Seneca, South Carolina
Seneca, South Carolina
City Hall of Seneca
City of Smiles, City with Style
Latitude and Longitude:
|• Mayor||Daniel W. Alexander|
|• Total||8.25 sq mi (21.37 km2)|
|• Land||8.20 sq mi (21.23 km2)|
|• Water||0.05 sq mi (0.14 km2)|
|Elevation||965 ft (294 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,041.24/sq mi (402.03/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 ( Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer ( DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
29672, 29678, 29679
|FIPS code||45-65095 |
|GNIS feature ID||1250833 |
Seneca is a city in Oconee County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 8,102 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Seneca Micropolitan Statistical Area (population 74,273 at the 2010 census), an (MSA) which includes all of Oconee County and which is further included in the greater Greenville- Spartanburg- Anderson, South Carolina Combined Statistical Area (population 1,266,995 at the 2010 census). Seneca was named for the nearby Cherokee town of Isunigu, known to the English as "Seneca Town".
Seneca was founded as Seneca City and named for a nearby Native American village and the Seneca River. The town was located at the intersection of the Blue Ridge Railroad and the newly built Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line Railroad. Both lines are now part of the Norfolk Southern Railway. A. W. Thompson and J. J. Norton, who were locating engineers for the Air Line Railroad, purchased the land from Col. Brown of Anderson, South Carolina. A stake marking the center of town was driven into the intersection of the railroad tracks and the current Townville Street. The land was divided into lots for one-half mile from the stake. An auction was held on August 14, 1873. The town was given a charter by the state legislature on March 14, 1874. In 1908, the name was changed to Seneca.
Seneca developed as a marketing and shipping point for cotton. During the harvest, wagons bringing cotton would line up for blocks from the railroad station. A passenger terminal, several hotels, and a park were built near the railroad tracks. Recently, this park was named the Norton-Thompson Park in honor of its founders.
The first school was built in 1874. The community was the home of the Seneca Institute - Seneca Junior College, which was an African-American school from 1899 to 1939.
Textile mills came into the area with the construction of a plant-and-mill village by the Courtenay Manufacturing Company in Newry on the Little River in 1893. W.L. Jordon built another textile plant and mill village east of Seneca. This village has been called Jordania, Londsdale, and Utica as the ownership of the plant changed. The J. P. Stevens Plant, which was later called the Westpoint Stevens Plant, was a large integrated textile mill built on Lake Hartwell. Many other textile mills came to the area. These plants were the main industry for Seneca for the first half of the twentieth century. These textile mills are now closed.
With the construction of Lake Hartwell in 1963, Lake Keowee in 1971, and Lake Jocassee in 1974, Seneca and the area saw dramatic changes. The Oconee Nuclear Station was built on Lake Keowee. The recreation provided by the lakes and other attractions such as nearby Clemson University brought many retirees from other parts of the country. Retirement communities have been built in the area.  
- Seneca Historic District was listed in 1974. It is located south of the railroad tracks. The district consists of a number of homes and three churches that were built in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The houses have architectural styles that were popular in the period. It also includes a log cabin from the mid nineteenth century that was moved from Long Creek, South Carolina. The South Carolina Department of Archives and History has additional pictures and information,  copies of the nomination forms,   and a map of the district. 
- Ram Cat Alley Historic District was listed in 2000. It is a twenty-one building commercial district built in the 1880s to the 1930s. The name of the street came from cats that gathered around a meat market. Many of these buildings have been rejuvenated and now house restaurants, shops, and professional offices. The South Carolina Department of Archives and History has additional pictures and information,  a copy of the nomination form,  and a map. 
- Newry Historic District was listed in 1982. It is a historic textile mill village near Seneca. The South Carolina Department of Archives and History has additional pictures and information,  a copy of the nomination form,  and a map. 
- Alexander-Hill House
- Faith Cabin Library at Seneca Junior College
- McPhail Angus Farm
- Old Pickens Presbyterian Church
Seneca is located at (34.684145, -82.955778).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.1 square miles (18 km2), of which 7.1 square miles (18 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) (0.56%) is water.
U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census  of 2000, there were 7,652 people, 3,286 households, and 2,096 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,084.6 people per square mile (418.5/km2). There were 3,677 housing units at an average density of 521.2 per square mile (201.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 63.32% White, 33.77% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population.
There were 3,286 households, out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were non-families. Of all households 32.3% were made up of individuals, and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.4% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,643, and the median income for a family was $44,487. Males had a median income of $31,381 versus $21,472 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,498. About 13.0% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over.
Seneca City Hall is located on North First Street, in the center of the historic (downtown) area of Seneca. North First Street is also Highway 123 Business. The City Hall Complex is also the location of the Seneca Police Dept, Seneca Light and Water, as well as the offices of the Mayor and City Administrator.
Seneca Fire Department is housed on West South Fourth Street, in a new complex. The Fire House is just across the street from the Shaver Complex that houses the Shaver Civic Center, and the sports fields for the Seneca Recreation Department, as well as a park for smaller children, and a rubberized soft walking track.
Seneca has a lending library, a branch of the Oconee County Public Library.  It was also the headquarters of the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), the council that deals with the examination for engineers and surveyors until the NCEES moved to Greenville in June 2020.
- Willie Aikens, Major League Baseball player
- Bennie Cunningham, National Football League player
- John Edwards, former U.S. Senator from North Carolina (1999-2005), and 2004 Democratic nominee for Vice President under John Kerry; candidate for president in 2008
- Lindsey Graham, U.S. Senator from South Carolina since 2003 
- Clarence Kay, National Football League player
- Marshall Parker, politician
- Marv Rackley, Major League Baseball player
- Steven T. Wright, freelance journalist and author
- Needtobreathe, Christian rock band
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 4 August 2012.[ dead link]
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Louise Matheson Bell, Seneca: Visions of Yesterday, 2003, ISBN 0-9763843-0-2.
- Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia, University of South Carolina Press, 2006, p. 859, ISBN 1-57003-598-9.
- NWS Damage Survey for EF3 Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Greenville-Spartanburg, South Carolina. April 13, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
- Pictures of the Seneca Historic District
- Seneca Historic District nomination form I
- Seneca Historic District nomination form II
- Map of Seneca Historic District
- Pictures of the Ram Cat Alley Historic District
- Ram Cat Alley Historic District nomination form
- Map of the Ram Cat Alley Historic District
- Pictures of the Newry Historic District
- Newry Historic District nomination form
- Map of the Newry Historic District
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "South Carolina libraries and archives". SCIWAY. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "United States Senator Lindsey Graham, South Carolina : Biography". Lgraham.senate.gov. Retrieved May 8, 2016.