecutive limits.
Notable examples
Relaxed/reset term limits
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Names indexed by surnames  Image  Countries and localities  Official positions  Earlier term limits  Later term limits 

Bloomberg, Michael  United States; New York City  Mayor (2002–13)  2 terms of 4 years  3 terms of 4 years from 2008 to 2010; twoterm limit restored in 2011  
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique  Brazil  President of Brazil (1995–2003)  1 term of 5 years  2 terms of 4 years since 1997  
Chávez, Hugo  Venezuela  President of Venezuela (1999–2013)  2 terms of 6 years  Unlimited terms of 6 years since the 2009 amendment of the 1999 Venezuelan constitution  
Clinton, Bill  United States; Arkansas  Governor of Arkansas (1979–81, 1983–92)  2 consecutive terms of 2 years  2 consecutive terms of 2 years until 1986, then 2 consecutive terms of 4 years  
Chiang Kaishek  China, Republic of (Mainland and Taiwan Eras)  President (1948–49, 1950–75)  2 terms of 6 years  Unlimited terms of 6 years since 1960^{ [4]}  
Lukashenko, Alexander  Belarus  President (1994–present)  2 terms of 5 years  Unlimited terms of 5 years since 2004  
Menem, Carlos  Argentina  President of Argentina (1989–99)  1 term of 6 years, reeligible after 6 years  2 terms of 4 years, reeligible after 4 years; Menem was banned to reelection in 1999 because his first term was counted as one of 4  
Museveni, Yoweri  Uganda  President of Uganda (1986–present)  2 terms of 5 years  Served 2 terms of 5 years before 1995 constitution imposed 2term limit, then served 2 additional terms of 5 years; constitution was revised in 2005, removing term limits  
Park Chunghee  South Korea  President of South Korea (19621979)  2 terms of 4 years  3 terms of 4 years from 1969 to 1972; unlimited terms of 6 years since 1972  
Patton, Paul E.  United States; Kentucky  Governor of Kentucky (1995–2003)  1 term of 4 years  2 terms of 4 years  
Perón, Juan Domingo  Argentina  President of Argentina (1946–55, 1973–74)  1 term of 6 years, reeligible after 6 years  Unlimited terms of 6 years; elected to 1 term of 4 years in 1973  
Putin, Vladimir  Russia  President of Russia (1999–2008, 2012–present)  2 terms of 4 years  2 terms of 6 years since 2008; term count reset in 2020  
Rahmon, Emomali  Tajikistan  President of Tajikistan (1994–present)  1 terms of 5 years  1 term of 7 years since 1999, 2 terms of 7 years since 2003; term count reset in 2006, all term limits removed in 2016.^{ [5]}^{ [6]}  
Rhee Syngman  South Korea  President of South Korea (19481960)  2 terms of 4 years  Unlimited terms of 4 years since 1954  
Sharif, Nawaz  Pakistan  Prime Minister of Pakistan (1990–93, 1997–99, 2013–2017)  2 terms of 5 years  Unlimited terms of 5 years since 2011  
Uribe, Álvaro  Colombia  President (2002–10)  1 term of 4 years  2 terms of 4 years since 2004  
Xi Jinping  China; Communist Party  President (2013–present)  2 terms of 5 years  Unlimited terms of 5 years since 2018^{ [7]}  
Yuan Shikai  China, Republic of ( Beiyang Government)  President (1912–15, 1916)  2 terms of 5 years^{ [8]}  Unlimited terms of 10 years since 1914^{ [9]} 
Tightened term limits
Names indexed by surnames  Image  Countries and localities  Official positions  Earlier term limits  Later term limits 

Brown, Jerry  United States; California  Governor (1975–83) (2011–2019)  No term limit  2 terms of 4 years  
Castro, Raúl  Cuba; Communist Party  President of the Council of State (2008–2018)  No term limit  2 consecutive terms of 5 years since 2013  
dos Santos, José Eduardo  Angola  President of Angola (1979–2017)  No term limit  2 terms of 5 years since 2010  
Mugabe, Robert  Zimbabwe  President of Zimbabwe (1987–2017)  No term limit  2 terms of 5 years since 2013  
Sall, Macky  Senegal  President of Senegal (2012–present)  2 terms of 7 years  2 terms of 5 years since 2016  
Santos, Juan Manuel  Colombia  President of Colombia (2010–2018)  2 terms of 4 years  1 term of 4 years since 2018 
People who would have run afoul of modern term limits
Names indexed by surnames  Image  Countries and localities  Official positions  Earlier term limits  Later term limits 

BenZvi, Yitzhak  Israel  President of Israel (1952–63)  No term limit  2 consecutive terms of 5 years from 1964 to 1998; 1 term of 7 years since 1998  
Carmona, Óscar  Portugal  President of Portugal (1926–51)  No term limit  2 consecutive terms of 5 years since 1976  
Kekkonen, Urho  Finland  President of Finland (1956–82)  No term limit  2 consecutive terms of 6 years since 1991  
Mitterrand, François  France  President of France (1981–95)  No term limit  2 terms of 5 years since 2008  
Suharto  Indonesia  President of Indonesia (1968–98)  No term limit  2 terms of 5 years since 1999  
Tomás, Américo  Portugal  President of Portugal (1958–74)  No term limit  2 consecutive terms of 5 years since 1976 
Impact
Research shows that legislative term limits increase legislative polarization,^{ [10]} reduce the legislative skills of politicians,^{ [11]}^{ [12]}^{ [13]} reduce the legislative productivity of politicians,^{ [14]} weaken legislatures visavis the executive,^{ [15]} and reduce voter turnout.^{ [16]} Parties respond to the implementation of term limits by recruiting candidates for office on more partisan lines.^{ [17]}
Term limits have not reduced campaign spending,^{ [18]} reduced the gender gap in political representation,^{ [19]} increased the diversity of lawmakers,^{ [20]} and increased the constituent service activities of lawmakers.^{ [21]}
Many presidents did try to overstay over the term limit by various methods^{ [22]}^{ [23]}.
See also
References

^
O'Keefe, Eric (2008). "Term Limits". In
Hamowy, Ronald (ed.).
The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA:
SAGE;
Cato Institute. pp. 504–06.
doi:
10.4135/9781412965811.n308.
ISBN
9781412965804.
LCCN
2008009151.
OCLC
750831024.
... Political scientist Mark Petracca has outlined the importance of rotation in the ancient Republics of Athens, Rome, Venice, and Florence. The Renaissance citystate of Venice [also] required rotation....
 ^ Robert Struble Jr., Treatise on Twelve Lights, chapter six, part II, "Rotation in History." Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
 ^ Francis N. Thorpe, ed., The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws..., 7 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909) 5:3048, 3055–56, 3065.
 ^ Based on the amended Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion until it was abolished in 1991.
 ^ Konstantin Parshin (23 April 2013). "Tajikistan: Can Rahmon Keep Running?". Eurasianet. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
 ^ Peter Leonard (23 May 2016). "Tajikistan Vote Allows President to Rule Indefinitely". ABC News. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
 ^ Liangyu, ed. (25 February 2018). "CPC proposes change on Chinese president's term in Constitution". Xinhuanet. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
 ^ [1]
 ^ [2]
 ^ Olson, Michael; Rogowski, Jon C (11 October 2019). "Legislative Term Limits and Polarization". The Journal of Politics: 000. doi: 10.1086/706764. ISSN 00223816.
 ^ SarbaughThompson, Marjorie; Thompson, Lyke; Elder, Charles D.; Comins, Meg; Elling, Richard C.; Strate, John (1 December 2006). "Democracy among Strangers: Term Limits' Effects on Relationships between State Legislators in Michigan". State Politics & Policy Quarterly. 6 (4): 384–409. doi: 10.1177/153244000600600402. ISSN 15324400.
 ^ Burgat, Casey (18 January 2018). "Five reasons to oppose congressional term limits". Brookings. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
 ^ "Post". Mischiefs of Faction. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
 ^ "How do electoral incentives affect legislator behavior?". LegBranch. 19 June 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
 ^ "Adapting to Term Limits: Recent Experiences and New Directions". Public Policy Institute of California. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
 ^ Nalder, Kimberly (2007). "The Effect of State Legislative Term Limits on Voter Turnout". State Politics & Policy Quarterly. 7 (2): 187–210. doi: 10.1177/153244000700700207. ISSN 15324400. JSTOR 40421578.
 ^ Masket, Seth; Shor, Boris (1 March 2015). "Polarization without Parties: Term Limits and Legislative Partisanship in Nebraska's Unicameral Legislature". State Politics & Policy Quarterly. 15 (1): 67–90. doi: 10.1177/1532440014564984. ISSN 15324400.
 ^ Masket, Seth E.; Lewis, Jeffrey B. (1 March 2007). "A Return to Normalcy? Revisiting the Effects of Term Limits on Competitiveness and Spending in California Assembly Elections". State Politics & Policy Quarterly. 7 (1): 20–38. doi: 10.1177/153244000700700102. ISSN 15324400.
 ^ Carroll, Susan J.; Jenkins, Krista (2001). "Do Term Limits Help Women Get Elected?". Social Science Quarterly. 82 (1): 197–201. doi: 10.1111/00384941.00017. ISSN 15406237.
 ^ Carey, John M.; Niemi, Richard G.; Powell, Lynda W.; Moncrief, Gary F. (2006). "The Effects of Term Limits on State Legislatures: A New Survey of the 50 States". Legislative Studies Quarterly. 31 (1): 105–134. doi: 10.3162/036298006X201742. ISSN 19399162.
 ^ VanDusky‐Allen, Julie (2014). "The Conditional Effect of Term Limits on Electoral Activities". Politics & Policy (in Spanish). 42 (3): 431–458. doi: 10.1111/polp.12072. ISSN 17471346.
 ^ On the Evasion of Executive Term Limits 2010, University of Chicago Law School. Chicago Unbound
 ^ The Law and Politics of Presidential Term Limit Evasion Columbia Law Review, 2020
External links
 Real Term Limits: Now More Than Ever, an article by Doug Bandow in favor of term limits
 Legislative Term Limits: An Overview at the Library of Congress Web Archives (archived 20090501), term limits information from the National Conference of State Legislatures