Rochester, New York
Rochester, New York
|City of Rochester|
(left to right, top to bottom) the Eastman Theater at the Eastman School of Music; First Federal Plaza building; Xerox, Legacy (formerly Bausch & Lomb), and Metropolitan (formerly Chase) towers; Downtown Rochester skyline; Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester; Sacred Heart cathedral; row houses in the Grove Place neighborhood
"The Flour City", "The Flower City", "The World's Image Center"
Latitude and Longitude:
|Incorporated as a village||March 21, 1817 (as Rochesterville) |
|Incorporated as a city||April 28, 1834|
|• Mayor||Lovely Warren ( D)|
|• City Council|
|• City||37.17 sq mi (96.28 km2)|
|• Land||35.77 sq mi (92.63 km2)|
|• Water||1.41 sq mi (3.64 km2) 3.6%|
|Elevation||505 ft (154 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||5,751.13/sq mi (2,220.50/km2)|
|• Urban||720,572 (US: 60th)|
|• Metro||1,082,284 (US: 51st)|
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 ( EST)|
|• Summer ( DST)||UTC−04:00 ( EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0962684|
Rochester ( / - -/,) is a city in the U.S. state of New York, the seat of Monroe County and the third-most populous after New York City and Buffalo with an estimated population of 205,695 in 2019.  The city of Rochester forms the core of a much larger suburban, and rural area. Rochester has a greater metro population of around 1 million people, across six counties.
Rochester was one of the United States' first boomtowns, initially due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, and then as a manufacturing center which spurred further rapid population growth.  The city rose to prominence as the birthplace and home of some of America's most iconic companies, in particular Eastman Kodak, Xerox and Bausch & Lomb (along with Wegmans, Gannett, Paychex, Western Union, French's, Constellation Brands, Ragú, and others) which saw the region become a global center for science, technology, research and development. This status has been aided by the presence of several internationally renowned universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) and their research programs; these schools along with many other smaller colleges have played an increasingly large role in Greater Rochester's economy.  Rochester has also played a key part in US history as a hub for certain important social/political movements, especially Abolitionism  and the Women's Rights Movement  While the city experienced some significant population loss as a result of deindustrialization, strong growth in the education and healthcare sectors boosted by elite universities and the slower decline of bedrock companies like Eastman Kodak and Xerox (as opposed to the rapid fall of heavy industry like with steel companies in Buffalo and Pittsburgh) resulted in a much less severe contraction than in most rust belt metros.
Today, Rochester's economy is defined by technology and education (aided by a highly educated workforce, research institutions and other strengths born in its past).  The Rochester metropolitan area is the fourth-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area Buffalo, and Albany.  Rochester's gross metropolitan product is 57 billion above Albany and Syracuse and, below Buffalo.  Rochester is also known for its culture, in particular its music culture; institutions like the Eastman School of Music (considered to be one of the most prestigious conservatories in the world) and the Rochester International Jazz Festival anchor a vibrant music industry, ranked as one of the top ten music scenes in the US in terms of the concentration of musicians and music-related business.  It is the site of multiple major festivals every year (such as the Lilac Festival, the aforementioned Jazz Festival, the Rochester Fringe Festival and others which draw hundreds of thousands of attendees each) and is home to several world-famous museums such as The Strong National Museum of Play and the George Eastman Museum, the oldest photography collection in the world and one of the largest [ circular reference]). The Rochester Metro is ranked highly in terms of livability and quality of life  and is often considered to be one of the best places in America for families   due to low cost of living, highly ranked public schools[ dubious ]and a low unemployment rate. However, there is a great divide between its inner city component (which has at times had the highest child poverty rate in the nation) and its affluent, well-educated southern suburbs. It is considered to be a global city, ranked by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as having sufficiency status. 
Rochester's development followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after Britain's defeat. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.  
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England, who were looking for new agricultural land. They were the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century.  On November 8, 1803, Colonel Nathaniel Rochester (1752–1831), Major Charles Carroll, and Colonel William Fitzhugh, Jr. (1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland, purchased a 100-acre (40- ha) tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville.
By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, it consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km2) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. Also in 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened. In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was rerouted south of Rochester by 1918 when the Barge Canal was completed.  By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200, and in 1834, it was rechartered as a city.
Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", and then as the "Flour City". By 1838, it was the largest flour-producing city in the United States.  Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first " boom town".
In 1830–31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Grandison Finney. The revival inspired other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, who was converted in the Rochester meetings, gave the following account of Finney's meetings there: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the shop, in the office, and on the street. The only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable; the only circus into a soap and candle factory. Grog shops were closed; the Sabbath was honored; the sanctuaries were thronged with happy worshippers; a new impulse was given to every philanthropic enterprise; the fountains of benevolence were opened, and men lived to good." 
By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname, the Flower City. Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. 
In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star in Rochester.  A former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, he gained a circulation over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe, and the Caribbean. The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is in Highland Park off South Avenue. 
Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester. The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see.  Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. 
At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, championing the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops. Rochester also had significant unrest in labor, race, and antiwar protests.
After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, including inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak; and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb, who launched Bausch & Lomb in 1861. Not only did they create new industries, but Eastman also became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music, and other local institutions.
In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men's fashions. It was the base of Bond Clothing Stores, Fashion Park Clothes, Hickey Freeman, and Stein-Bloch and Co. The carriagemaker James Cunningham and Sons founded the pioneer automobile company Cunningham. 
Rochester's black population tripled to more than 25,000 during the 1950s. Casually employed by the city's iconic industries, most African Americans in the city held low-pay and low-skill jobs and lived in substandard housing. Discontent exploded in the 1964 Rochester race riot. Triggered by the attempted arrest of a 19-year-old intoxicated black male at a street block party, order was restored after three days, and only after Governor Nelson Rockefeller called out the New York National Guard. By the time the disturbance was over, four were dead (three in a helicopter crash) and 350 injured. Almost a thousand people were arrested and 204 stores were either looted or damaged.  
In the wake of the riots, the Rochester Area Churches, together with black civil rights leaders, invited Saul Alinsky of the Industrial Areas Foundation to help the community organize. With the Reverend Franklin Florence, who had been close to Malcolm X, they established FIGHT (Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today), which successfully brought pressure to bear on Eastman Kodak to help open up employment and city governance.  
The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900 and 295,750 in 1920. By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Rochester's population as 97.6% White and 2.3% Black.  With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2018, the city's population had declined to 206,284 (although the metropolitan area was considerably larger) with 46.58% recorded as White and 40.71% as Black or African American.  
Rochester is located at Upstate New York.  The city is about 73 miles (120 km) east-northeast of Buffalo and about 87 miles (140 km) west of Syracuse. Albany, the state capital, is 226 miles (360 km) to the east; it sits on Lake Ontario's southern shore. The Genesee River bisects the city. Toronto, in Ontario, Canada is northwest 168 miles (270 km) and New York City is about 250 miles (400 km) to the southeast.(43.165496, −77.611504) in
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96 km2), of which 35.8 square miles (93 km2) are land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2) are covered by water (3.42%).
Rochester's geography was formed by the ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch. The retreating ice sheets reached a standstill at what is now the southern border of the city, melting at the same rate as they were advancing, depositing sediment along the southern edge of the ice mass. This created a line of hills, including (from west to east) Mt. Hope, the hills of Highland Park, Pinnacle Hill, and Cobb's Hill. Because the sediment of these hills was deposited into a proglacial lake, they are stratified and classified as a " kame delta". A brief retreat and readvance of the ice sheet onto the delta deposited unstratified material there, creating a rare hybrid structure called " kame moraine".  
The ice sheets also created Lake Ontario (one of the five freshwater Great Lakes), the Genesee River with its waterfalls and gorges, Irondequoit Bay, Sodus Bay, Braddock Bay, Mendon Ponds, numerous local streams and ponds, the Ridge, and the nearby Finger Lakes. 
Rochester has 537 miles (864 km) of public streets, 585 miles (941 km) of water mains, 44 vehicular and eight pedestrian bridges, 11 public libraries, two police stations (one for the east side, one for the west), and 15 firehouses. The principal source of water is Hemlock Lake, which, with its watershed, is owned by the state of New York. Other water sources include Canadice Lake and Lake Ontario. The 30-year annual average snowfall is just above 100 in (2.5 m).  The monthly daily average ranges from 24.7 °F (−4.1 °C) in January to 70.8 °F (21.6 °C) in July. The high amount of snow Rochester receives can be accounted for by the city's proximity to Lake Ontario (see lake effect).
Rochester has a number of neighborhoods, including the 19th Ward, 14621 Community, Beechwood, Browncroft, Cascade District, Cobbs Hill, Charlotte, Corn Hill, Dewey, Dutchtown, Edgerton, Ellwanger-Barry, German Village, Grove Place, High Falls District, Highland Park, Maplewood (10th Ward), Marketview Heights, Mt. Read, North Winton Village, Neighborhood of the Arts , Lyell-Otis, Park Avenue, Plymouth-Exchange, Southwest, East End, South Wedge, Swillburg, Susan B. Anthony, University-Atlantic, Upper Monroe, and more are all recognized communities with various neighborhood associations. There are also living spaces in downtown Rochester.
Center City and the Frederick Douglass–Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge
The Browncroft neighborhood is built on the former nursery grounds of the Brown Brothers nursery. The business district situated on Winton Rd has a mix of restaurants and shops. The neighborhood borders the nearby Tryon and Ellison Parks. The Browncroft Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. 
Historically an Italian-American neighborhood, this area of the City of Rochester is now home to citizens from across the globe.   There have recently been efforts to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood, as the area has opportunity for redevelopment and renewal.      
The Lyell-Otis neighborhood is in the City of Rochester, in the Northwest Quadrant. Bordering the suburbs of Gates and Greece, the Lyell-Otis boundaries are the Erie Canal (the City Line) on the west, Lyell Avenue on the south, Driving Park Boulevard on the north, and the old subway bed (long since filled-in, which previously was where the Erie Canal flowed) on the east - almost to Dewey Avenue.
The 19th Ward is a southwest neighborhood bordered by Genesee Street, West Avenue, and the Erie Canal, and is across the river from the University of Rochester.  Now known by its slogan "Urban by Choice", in the early 19th century, the area was known as Castle Town, after Castle Inn, a tavern run by Colonel Isaac Castle. By the early 1820s, however, the area was overshadowed by developments in the north that would become downtown Rochester. Due to a tumultuous bend in the Genesee, the area was home to skilled boatsmen who assisted boats traveling north to Rochester and the area was consequently known during this time as "The Rapids". In the 1890s, as Rochester expanded, the area became a prosperous residential area that thrived as the city grew. By 1930, it was a booming residential area for doctors, lawyers, and skilled workers; it includes the still prestigious Sibley Tract development. Homes in the originally upper-class neighborhood typically have gumwood trim, leaded glass, fireplaces, hardwood floors, and open porches. In the 1960s, property values fell as the population of Rochester did, the area experienced white flight accelerated by school busing, blockbusting, and race riots downtown, and crime increased, with violence, drug use, and neglected property further diminishing property values. 
To respond to these issues, the 19th Ward has had an active community association since 1965, and is now known for its ethnic, class, and cultural diversity.[ vague] The "Brooks Landing" development along the Genesee River at the former "rapids" is bringing new economic development to the community, including an 88-room hotel, 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) office building, 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2) of new retail, two restaurants, and Brue Coffee shop.  Residential development is also increasing with completion of a 170-bed University of Rochester student housing tower at Brooks Landing in 2014, and 29 new market-rate homes nearby.
Located in the 19th Ward are the Arvine Heights Historic District, Chili–West Historic District, Inglewood and Thurston Historic District, and Sibley–Elmdorf Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.   
Charlotte (shar-LOT) is a lake front community in Rochester bordering Lake Ontario. It is home to Ontario Beach Park, commonly known as Charlotte Beach, which is a popular summer destination for Rochesterians. A new terminal was built in 2004 for the Rochester-to-Toronto ferry service and was later sold after the ferry ceased operations in 2005. The Port of Rochester terminal still exists and has since been revamped. It now houses the restaurant California Rollin', a coffee shop named The Nutty Bavarian along with offices for the marina created around it. In summer 2016 a proposed redevelopment project for the Port of Rochester was put on hold due to the developers failing to meet financial obligations as set by the city. 
This neighborhood is a Preservation District on the National Register of Historic Places, known as the Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District.  It encompasses a three-and-one-half block area within walking distance from downtown Rochester, and comprises residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The center of the residential area is Susan B. Anthony Square, a 0.84-acre (3,400 m2) park shown on city maps from 1839, which was designed by the famous Olmstead Brothers. Also within the neighborhood is the Susan B. Anthony House, which was the suffragist's residence for the last decades of her life, now a museum, as well as the Cunningham Carriage factory built in 1848 on Canal Street. James Cunningham Son & Co. sold more carriages in the United States in the 1880s than all other manufacturers combined. The Canal Street property, which still stands, remained Cunningham's headquarters for more than 100 years. 
This wedge-shaped piece of the city is bordered by S. Clinton Avenue on the west, Field St on the south, and Interstate 490 on the east.  The neighborhood received its moniker when a 19th-century Rochester pig farmer utilized the area to collect swill for his swine.  The area has one of the highest rates of home-ownership in the city. 
The local elementary school is #35, Field Street, which often sponsors a community garden in its courtyard on Pinnacle Street.
|Climate chart ( explanation)|
Running east from Union Street just north of Main Street, Marketview Heights is best known as the location of the Public Market, which offers a variety of groceries and other goods from marketeers from farms and shops from surrounding areas, primarily on the weekends.  
Homestead Heights is in northeast Rochester. It is bordered on the west by Goodman Street, on the north by Clifford Avenue, on the south by Bay Street, and on the east by Culver Road, which is also the border between the city and the town of Irondequoit. The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial. Real estate values are higher on the eastern end of the neighborhood near the Irondequoit border. The neighborhood is approximately 2–21⁄4 miles west of the Irondequoit Bay.
Rochester lies in the humid continental climate zone ( Köppen Dfa and Dfb)  and has four distinct seasons, with cold and snowy winters; temperatures drop to 0 °F (−18 °C) on 4.2 nights annually. Autumn features brilliant foliage colors, and summer sees generally comfortable temperatures that usually stay in the range of 80 to 85 °F (27 to 29 °C) accompanied by moderate to high humidity; the city averages only 6.9 days annually of highs more than 90 °F (32 °C). Precipitation is plentiful year round.
|Climate data for Rochester, New York ( Greater Rochester Int'l), 1981–2010 normals, [a] extremes 1871−present [b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||74
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||55.3
|Average high °F (°C)||31.7
|Average low °F (°C)||17.6
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−2.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−17
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.41
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||28.2
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||19.4||15.9||15.1||13.1||12.2||11.9||10.8||10.8||11.5||13.2||15.3||17.6||166.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||18.0||14.4||9.8||3.2||0.2||0||0||0||0||0.2||5.6||14.5||65.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74.0||74.1||71.0||67.0||67.2||69.4||69.7||74.3||76.8||74.5||76.3||77.5||72.6|
|Average dew point °F (°C)||16.3
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||108.3||118.1||177.7||216.5||266.5||297.6||314.4||273.4||212.3||154.4||81.5||77.5||2,298.2|
|Percent possible sunshine||37||40||48||54||59||65||68||63||57||45||28||28||52|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point, and sun 1961–1990)   |
|Historical Population Figures
U.S. Decennial Census 
2018 Estimate 
|Racial composition||2010 ||1990 ||1970 ||1940 |
|Black or African American||41.7%||31.5%||16.8%||2.3%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||16.4%||8.7%||2.8% ||(X)|
According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 43.7% White or White American, 41.7% Black, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 6.6% from some other race and 4.4% from two or more races. 16.4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, mostly made up of Puerto Ricans.  Non-Hispanic Whites were 37.6% of the population in 2010,  compared to 80.2% in 1970. 
Over the course of the past 50 years Rochester has become a major center for immigration, particularly for arrivals from Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Rochester had the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans of any major city in the United States in 2013,  one of the four largest Turkish American communities,  one of the largest Jamaican American communities in any major U.S city  and a large concentration of Polish Americans along with nearby Buffalo, New York.  In addition, Rochester was ranked number 9 in the nation for the largest Italian population in the United States in 2018. 
In 1997, Rochester was reported to have the largest per-capita deaf population in the United States.  This is attributed to the fact Rochester is home to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf.
In 2010, were 88,999 households, of which 30.0% had children under 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 23.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.0% were non-families. Of all households, 37.1% were made up of individuals, and 9.2% had someone living alone 65 or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.19. The city population was 28.1% under 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 31. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.
The median income for a city household was $27,123, and the median family income was $31,257. Males had a median income of $30,521, versus $25,139 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,588. About 23.4% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.5% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over.
By the 1920s and 1930s, Rochester's population was roughly half Protestant and half Catholic, although a significant Jewish population also was present.  In 1938, there were 214 religious congregations, two thirds of which had been founded after 1880.  At that time, the city added, on average, 2.6 new congregations per year, many founded by immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.  During peak immigration from 1900 to 1920 dozens of churches were established, including four Roman Catholic churches with Italian clergy, three Roman Catholic churches with Slavic clergy, a Polish Baptist church, 15 Jewish synagogues, and four small Italian Protestant mission churches (Baptist, Evangelical, Methodist, and Presbyterian).  Additionally, there are several Buddhist temples in the city: one Cambodian, two Lao, and one Vietnamese.
In 2012, Rochester had 2,061 reported violent crimes, compared to a national average rate of 553.5 violent crimes in cities with populations larger than 100,000.  That same year, Rochester had 827 personal crime incidents and 11,054 property crime incidents.
In 2018, Rochester reported 28 murders (13.9 per 100,000 residents).  In 2012 there were 95 sexual assaults, 816 robberies, 1,104 aggravated assault, 2,978 burglaries, 7,694 larceny thefts, 111 forcible rape, 622 auto thefts and 152 arson.  
Rochester is home to a number of Fortune 1000 and international businesses, including Paychex (  Fortune #662), as well as several national and regional companies, such as Carestream Health. Xerox was founded in Rochester in 1906 as the Haloid Company,  and retains a significant presence in Rochester, although its headquarters are now in Norwalk, Connecticut. Bausch & Lomb moved to Bridgewater, New Jersey, in 2014.  The Gannett newspaper company and Western Union were founded in Rochester by Frank Gannett and Hiram Sibley, respectively, but have since moved to other cities. The median single-family house price was $135,000 in the second quarter of 2015 in greater Rochester, an increase of 5.4% from a year earlier, according to the National Association of Realtors. 
Tech Valley, the technologically recognized area of eastern New York, has spawned a western offshoot into the Rochester and Finger Lakes areas. Since the 2000s, as established companies in Rochester downsized, Rochester and Monroe County's economy has been redirected toward high technology, with new, smaller companies providing the seed capital necessary for business foundation. The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging, as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high-technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University. 
Other organizations such as High Tech Rochester provide local startups with mentorship, office space, and other resources.  Given the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging. The Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology in nearby Henrietta have imaging programs.  In 2006, the University of Rochester became the Rochester area's largest employer, surpassing the Eastman Kodak Company. 
One food product Rochester calls its own is the " white hot", a variant of the hot dog or smoked bratwurst made by the local Zweigle's company and other companies.   Another local specialty is the "Garbage Plate", a trademark of Nick Tahou Hots that traditionally includes macaroni salad, home fries, and two hot dogs or cheeseburgers topped with mustard, onions, and their famous meat hot sauce. Many area restaurants feature copies or variations with the word "plate" commonly used as a general term. Rochester was home to French's Mustard, whose address was 1 Mustard Street. 
Other local franchises include: Bill Gray's (a hamburger/hot dog joint that lays claim to having "The World's Greatest Cheeseburger"), DiBella's, Tom Wahl's, American Specialty Manufacturing producers of Boss Sauce, Salvatore's Old Fashioned Pizzeria, Mark's Pizzeria, Cam's Pizzeria, Pontillo's Pizzeria, Perri's Pizzeria, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Abbott's Frozen Custard. Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, which originated in Syracuse, also operates its second franchise downtown in the former Lehigh Valley Railroad station on the Genesee River.
Rochester is governed by a mayor serving as chief executive of city government and a city council consisting of four district members and five at-large members.  Mayor Lovely A. Warren was first elected mayor in November 2013 defeating incumbent Thomas Richards in both a Democratic primary and general election. Warren took office in January 2014, becoming both the youngest and first female mayor in Rochester history. The city's police department is the Rochester Police Department.
Enforcement of property code violations in Rochester had been handled by the Neighborhood Empowerment Team (NET). Rather than using a centralized code-enforcement office, 10 sectors in Rochester were assigned a total of six NET offices by the city government. However, complaints have been made about the lack of consistency in the manner and severity of enforcement between NET offices. On July 16, 2008, the city announced two of the NET offices would be closed and another relocated, due to what it had found to be the high cost and low value of operating the decentralized network.  Following the restructuring, the remaining offices were renamed Neighborhood Service Centers. Now, one office per city quadrant helps resolve quality-of-life issues, works with neighborhood groups, and paves the way for appropriate housing and economic development.  Most code enforcement processes were consolidated into the Bureau of Inspection and Compliance within the Department of Neighborhood and Business Development located centrally in City Hall.
The city is covered by New York's 25th congressional district currently represented by Democrat Joe Morelle of Irondequoit, Monroe County, in Congress. From 1987 until 2018, the city was represented by longtime Democrat Louise M. Slaughter of Fairport, Monroe County, in Congress.
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, the city was split between three state senate districts:
|District||Area of the city||Senator||Party||First took office||Residence|
|55||Northeastern ||Rich Funke||Republican||2015||Fairport, Monroe County|
|56||Northwestern ||Joseph E. Robach||Republican||2003||Greece, Monroe County|
|61||Southern ||Michael H. Ranzenhofer||Republican||2009||Amherst, Erie County|
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between three state assembly districts:
|District||Areas of the city||Assemblyperson||Party||First took office||Residence|
|136||Northwest portion and easternmost tip ||Vacant|
|137||Center and west ||Vacant|
|138||A question-mark-shaped region sandwiched between districts 136 and 137 ||Harry B. Bronson||Democratic||2011||Rochester, Monroe County|
Rochester is part of
- The 7th Judicial District of the New York Supreme Court
- The 4th Department of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division
Rochester is represented by districts 7, 16, and 21–29 in the Monroe County legislature. 
Rochester is protected by about 500 professional firefighters in the Rochester Fire Department (RFD). It is the third-largest fire department in the state of New York. It operates from 16 fire stations throughout the city, under the command of two battalion chiefs and a deputy chief per shift. The department operates 13 engines, six ladders, one heavy rescue, two hazardous material units, a fireboat, and a salvage unit (Rochester Protectives), as well as many other special and support units. Usually, 87 front line members work each shift, including chief officers and fire investigation (not including staff divisions such as Fire Safety, the Training Academy, and Supply Depot). RFD responds to around 40,000 emergency calls annually. Around 90% of RFD personnel are certified NY State EMTs and roughly 50% of the calls each year are for EMS. The RFD also operates its own apparatus repair division at the Public Safety Training Facility. The chief of department is Willie Jackson. 
The City of Rochester is served by the Rochester City School District, which encompasses all public primary and secondary education. The district is governed by a popularly elected seven-member board of education. Also, parochial and private primary and secondary schools are located within the city. Rochester City Schools consistently post below-average results when compared to the rest of New York, although on-time graduation rates have improved significantly during the past three years. However, the high-school graduation rate for African-American males is lower in Rochester than in any city in the United States (9%).  Charter schools in the city include Rochester Academy Charter School.
Rochester and the surrounding region host a high concentration of colleges and universities, which drive much of the economic growth in the five-county area. The University of Rochester is the only large research institution primarily within the city limits, although Monroe Community College and SUNY Brockport operate campuses downtown. The Highland Park neighborhood is home to Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School (part of whose facility is leased by Ithaca College's Department of Physical Therapy) and an office maintained by the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations.
The University of Rochester is the metropolitan area's oldest and most prominent institution of higher learning, and one of the country's top research centers. It was ranked as the 29th-best university in the nation by U.S. News & World Report for 2019  and was deemed "one of the new Ivies" by Newsweek.  The nursing school has received many awards and honors  and the Simon School of Business is also ranked in the top 30 in many categories. 
The university is also home to the Eastman School of Music, which was ranked the number-one music school in America. It was founded and endowed by George Eastman in his years as a philanthropist.  He also contributed greatly to the University of Rochester from wealth based on the success of Eastman Kodak.
Four institutions began operations in the city and later moved to Rochester's inner-ring suburbs:
- The Empire State College Rochester Learning Center moved from its Prince Street address to Irondequoit in 1999. 
- Monroe Community College moved from Alexander Street to Brighton in 1968. 
- Rochester Institute of Technology moved from South Washington Street to Henrietta, also in 1968. 
- St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry moved from space leased in Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School to Pittsford in 2003.
Rochester was host of the Barleywood Female University, a short-lived women's college from 1852 to 1853. The Lutheran seminary that became Wagner College was established in the city in 1883 and remained for some 35 years before moving to Staten Island. 
The Rochester City School District operates 13 public secondary schools, each serving grades 7–12. In addition, one charter secondary school operates.
- Benjamin Franklin High School
- Charlotte High School
- Dr. Freddie Thomas High School
- East High School
- Frederick Douglass Preparatory School
- All City High
- James Monroe High School
- Nathaniel Rochester Community School
- Northwest College Preparatory School
- School of Business, Finance and Entrepreneurship at Edison
- School of Engineering and Manufacturing at Edison
- School of Imaging and Information Technology at Edison
- School of Applied Technology at Edison
- School of the Arts
- School Without Walls
- Thomas Jefferson High School
- Wilson Magnet High School
Rochester charter schools are free public schools for children in grades K-12. No tests or entrance fees are needed and charter schools accept students who need extra help in school, have IEPs, and are English language learners. Through the website GoodSchoolsRoc.org, parents and caregivers can learn more about academic and extracurricular offerings. Families can apply to all of the 12 schools in 21 locations through GoodSchoolsRoc.
|Address and website||Phone number|
|Academy of Health Sciences||5-6 (will expand to Grade 8)||1001 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613||585-207-0590|
|Discovery Charter School||K-6||133 Hoover Dr., Rochester, NY 14615||585-342-4032|
|Eugenio Maria de Hostos|
|Zimbrich Campus||K-5||27 Zimbrich St., Rochester, NY 14621||585-544-6170|
|Joseph Campus||6-8||1069 Joseph Ave., Rochester, NY 14621||585-697-7115|
|Kodak Tower Campus||9-12||5th Floor – Building 10
343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650
|Exploration Elementary Charter School for Science & Technology||K-3 (will expand to Grade 5)||1001 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613||585-498-4700|
|Genesee Community Charter School||K-6||657 East Ave., Rochester, NY 14607||585-697-1960|
|Renaissance Academy Charter School of the Arts||K-6||299 Kirk Rd., Rochester, NY 14612||585-225-4200|
|Elementary School||K-3 (will expand to Grade 5)||125 Kings Highway S., Rochester 14617
(Bishop Kearny location)
|Middle School||6-8||841 Genesee St., Rochester, NY 14611||585- 235-4141|
|High School||9-12||1757 Latta Rd Greece, NY 14612||585-467-9201|
|Elementary School||K-4||899 Jay St., Rochester, NY 14611||585-235-0008|
|Elementary School - West Campus||K-4||85 St. Jacob St., Rochester, NY 14621||585-368-5100|
|Elementary School #3||K-4||85 St. Jacob St., Rochester, NY 14621||585-368-5100|
|Middle School - Brooks Campus||5-8||630 Brooks Ave., Rochester, NY 14619||585-436-8629|
|Middle School - West Campus||5-8||432 Chili Ave., Rochester, NY 14611||585-368-5090|
|High school||9-12||305 Andrews St., Rochester, NY 14604||585-368-5111|
|University Preparatory Charter School for Young Men||7-12||1290 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613||585-672-1280|
|Urban Choice Charter School||K-8||1020 Maple St., Rochester, NY 14611||585-288-5702|
|Vertus High School||9-12||21 Humboldt St. Rochester, NY 14609||585-747-8911|
|Young Women’s College Prep||7-12||133 Hoover Dr., Rochester, NY 14615||585-254-0320|
- Nazareth Academy
- John Marshall High School
The city of Rochester is home to numerous cultural institutions. These include the Garth Fagan Dance, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, the Rochester City Ballet, George Eastman Museum International Museum of Photography and Film, Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester Contemporary Art Center, Rochester Museum & Science Center, the Rochester Broadway Theater League, Strong National Museum of Play, the Strasenburgh Planetarium, Hochstein School of Music & Dance, the Auditorium Theater, and numerous arts organizations. Geva Theatre Center is the city's largest professional theater.
The East End Theater is on East Main Street in the theater district. The Rochester Association of Performing Arts is a non-profit organization that provides educational theater classes to the community.
Rochester's East End district, located downtown, is well known as the center of the city's nightlife. It is the stopping point for East Avenue, which along with the surrounding streets is occupied by nightclubs, lounges, coffee shops, bars, and high-end restaurants. The Eastman School of Music, one of the top musical institutes in the nation, and its auditorium are also within the neighborhood. The Eastman Theatre is host to the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and other musical/drama events.
There are other, smaller enclaves of after-hours activity scattered across the city. "Southeast" is the center of Rochester's prosperous arts scene, particularly in and around the Park Avenue neighborhood (which is known for its many coffee shops, cafes, bistros and boutique shops). Nearby on University Avenue can be found several plazas, like the Village Gate, which give space to contemporary bars, restaurants and art galleries that stay open late into the night. Monroe Avenue, several streets over, is filled with pubs, small restaurants, smoke shops, theaters and several clubs as well as cigar bars and hookah lounges. These neighborhoods are home to many artists, musicians, students, and Rochester's large LGBT community.
The South Wedge district, directly south of downtown, has seen significant gentrification in recent years and now is the site of many modern cafes and bars that serve the student community attending the University of Rochester several blocks away from the neighborhoods. The "Wedge" is quickly becoming one of the most vibrant areas within the city limits; its numerous nightspots keep the streets active with college students and young professionals, many of whom live there due to the abundance of affordable housing and proximity to many of the region's major hospitals, parks, and colleges.
Rochester's parks include Highland, Cobb's Hill, Durand Eastman, Genesee Valley, Maplewood, Edgerton, Seneca, Turning Point, and Ontario Beach; four of these were designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.  The city's Victorian-era Mt. Hope Cemetery includes the final resting places of Susan B. Anthony, Frederick Douglass, George B. Selden, and many others. Other scenic sites are Holy Sepulchre and neighboring Riverside Cemetery.
Throughout its history, Rochester has acquired several nicknames; it has been known as "the World's Image Center",  " the Flour City", " the Flower City".  As a legacy of its time as "The Flower City", Rochester hosts a Lilac Festival for ten days every May, when nearly 400 varieties of lilacs bloom, and 100,000 visitors arrive.
Rochester hosts a number of cultural festivals every year, including:
- Established in 2002, the Rochester International Jazz Festival is one of the largest Jazz Festivals in America. It takes place in late June at dozens of clubs, concert halls and free outdoor stages throughout Downtown Rochester; past performers include Herbie Hancock, Sonny Rollins, Dave Brubeck, Oscar Peterson, Chick Corea, and Wynton Marsalis. A record 205,000 people attended the event in 2016  
- The 360 365 Film Festival (formerly the Rochester High-Falls International Film Festival) held at the George Eastman House's Dryden Theatre and the Little Theatre downtown. Several Films screened at 360/365 have been honored at the Golden Globes and the Academy Awards 
- Rochester International Film Festival, the world's oldest continuously held short-film festival 
- The Lilac Festival at Highland Park, which is the oldest and most popular festival in Rochester and the largest event of its kind in North America, attended by over 500,000 people annually.  Established in 1898, it includes multiple attractions aside from the Lilacs themselves  These musical acts include the Wailers who attended in 2012 and 2014 
- The Rochester Fringe Festival
- The Corn Hill Arts Festival
The Democrat and Chronicle, a Gannet newspaper, is Rochester's main daily newspaper. There are numerous other publications and magazines that cater to many of the city's different people groups or special interests such as Insider magazine, City Newspaper, Rochester Business Journal, and the Minority Reporter. Former publications serving the city include the Rochester Post Express  and Rochester Evening Journal.  Rochester is also served by several local television and radio stations, with WROC-TV as the oldest television station serving the Rochester metro area.
- Asbury First United Methodist Church
- Blue Cross Arena at the War Memorial
- Cinema Theater
- Cobbs Hill Park and Reservoir
- Eastman Business Park
- Ellwanger Garden
- First Unitarian Church of Rochester, described by a Pulitzer-Prize-winning architectural critic as one of "the most significant works of religious architecture of the century". 
- Frederick Douglass Monument
- Frontier Field
- George Eastman Museum
- Geva Theatre Center
- High Falls and the High Falls Entertainment District
- Highland Park
- House of Guitars
- Liberty Pole
- Little Theatre, one of the oldest art-house movie theaters in the country
- Maplewood Park Rose Garden
- Midtown Plaza, the nation's first downtown shopping mall (partially demolished – Tower and Seneca Building still stand).
- Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, the nation's first Victorian cemetery
- Nick Tahou Hots featuring the Garbage Plate and a charity run in its name
- Ontario Beach Park and the Port of Rochester at Charlotte
- Rochester Broadway Theatre League at the Auditorium Theatre
- Rochester Contemporary Art Center
- Rochester's Public Market
- Rochester Riverside Convention Center
- Rochester Institute of Technology
- St. Joseph's Church and Rectory (Rochester, New York)
- Seneca Park Zoo, one of the top three family attractions in the area
- Strong National Museum of Play, nation's second-largest children's museum housing the National Toy Hall of Fame
- Strasenburgh Planetarium, part of the Rochester Museum & Science Center
- Susan B. Anthony House
- Times Square Building, noted for its 42' tall "Wings of Progress" sculpture.
- University Avenue and Park Avenue Artistic Districts
- University of Rochester
- University of Rochester Arboretum
- University of Rochester's Eastman School of Music and Eastman Theatre
- Water Street Music Hall
Rochester was named the top minor league sports market in the country by Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal in July 2005, the number 10 "best golf city" in America by Golf Magazine in 2007,  and the fifth-best "sports town" in the country by Scarborough Research in September 2008.
Rochester has several professional sports teams: 
|Rochester Red Wings||Baseball||1899||IL||Frontier Field||20|
|Rochester Americans||Ice hockey||1956||AHL||Blue Cross Arena||6|
|Rochester RazorSharks||Basketball||2005||TBL||Blue Cross Arena||8|
|Rochester Knighthawks||Indoor lacrosse||2019||NLL||Blue Cross Arena||0|
In addition, there are numerous other amateur and club sports such as rowing and rugby. Rochester and its surrounding area also has a rich golf history and has hosted numerous professional tournaments on its local golf courses.  The city also boasts other facilities such as 13 full-time recreation centers, 19 swimming programs, 3 artificial ice rinks, 66 softball/baseball fields, 47 tennis courts, 5 football fields, 7 soccer fields, and 43 outdoor basketball courts. The Rochester Royals (now the Sacramento Kings) were a professional basketball team in Rochester from 1948 to 1957. They won the NBA title in 1951, defeating the New York Knicks in 7 games. 
Rochester is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the U.S. which does not include at least one college or university participating at the NCAA Division I level in all sports. Almost all area college sports are played at the NCAA Division III level. The only exceptions are the RIT men's and women's ice hockey teams, which compete at the Division I level, and the University of Rochester men's squash team, which is consistently ranked top 5 in Division I. RIT and UR's other sports, as well as both institutions as a whole, are in Division III. The men's team made it to the NCAA Frozen Four in 2010  and the women's team won the Division III national championship in 2012, just before switching over to Division I.  
As of the 2014–2015 academic year, the only college in the Rochester area not officially classified at the Division III level is Roberts Wesleyan College, which completed its transition from membership in the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA); Roberts Wesleyan was granted full membership in NCAA Division II beginning with the 2014–15 year. 
A short-lived, high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry Spirit of Ontario I built in Australia, nicknamed The Breeze or The Fast Ferry, linked Rochester to Toronto across Lake Ontario. Canadian American Transportation Systems (CATS) was the company in charge of the Fast Ferry operations. The Spirit of Ontario I had a delayed arrival on April 29, 2004, as a result of hitting a pier in New York City on April 5, 2004, and was finally officially christened on June 16, 2004, at the Port of Rochester. The Fast Ferry was bought by the City of Rochester in an attempt to save the project. The Fast Ferry operated between June 17, 2004, and December 12, 2005, and cost the city $42.5 million. The project was initially well received by inhabitants of Rochester.
Considerable effort was spent by inhabitants of Rochester to build up the waterfront to embrace the idea as well as to capitalize on potential tourism which was estimated to be an additional 75,000 tourists per month. In the first three months of operation the fast ferry had carried about 140,000 people between Rochester and Toronto. A second Fast Ferry was proposed by CATS on August 27, 2004, which would have cost an additional $100 million. There were a number of problems concerning the ship's engine, the lack of mutual building up of waterfronts in Toronto and the inability of the city to put pressure on the company responsible for the production of the Fast Ferry. This resulted in the failure of the project. It was sold to Förde Reederei Seetouristik, a German company, for $30 million.
In 2010, the GRIA was ranked the 14th-least expensive airport in the United States by Cheapflights.  This was considered a major achievement for the county and the airport authority; as recently as 2003, Rochester's ticket prices were among the highest in the country, ranking as high as fourth in 1999.  
FedEx founder Fred Smith has stated in several articles that Xerox's development of the copier, and its need to quickly get parts to customers, was one of the economic issues that led him to pioneer the overnight delivery business in 1971.   Because Xerox manufactured its copiers in Rochester,  the city was one of the original 25 cities FedEx served on its first night of operations on April 17, 1973. 
In 2016, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced a $63.4 million project to renovate the GRIA.  The renovations include a large canopy extending over both main entrances, solar panels, a rainwater collection system, and modern communication and security enhancements.  All construction was completed by October 2018. 
Rail service to Rochester is provided by the Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station, served by Amtrak's Empire Service between New York City and Niagara Falls, the Maple Leaf between New York City and Toronto, and the Lake Shore Limited between New York City/Boston and Chicago. Prior to 1965, Rochester had a smaller station reminiscent of New York City's " Grand Central Terminal". It was among Claude Fayette Bragdon's best works in Rochester, New York. The current station is modeled after Bragdon's work and named in honor of former longtime congresswomen Louise Slaughter. 
Rochester used to be a major stop on several railroad lines. It was served by the New York Central Railroad which served Chicago and Buffalo to the west and Albany and New York City to the east and southeast. The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway (absorbed by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad) served Buffalo and Pittsburgh until 1955. A rail route to Salamanca in southern New York State afforded connections in Salamanca to southwestern and southeastern New York State.  The last long-distance train in a southern direction was the Northern Express/Southern Express that went to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania via Canandaigua, Elmira and Williamsport; service ended in 1971.  Also serving Rochester was the Erie Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad.
Local bus service in Rochester and its county suburbs is provided by the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (RGRTA) via its Regional Transit Service (RTS) subsidiary. RTS also provides suburban service outside the immediate Rochester area and runs smaller transportation systems in outlying counties, such as WATS (Wayne Area Transportation System). All RTS routes are based out of the RTS Transit Center on Mortimer Street.
From 1927 to 1957, Rochester had a light rail underground transit system called the Rochester Subway. It was the smallest city in the world to have one.  The subway, which was operated by the Rochester Transit Corporation, was shut down in 1956.  The eastern half of the subway past Court Street became the Eastern Expressway with the western end of the open cut being filled in 1976. The tunnel was last used for freight service by Gannett Company to bring paper to the printing presses for the Democrat and Chronicle in 1997. Over the years there have been privately sponsored proposals put forth that encourage the region to support a new system, possibly using some of the old tunnel.  One includes converting the Broad Street bridge tunnel—the former canal aqueduct—into an enhanced pedestrian corridor, which would also include a Rochester Transportation Museum, and a tram system. 
The former canal and subway tunnel have become a frequent source of debate. People experiencing homelessness use the tunnels for shelter. The city has considered multiple solutions for the space including recreating a canal way, putting the subway system back in or filling the tunnels entirely.   The plan to fill the tunnels in completely generated criticism as the cost of filling would not generate nor leverage economic development. The western end of the tunnel was filled in to the former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad turnout in 2010 as part of a redevelopment of the above street and the eastern end of the tunnel is undergoing redevelopment. The Broad Street aqueduct and most famous part of the tunnel is on the National Register of Historic Places being added in 1976. 
Three exits off the New York State Thruway ( Interstate 90) serve Rochester. Rochester has an extensive system of limited-access highways (called 'expressways' or just 'highways', never 'freeways') which connects all parts of the city and the Thruway.
Rochester's expressway system, conceived in the 1950s, was designed as two concentric circles with feeder expressways from the west, south and east. The system allows for quick travel within the metropolitan area and a lack of the traffic gridlock typically found in cities of comparable size; in part this is because the system was designed to accommodate rapid travel between the suburbs and downtown,  and also because it was built when the city's population was over 330,000 whereas today it is an entire third less. 
The Outer Loop circles just outside the city limits while the former Inner Loop once circled around the immediate downtown area within the city (the easternmost sector was closed in 2015). From the west are Lake Ontario State Parkway, NY-531 and I-490; Interstate 390 feeds from the south; and NY-104, NY-441, and I-490 approach from the east.
In 2016, the City of Rochester launched the Pace Car Program. "Pace Car drivers sign a pledge to drive within the speed limit, drive courteously, yield to pedestrians and be mindful of bicyclists and others on the street." 
In the early 1970s, the Genesee Expressway Task Force, City leaders, and NYSDOT studied the feasibility of connecting the outer and inner Loops with a new southern expressway. The proposed route extended north from the I-390 and I-590 interchange in Brighton, cutting through Rochester's Swillburg neighborhood. In 1972, consultants Berger Lehman Associates recommended a new 'Busway', an expressway with dedicated bus lanes, similar to Bus Rapid Transit.  The expressway extension was never built.
Three Interstate Highways run through the City of Rochester:
Interstate 390 (Genesee Expressway)
- I-390 runs south–north, crossing I-90 (exit 46) and routing north through Rochester's western suburbs. Its northern end is at I-490, however it continues north as NY-390 until it merges into the Lake Ontario State Parkway. South of I-90, I-390 runs to Avoca, New York, where it meets up with U.S. Route 15 and the Southern Tier Expressway, I-86.
Interstate 490 (Western/Eastern Expressway)
- I-490 runs west–east through Rochester, starting at Le Roy, New York and ending in Victor, New York. It interchanges with the two other Interstates in Rochester: I-390 at the western city limit and I-590 at the eastern limit, as well as connecting at both ends with the Thruway, I-90 (exits 47 and 45). In July 2007, a new bridge over the Genesee River was completed and named the Frederick Douglass–Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge.
- I-590 runs south–north through Rochester's eastern suburbs. Its southern end is at I-390, while the northern end is at I-490; the highway continues north to the shore of Lake Ontario as NY-590.
- In decreasing usage is the term " Can of Worms", referring to the previously dangerous at-grade intersection of Interstate 490 and expressway NY-590 on the eastern edge of the Rochester city limits, bordering the suburb of Brighton. In the 1980s, a multimillion-dollar project created a system of overpasses and ramps that reduced the danger but resulted in the loss of certain exits.
New York State Route Expressways:
New York State Route 104 (Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway, West Ridge Road)
- NY 104 – Just east of the NY 590 interchange, NY 104 becomes the Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway and crosses the Irondequoit Bay Bridge. On the other side of the Bay Bridge, in the town of Webster, NY 104 has exits before returning to an at-grade highway at Basket Road.
- NY 390 is an extension of Interstate 390 from the I-390/I-490 interchange in Gates. The northern terminus is at the Lake Ontario State Parkway in Greece, less than a mile from the Lake Ontario shoreline.
- NY 590 is a limited-access extension of Interstate 590 at runs from an interchange between Interstate 490 and I-590 on the Brighton/Rochester border. The northern terminus is at Culver Road in Irondequoit, near Sea Breeze (the western shore of Irondequoit Bay at Lake Ontario).
- The Inner Loop Runs from Interstate 490 to Main Street on the north end and from 490 to Monroe Avenue at the south end. Formerly a loop, the eastern end was demolished and replaced with a surface road between 2014 and 2017. Unsigned reference New York State Route 940T begins and ends at Interstate 490, and the rest of the Loop is part of I-490 between exits 13 and 15, including the Frederick Douglass – Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge. This expressway is commonly used to define the borders of downtown Rochester.
- Lake Ontario State Parkway travels from Lakeside Beach State Park in Carlton, Orleans County. The eastern end is at Lake Avenue in the city of Rochester in Monroe County.
Notable individuals who were born in and/or lived in Rochester include American social reformer and women's rights activist Susan B. Anthony, African-American social reformer and abolitionist Frederick Douglass, musician Chuck Mangione, Kodak founder George Eastman, Paychex founder Tom Golisano, Olympic soccer player Abby Wambach, opera singer Renée Fleming, jazz singer Cab Calloway, composer Howard Hanson, mandopop singer Wang Leehom, actress Kristen Wiig, Olympic swimmer Ryan Lochte, NHL ice hockey player Ryan Callahan, YouTube personalities Andrew Rea ( Binging with Babish) and Jenna Marbles, UFC Light Heavyweight Champion Jon Jones, and former NFL draft picks Kevin McMahan and Chandler Jones.[ citation needed]
Rochester has twelve sister cities,  as designated by Sister Cities International. They are all dedicated by a branched concrete walkway over the Genesee River, dubbed the Sister Cities Bridge (known as the Frank and Janet Lamb Bridge since October 2006): 
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Rochester kept January 1871 to September 1940 at downtown and at Greater Rochester Int'l since October 1940. For more information, see Threadex
- "RootsWeb.com Home Page". www.rootsweb.ancestry.com.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "2018 ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2020-04-18.
- Publications, Rochester History Alive; Kling, Warren (April 1, 2008). America's First Boomtown - Rochester, NY: The Early Years and the Notables Who Shaped It. Rochester History Alive Publications. ISBN 9780981510705.
- "Fisher, RIT, U of R named among best universities in U.S." 13 WHAM News. WHAM-TV. 2018-09-10. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Daneman, Matthew, "Our manufacturing roots sprout jobs", Democrat and Chronicle (March 2, 2008) ( archived copy Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine)
- "Gross Metropolitan Product of U.S. Metro Areas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- George Eastman Museum
- "Facts on Rochester" Archived March 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Levy, Francesca (June 7, 2010). "America's Best Places to Raise a Family". Forbes.com. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- "Best Cities for Families". Kiplinger. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2018". www.lboro.ac.uk. GaWC. 2018. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Oklahoma State University Library. "Treaty of Big Tree". Digital.library.okstate.edu. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Sam, Bleiweis (2013). The Downfall of the Iroquois (PDF). Emory University.
- Catapano, Andrea Lucielle (2007). The Rising of the Ongwehònwe: Sovereignty, Identity, and Representation on the Six Nations Reserve (PDF). Stony Brook University.
- History of Rochester and Monroe County, New York: From the Earliest Historic Times to the Beginning of 1907, Volume 1 by William Farley Peck page 181
- "Erie Canal Time Machine - 1918: The Barge Canal". New York State Archives. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Desrochers, Pierre; Shimizu, Hiroko (2012-06-05).
The Locavore's Dilemma: In Praise of the 10,000-mile Diet. PublicAffairs. pp.
flour producing cities 1838.
- Hyatt, Eddie (2002), 2000 Years Of Charismatic Christianity, Lake Mary, FL: Charisma House, p. 126, ISBN 978-0-88419-872-7
- Blake McKelvey, "The Germans of Rochester: Their Traditions and Contributions" Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Rochester History, Vol. 20, No. 1 (January 1958), pp. 7–8.
- "The Reputation of Abraham Lincoln". C-SPAN.org.
- "Frederick Douglass" Archived April 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, History, University of Rochester
- "Senators to Vote on Suffrage Today; Fate of Susan B. Anthony Amendment Hangs in Balance on Eve of Final Test". New York Times. September 26, 1918.
- "Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State: New York" (PDF). National Park Service.
- Like many early companies, its production was small, about 400 a year including hearses, designed by Volney Lacey. G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
- Mark Hare. "Riots still haunt Rochester". July 16. 2014. https://www.rochestercitynewspaper.com/rochester/riots-still-haunt-rochester/Content?oid=2408308
- Hosmer, Howard C. A Panoramic History of Rochester and Monroe County, New York, 1979. Windsor Publishers.
- James Goodman and Brian Sharp (2014) "Riots spawned FIGHT, other community efforts", Democrat & Chronicle, July 20. https://eu.democratandchronicle.com/story/news/2014/07/19/franklin-florence-dorothy-hall-kodak-fight/12853477/
- R. D. G. Wadhwani. "Kodak, FIGHT, and the Definition of Civil Rights in Rochester, New York: 1966-1967". The Historian. Vol. 60, No. 1 (FALL), pp. 59-75
- "New York – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- "United States Census Bureau Quick Facts Rochester, NY". U.S. Census Bureau.
- Rochester, New York Population 2019. World Population Review. http://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/rochester-population/
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Broad, William J. (2018-06-05). "How the Ice Age Shaped New York". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Fairchild, H. L. (1896). "Kame Areas in Western New York South of Irondequoit and Sodus Bays". The Journal of Geology. 4 (2): 129–159. doi: 10.1086/607458. ISSN 0022-1376. JSTOR 30054321.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
- "City data".
- "Lona History Page".
- "Little Italy".
- "Historic info".
- "Subway info".
- "Little Italy".
- "Government data".
- "19th Ward Community Association". 19wca.org. Archived from the original on June 20, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Rochester's 19th Ward. 2005. Michael Leavy and Glenn Leavy.
- "Rochester City Newspaper". City Newspaper. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/01/15 through 6/05/15. National Park Service. June 12, 2015.
- "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/29/15 through 7/02/15. National Park Service. July 10, 2015.
- "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 8/31/15 through 9/04/15. National Park Service. September 11, 2015.
- "Port of Rochester Project Now On Hold, Charlotte Residents Say It's Great News". Time Warner Cable News. June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- LaFrank, Kathleen (September 1988). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on November 22, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "James Cunningham Son & Co". carriagemuseumlibrary.org. Carriage Museum of America. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
- "SOUTHEAST NEIGHBORHOODS - SWILLBURG". Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- IV. Neighborhoods by the Numbers - City of Rochester, Interface Studio LLC, 2006, pp. 56–62, retrieved 2020-02-28
- "NORTHEAST NEIGHBORHOODS - MARKETVIEW HEIGHTS". CityofRochester.gov. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "PUBLIC MARKET". CityofRochester.gov. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
- "Station Name: NY ROCHESTER GTR INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "WMO Climate Normals for ROCHESTER/ROCHESTER-MONROE CO,NY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
- "Census" (PDF). United States Census. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2010. page 36
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Rochester (city), New York". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- From 15% sample
- "Rochester (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2013 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Kaya, Ilhan (2005). "Identity and Space: The Case of Turkish Americans*". Geographical Review. 95 (3): 425–440. doi: 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2005.tb00374.x. ISSN 1931-0846.
- "Ancestry Map of Jamaican Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
- Axelson, Ben (2018-02-28). "Which Upstate NY cities are the most Irish, Italian, Polish? 30 ancestries, ranked". newyorkupstate. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "The 50 U.S. cities with the most Italian Americans". National Italian American Foundation. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
- "Making History: A Black Man's Hands Speak Eloquently". The New York Times. May 24, 2003. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- Form, William (September 2000). "Italian Protestants: Religion, Ethnicity, and Assimilation". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 39 (3): 307–320. doi: 10.1111/0021-8294.00026. JSTOR 1387816.
- "Offenses Reported to Law Enforcement by State by City 100,000 and over in population Montana through Ohio". Uniform Crime Reports. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Altheimer, Irshad. "Rochester Homicide Statistics for 2018" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- "Rochester, New York". City-data.com. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- "Crime in Rochester, New York (NY)". City-data.com. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Xerox Corporation Fact Book: Company facts, history, information". Xerox.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Tobin, Tom (June 6, 2014). "Bausch + Lomb tower in downtown Rochester to be sold for $15 million". Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
-  Accessed October 29, 2015.
- "High Tech Rochester adds 4 businesses". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. November 7, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- , High Tech Rochester website
- [The Society for Imaging Science and Technology] "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link), the Society for Imaging Science and Technology website
- Economic Development, University of Rochester "Connections" website
- "Zweigle's - Recipes using our products". www.zweigles.com. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- "Boardwalk Hot Dog (Brooklyn)". Men's Journal. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- "Whatever Happened To ... French's?". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Morrell (30 May 2015). "Whatever Happened to ... Ragu?". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "City of Rochester | Meet Rochester's City Councilmembers". Cityofrochester.gov. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- City Begins NET Consolidation, WXXI – June 17, 2008.
-  Neighborhood Service Centers
- W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 55" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 56" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 61" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 136" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 137" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 138" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Legislative District Map" (PDF). Rochester, New York: Monroe County Board of Elections. 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
- WHAM (2018-12-20). "Longtime city firefighter appointed new chief in Rochester". WHAM. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- "Rochester's Best Schools: Ratings, Reviews, and Grades – Zillow School Information". Zillow.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
"Best Colleges 2014: University of Rochester". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
University of Rochester's ranking in the 2014 edition of Best Colleges is National Universities, 32.
- "America's 25 New Elite 'Ivies', August 21, 2008". Newsweek. August 30, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
- Rankings, Achievements & Honors – School of Nursing Archived May 31, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Rankings : Simon Graduate School of Business Archived June 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "University of Rochester Rises in U.S. News Rankings", University of Rochester Press Releases
"Empire State College in Rochester". Saratoga Springs, New York:
Empire State College. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
In 1999, the center moved from Prince Street to 1475 Winton Road North, where it celebrates 30 years of service, of excellence and innovation.
"The Inauguration of Anne M. Kress; About MCC". Brighton, Monroe County, New York:
Monroe Community College. Archived from
the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
In June 1968, MCC moved to a new, modern campus at 1000 East Henrietta Road. The college opened its Damon City Campus, located at Main Street and Clinton Avenue, in January 1992.
- "History of RIT". Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
"College graduates fuel Rochester's fame".
Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York. April 24, 2010.
1088-5153. Archived from
the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
What is now Staten Island's Wagner College was founded in Rochester in 1883 as the Lutheran Proseminary. It operated out of two homes in its first three years until Rochester builder John George Wagner donated the money that the college used to start its own campus on Oregon Street near downtown. In 1886, the school was renamed in honor of Wagner, and in 1918, it moved to Staten Island...Alt URL
- Wickes, Majorie; O'Connell, Tim (April 1988). "The Legacy of Frederick Law Olmsted" (PDF). Rochester History. Rochester Public Library. L (2). ISSN 0035-7413. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 8, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2007.
- "Photography & Film". Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- Rochester International Jazz Festival
- "Xerox Rochester International Jazz Festival". Rochesterjazz.com. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "About Us "High Falls Film Festival – Rochester, NY". Film360365.com. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Welcome". Rochesterfilmfest.org. January 23, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Rochester, New York". Lilac Festival. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Rochester, New York". Lilac Festival. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "CONCERT UPDATE: Lilac Fest announces three headliners". City Newspaper. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "About The post express. (Rochester, N.Y.) 1882–1923". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "About Rochester evening journal. (Rochester, N.Y.) 19??-1923". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Paul Goldberger (December 26, 1982). "Housing for the Spirit". New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Rochester makes 10-best golf cities list (November 27, 2007)". Democrat & Chronicle. Retrieved November 27, 2007.[ dead link]
- "Rochester Sports". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
- "America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses". Retrieved 2015-08-19.
- "Sacramento Kings", Wikipedia, 2020-07-25, retrieved 2020-08-11
- Venniro, Joe (27 March 2010). "Men's hockey makes history and advances to 2010 NCAA Frozen Four after defeating New Hampshire in NCAA East Region Final". Rochester Institute of Technology Athletics. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- "NATIONAL CHAMPIONS! Women's hockey defeats Norwich 4-1 to win its first NCAA National title". Rochester Institute of Technology Athletics. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- "Women's hockey moves to Division I". www.rit.edu. Rochester Institute of Technology. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Bradley, Steve (July 13, 2011). "Roberts Wesleyan moving up to Division II athletics". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- Shearing, Emily (July 17, 2010). "CheapFlights rates Rochester airports No. 14". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Dawson, Evan (July 12, 2010). "Rochester's Airport: Are Flights Actually Cheaper These Days?". Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
- Johnston, David Cay (March 21, 1999). "Travel Advisory: Correspondent's Report; Upstate New York May Get Air Fare Relief". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- "Fred Smith on the birth of FedEx". Bloomberg Businessweek. September 20, 2004. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- Neill, Kenneth (2019-04-17). "Federal Express: The Million-Dollar Dream Machine". Memphis magazine. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Staff Reporter, Wall Street Journal (September 16, 1970). "Xerox Corp. to Build $15 Million Complex Near Rochester, N.Y.". Wall Street Journal. ProQuest 133473007.
- "History of FedEx Operating Companies". FedEx. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- Clausen, Todd (21 September 2020). "Airport getting $39.8M for upgrades". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Sharp, Brian (April 23, 2018). "Airport canopy installation to begin; later, an Etch A Sketch and Pong". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Spicer, Velvet (2018-10-31). "Rochester airport completes $79.4 million renovation project". Rochester Business Journal. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "Rochester's train station named in honor of late Congresswoman Louise Slaughter". WHAM-TV. 2019-03-25. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Buffalo Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway http://www.r2parks.net/BR&P.html
- Christopher T. Baer (September 8, 2009). NAMED TRAINS OF THE PRR INCLUDING THROUGH SERVICES (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-03.
- Jacobs, Frank (2010-07-23). "The Ghost Subway of Rochester, New York". Big Think. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Middleton, William D. (2003). Metropolitan Railways: Rapid Transit in America. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34179-2.
- Sharp, Brian (29 June 2018). "City eyes parking in Rochester's old subway tunnel". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "T.Y. Lin International Group | Projects | Historic Erie Canal Aqueduct/Broad Street Corridor". T.Y. Lin International Group. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- McDermott, Meaghan M. (3 October 2015). "Visitors go below to see unused tunnel". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- New York SP Erie Canal: Second Genesee Aqueduct. National Register of Historic Places. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. 1976.
- Harrison, David (2019-12-01). "Highways Give Way to Homes as Cities Rebuild". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- Schneider, Keith (2016-11-01). "Taking Out a Highway That Hemmed Rochester In". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "City of Rochester's Pace Car Program Asks Drivers to Be Part of the Solution - Reconnect Rochester works to promote transportation choices that enable a more vibrant and equitable community in the Rochester, NY region". Reconnectrochester.org. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Pritchard, Keith (December 24, 1972). "Fate of 'Busway' Rests With Drivers". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.
- "Rochester's Sister Cities". City of Rochester. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
"Sister Cities Bridge Renamed "Frank and Janet Lamb Sister Cities Bridge"" (Press release). City of Rochester, New York. October 11, 2006. Archived from
the original on January 11, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
Mayor Robert J. Duffy conducted a ceremony today on the Sister Cities Bridge, officially renaming it the Frank and Janet Lamb Sister Cities Bridge.
- "Rennes-Rochester: déjà 55 ans de vie commune!" [Rennes-Rochester: Already 55 years of common life!] (in French). Ville de Rennes et Rennes Métropole. June 3, 2013. Archived from the original on July 16, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Rochester, NY, USA". Stadt Würzburg. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Рочестер (США) [Rochester (USA)] (in Russian). Администрация Великого Новгорода (Administration of Veliky Novgorod). Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- Keene, Michael. Folklore and Legends of Rochester: The Mystery of Hoodoo Corner and Other Tales (2011) excerpt and text search
- McKelvey, Blake. Rochester on the Genesee: The Growth of a City (1993) excerpt and text search; 292 pp; a brief history by the leading specialist
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rochester, New York.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Rochester (New York).|