¡Bienvenido! Welcome to the Mexico portal
Nahuan languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM
[esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] (
listen)), is a
country in the southern portion of
North America. It is
bordered to the north by the
United States; to the south and west by the
Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by
Belize, and the
Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the
Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi) and has approximately 128,649,565 inhabitants, making it the world's
13th-largest country by area,
10th-most populous country, and
most populous Spanish-speaking nation. It is a
federation comprising 31
Mexico City, its
capital city and
largest metropolis. Other
major urban areas include
Ciudad Juárez, and
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six
cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced
Mesoamerican civilizations, most well-known among them the
Maya and the
Aztecs. In 1521, the
conquered and colonized the territory from its base in
Mexico City, which then became known as
New Spain. The
Catholic Church played an important role as millions of indigenous inhabitants converted. These populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious material, which became a major source of wealth for the Spanish. Mexico became an independent
nation state after the successful
Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821.
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Mexico national football team (
Spanish: Selección de fútbol de México) represents
Mexico in international
football and is governed by the
Mexican Football Federation (
Spanish: Federación Mexicana de Fútbol). It competes as a member of
CONCACAF, which encompasses the countries of North and Central America, and the Caribbean. The team plays its home games at the
Mexico has qualified to sixteen
and has qualified consecutively since 1994, making it one of six countries to do so. The Mexico national team, along with
are the only two nations to make it out of the group stage over the last seven World Cups. Mexico played
in the first match of
the first World Cup
on 13 July 1930. Mexico's best progression in World Cups has been reaching the quarter-finals in both the
1986 World Cups
, both of which were staged on Mexican soil.
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On 1 May 2015, the
Jalisco New Generation Cartel (CJNG) carried out a series of attacks in
Mexico, and four adjacent states to prevent the capture of
Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes (alias "El Mencho"), their suspected leader. The operation began early that morning in
Villa Purificación, where four
Mexican Air Force and
Federal Police (PF) helicopters spotted a CJNG convoy protecting El Mencho. As one of the helicopters flew over the convoy, the CJNG members shot it down using
rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launchers. Nine law enforcement officers died as a result of the attack, and multiple others were wounded. This was the first incident in the
Mexican Drug War in which organized crime groups shot down an aircraft.
As the government extended its crackdown on the CJNG, it issued its highest security alert level and coordinated municipal, state, and federal security forces. The CJNG responded to the offensive by hijacking 39 buses, trucks, and cars throughout western Mexico, setting them on fire, and using them to block roads and highways in multiple locations. They also burned several gas stations, banks, and businesses. Most of the attacks took place in
, Jalisco's capital and the second-largest urban area in Mexico. According to the government, the scale and level of coordination by the CJNG in this attack had not been displayed by other crime groups in Mexico.
Selected biography -
Maximilian I (
Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the
Second Mexican Empire. He was a younger brother of the
Franz Joseph I. After a distinguished career in the
Austrian Navy as its commander, he accepted an offer by
Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico, conditional on a national
plebiscite in his favour. France, together with
Spain and the
United Kingdom, had
invaded Mexico in the winter of 1861 to pressure the Mexican government into settling its debts with the three powers after Mexico had announced a suspension on debt repayment; the Spanish and British both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with Mexico's republican government and realising the true intention of the French, while France sought to conquer the country. Seeking to legitimize French rule, Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new pro-
French Mexican monarchy. With the support of the French army and a group of
Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the
Liberal Party administration of the new Mexican president,
Benito Juárez, Maximilian was offered the position of
Emperor of Mexico, which he accepted on 10 April 1864.
The Empire managed to gain the diplomatic recognition of several European powers, including
. The United States however, continued to recognize Juárez as the legal president of Mexico. Maximilian never completely defeated the Mexican Republic; Republican forces led by Juárez continued to be active during Maximilian's rule. With the end of the
American Civil War
in 1865, the United States (which had been too distracted by its own conflict to respond to the Europeans' 1861 invasion in what it considered to be its
sphere of influence
) began providing more explicit aid to Juárez's forces. Matters worsened for Maximilian after French armies withdrew from Mexico in 1866, in part due to American pressure, in part due to needing to deal with matters
closer to home
. The Empire collapsed without French aid, and he was captured and executed by the Mexican government, which then restored the Mexican Republic.
Selected fare or cuisine -
A sugar skull, a common gift for children and decoration for the
Day of the Dead
A calavera [plural: calaveras] (
Spanish – pronounced
[kalaˈβeɾa] for "
skull") is a representation of a human skull. The term is most often applied to edible or decorative skulls made (usually by hand) from either sugar (called
Alfeñiques) or clay that are used in the Mexican celebration of the
Day of the Dead (
Spanish: Día de Muertos) and the
Roman Catholic holiday
All Souls' Day.
Calavera can also refer to any artistic representations of skulls, such as the lithographs of
José Guadalupe Posada. The most widely known calaveras are created with cane sugar and are decorated with items such as colored foil, icing, beads, and feathers.
Traditional methods for producing calaveras have been in use since the 1630s. The skulls are created either for children or as offerings to be placed on altars known as
ofrendas for the
Día de Muertos, which has roots in the
Toltec cultural celebration of the Day of the Dead.
The tradition of sugar skulls is for families to decorate their loved ones' ofrendas with both large and small handmade sugar skulls. Children who have died, represented by small sugar skulls, are celebrated on November 1. The larger sugar skulls represent the adults, whose celebration takes place on November 2. It is believed that the departed return home to enjoy the offering on the altar.
In pre-Columbian times the images of skulls and skeletons were shown often in paintings, pottery, etc. representing rebirth into the next stage of life. During the 20th century a political caricaturist named
José Guadalupe Posada
became famous for making Calaveras as vain skeletons dressed in the clothing of the wealthy. The most famous one was
, wearing a feathery hat, fancy shoes and a long dress. Catrina is considered to be the personification of
The Day of the Dead
. These skeletons are created from many materials such as wood, sugar paste varieties, types of nuts, chocolate, etc. When used as offerings, the name of the deceased is written across the forehead of the skull on colored foil.
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
The Storming of the temple in Tenochtitlan by Cortés and his Troops. Emanuel Leutze, 1848. Wadsworth Museum.
A pilot standing in front of his
P-47D with a maintenance crew after a combat mission
Battle of Centla, first time a
horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso,
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution.
President Enrique Peña Nieto with President of China
The identities of the
Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities.
Entry into Mexico City by the Mexican army.
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle.
Logo of Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank.
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850.
The National film library.
Cristeros (Catholic rebels) hung in
Logo of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
A unit of Cristeros preparing for battle.
Flag of the Second Mexican Empire
El Chapo in US custody after his extradition from Mexico.
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd.
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress.
Shield Jaguar and
Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5".
London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs.
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high.
National Museum of Anthropology,
Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo
Detail of a relief from
Palenque, a Classic-era city.
Maya script is the only known complete writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas and enabled the beginning of
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789)
dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963.
Northern Dance in Nuevo León
Since the 16th century, the
poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with
Christmas carrying the Christian symbolism of the
Star of Bethlehem; in that country it is known in Spanish as the Flower of the Holy Night.
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the
Pyramid of the Sun, from the
Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains.
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to
Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stars on its four sides. At the spring and fall
equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase.
On 14 March 2020 sport events such as female football matches were open to public. At Estadio Olímpico Universitario, authorities were pouring
hand sanitizer at the entrance.
Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation at
Miramare Castle in
Trieste. Painting by Cesare dell'Acqua (1821-1905).
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (La Constitución ha muerto).
Plaza de la Constitución (Constitution Square) The "
Mexico City street market
A detachment of Rurales during the Porfiriato
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya").
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
A map of Mexico 1845 after Texas annexation by U.S.
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya.
Monument to Mexico becoming
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