Greekἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the
invention of writing systems are considered
prehistory. "History" is an
umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events.
Historians place the past in context using
historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, ecological markers, and material objects including art and artifacts.
History also includes the
academic discipline which uses
narrative to describe, examine, question, and analyze a sequence of past events, investigate the patterns of cause and effect that are related to them. Historians seek to understand and represent the past through narratives. They often debate which narrative best explains an event, as well as the significance of different causes and effects. Historians also debate the
nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.
Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding
King Arthur), are usually classified as
cultural heritage or
legends. History differs from
myth in that it is supported by
evidence. However, ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. History is often taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a
major discipline in university studies.
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC
Greek historian is often considered (within the Western tradition) to be the "father of history," or, by some, the "father of lies." Along with his contemporary
Thucydides, he helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state
Spring and Autumn Annals, was known to be compiled from as early as 722BC although only 2nd-centuryBC texts have survived. (Full article...)
The French began an operation to insert, then support, their soldiers at
Điện Biên Phủ, deep in the hills of northwestern
Vietnam. The operation's purpose was to cut off Viet Minh supply lines into the neighboring
Kingdom of Laos (a French ally), and draw the Viet Minh into a major confrontation in order to cripple them. The plan was to resupply the French position by air - based on the belief that the Viet Minh had no
anti-aircraft capability. The Viet Minh, however, under General
Võ Nguyên Giáp, surrounded and
besieged the French. They brought in vast amounts of heavy artillery (including
anti-aircraft guns) and managed to move these bulky weapons through difficult terrain up the rear slopes of the mountains. The Viet Minh were then able to dig tunnels through the mountain, and emplaced the artillery pieces overlooking the French encampment. (Full article...)
The ship served with her three sister ships for the majority of World War I. She saw extensive service in the
North Sea, where she took part in several fleet sorties. These culminated in the
Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, where Posen was heavily engaged in night-fighting against British light forces. In the confusion, the ship accidentally rammed the light cruiser
SMS Elbing, which suffered serious damage and was
scuttled later in the night. (Full article...)
Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood: the figure is larger than life-size, central panel (1436), measures 732 × 404 cm (288 × 159 in); with Trompe-l'œilgrotto-esque frame added in 1524, 820 × 515 cm (323 × 203 in).
The politics of the commissioning and recommissioning of the fresco have been analyzed and debated by historians. The fresco is often cited as a form of "
Florentine propaganda" for its appropriation of a foreign soldier of fortune as a Florentine hero and for its implied promise to other condottieri of the potential rewards of serving Florence. The fresco has also been interpreted as a product of internal political competition between the
Medici factions in
Renaissance Florence, due to the latter's modification of the work's symbolism and iconography during its recommissioning. (Full article...)
The son of a clergyman who was also a politician, Horne had a burgeoning business career with
Triplex Safety Glass, which was interrupted by service with the
Royal Air Force during the Second World War. While serving in a
barrage balloon unit, he was asked to broadcast as a quizmaster on the BBC radio show Ack-Ack, Beer-Beer. The experience brought him into contact with the more established entertainer
Richard Murdoch, and the two wrote and starred in the comedy series Much-Binding-in-the-Marsh. After
demobilisation Horne returned to his business career, and kept his broadcasting as a sideline. His career in industry flourished, and he later became the chairman and managing director of toy manufacturers
Chad Valley. (Full article...)
Edward was under pressure from the
English Parliament to end the war either by negotiation or with a victory. As his forces gathered, Edward vacillated as to where in France he would land. Eventually he decided to sail for
Gascony, to succour the
Duke of Lancaster, who was facing the much larger main French army. Hampered by contrary winds, Edward instead made a surprise landing on the nearest part of France, the northern
Cotentin Peninsula. (Full article...)
Following William's return to Jerusalem in 1165, King
Amalric made him an ambassador to the
Byzantine Empire. William became tutor to the king's son, the future King
Baldwin IV, whom William discovered to be a
leper. After Amalric's death, William became
chancellor and archbishop of Tyre, two of the highest offices in the kingdom, and in 1179 William led the eastern delegation to the
Third Council of the Lateran. As he was involved in the dynastic struggle that developed during Baldwin IV's reign, his importance waned when a rival faction gained control of royal affairs. He was passed over for the prestigious
Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and died in obscurity, probably in 1186. (Full article...)
Right-elevation drawing of the Francesco Caracciolo class
The class was never completed due to material shortages and shifting construction priorities after the outbreak of
World War I in 1914. Only the
lead ship was
launched in 1920, and several proposals to convert her into an
aircraft carrier were considered, but budgetary problems prevented any work being done. She was sold to an
Italian shipping firm for conversion into a merchant ship, but this also proved to be too expensive, and she was broken up for
scrap beginning in 1926. (Full article...)
Æthelflæd (from The Cartulary and Customs of Abingdon Abbey, c. 1220)
Æthelflæd was born around 870 at the height of the
Viking invasions of
England. By 878, most of England was under Danish Viking rule –
East Anglia and
Northumbria having been conquered, and
Mercia partitioned between the English and the Vikings – but in that year Alfred won a crucial victory at the
Battle of Edington. Soon afterwards the English-controlled western half of Mercia came under the rule of
Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, who accepted Alfred's overlordship. Alfred adopted the title King of the English, claiming to rule all English people not living in areas under
Viking control. In the mid-880s, Alfred sealed the strategic alliance between the surviving English kingdoms by marrying Æthelflæd to Æthelred. (Full article...)
Standing on Midland Road, within sight of
Derby Midland railway station and backing on to the garden of the
Midland Hotel, the memorial consists of a
cenotaph surrounded on three sides by a screen wall. Affixed to the wall are bronze plaques listing the names of the dead. On either side of the cenotaph is the Midland's coat of arms, enclosed in a laurel wreath. The crest is surmounted by a
catafalque with sculpted lion heads at the corners, supporting the recumbent effigy of a soldier, covered by a coat. Lutyens renders the soldier anonymous by lifting him high above eye level, allowing the viewer to believe it could be somebody they knew. (Full article...)
One of the RAAF's C-130H Hercules in 2004
Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) has operated forty-eight
Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport aircraft. The type entered Australian service in December 1958, when
No. 36 Squadron accepted the first of twelve C-130As, replacing its venerable
Douglas C-47 Dakotas. The acquisition made Australia the first operator of the Hercules after the United States. In 1966 the C-130As were joined by twelve C-130Es, which equipped
No. 37 Squadron. The C-130As were replaced by twelve C-130Hs in 1978, and the C-130Es by twelve
C-130J Super Hercules in 1999. No. 37 Squadron became the RAAF's sole Hercules operator in 2006, when No. 36 Squadron transferred its C-130Hs prior to converting to
Boeing C-17 Globemaster III heavy transports. The C-130Hs were retired in November 2012, leaving the C-130J as the only model in Australian service.
The RAAF's first
strategic airlifter, the Hercules has frequently been used to deliver
disaster relief in Australia and the Pacific region, as well as to support military deployments overseas. The aircraft saw extensive service during the
Vietnam War, transporting troops and cargo to Southeast Asia and undertaking
aeromedical evacuation. Nineteen of the RAAF's fleet of twenty-four C-130s took part in relief efforts in 1974–75 after
Cyclone Tracy struck
Darwin. Since then, the Hercules have been involved in humanitarian missions to New Guinea, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Cambodia, Bali, Sumatra, and New Zealand. They have also seen service during the
Iranian Revolution in 1979, the
Fijian coups in 1987,
operations in Somalia in 1993,
INTERFET operations in East Timor in 1999–2000, and the
wars in Afghanistan and
Iraq beginning in 2001. In over fifty years of Australian service, the Hercules have accumulated more than 800,000 flying hours. (Full article...)
Chola dynasty sculpture depicting Shiva. In
Hinduism, Shiva is the deity of destruction and one of the most important gods; in this sculpture he is dancing as
Nataraja, the divine dancer who unravels the world in preparation for it being remade by
salutesAdolf Hitler as German forces sweep into Czechoslovakia, October 1938. Originally published in the Völkischer Beobachter, it supposedly showed the intense emotions of joy which swept the populace as Hitler drove through the streets of
Cheb, 99% of whose inhabitants were ardently pro-Nazi Sudeten Germans at the time. In contrast, when the photo was published in the U.S., it was captioned, "The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler, is the tragedy of the silent millions who have been 'won over' to Hitlerism by the 'everlasting use' of ruthless force." It is unknown what the true circumstances surrounding the photo are.
lithograph of a
watercolour painting depicting soldiers transporting winter clothing, lumber for huts, and other supplies through a snow-covered landscape, with partially buried dead horses along the roadside, to the British camps, during the Siege of Sevastopol of the
Crimean War. In the winter, a storm ruined the camps and supply lines of the Allied forces (
Britain and the
Ottoman Empire). Men and horses became sick and starved in the poor conditions.
Petra is an archaeological site in
Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of
Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the
Dead Sea to the
Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock.
Jews captured by
SD troops during the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising are forced to leave their shelter and march to the
Umschlagplatz for deportation. The SD trooper pictured second from the right, is
Josef Blösche, who was identified by Polish authorities using this photograph. Blösche was tried for war crimes in
East Germany in 1969, sentenced to death and executed in July of that year.
A drawing of the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary (Agnus scythicus), a
zoophyte of Central Asia. Botanist Henry Lee described it as both a true animal and a living plant, although he did allow for the possibility that the lamb was the fruit of the plant. The lamb was believed to have blood, bones, and flesh like that of a normal lamb. It was connected to the earth by a stem similar to an
umbilical cord that propped the lamb up above ground. The cord could flex downward allowing the lamb to feed on the grass and plants surrounding it. Once the plants within reach were eaten, the lamb died, at which point its
wool would be harvested and used to make
The Finnish markka was the currency of Finland from 1860 to 2002. The currency was divided into 100
pennies and was first introduced by the
Bank of Finland to replace the
Russian ruble at a rate of four markkaa to one ruble. The markka was replaced by the
euro on 1 January 2002 and ceased to be legal tender on 28 February later that year.
This picture shows a 20-markka banknote issued in 1862, as part of the first issue of markka banknotes (1860 to 1862), for the
Grand Duchy of Finland, then an autonomous part of the
Russian Empire; 1862 was also the first year of issue for this particular denomination. The banknote's obverse depicts the
coat of arms of Finland on a Russian
double-headed eagle, and was personally signed by the director and the cashier of the Bank of Finland. The text on the obverse is in Swedish, whereas the reverse is primarily in Russian and Finnish.
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Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes version of the chronicle of
John Skylitzes depicting Thomas, on horseback and dressed as a Byzantine emperor, negotiating with the Arabs. The rebellion of Thomas is one of the most richly illustrated episodes in the chronicle.
An army officer of
Slavic origin from the
Pontus region (now north-eastern
Turkey), Thomas rose to prominence, along with the future emperors Michael II and
Leo V the Armenian (
r. 813–820), under the protection of general
Bardanes Tourkos. After Bardanes' failed rebellion in 803, Thomas fell into obscurity until Leo V's rise to the throne, when Thomas was raised to a senior military command in central
Asia Minor. After the murder of Leo and usurpation of the throne by Michael the Amorian, Thomas revolted, claiming the throne for himself. Thomas quickly secured support from most of the
themes (provinces) and troops in Asia Minor, defeated Michael's initial counter-attack and concluded an alliance with the
Abbasid Caliphate. After winning over the maritime themes and their ships as well, he crossed with his army to Europe and
laid siege to Constantinople. The imperial capital withstood Thomas's attacks by land and sea, while Michael II called for help from the
khanOmurtag. Omurtag attacked Thomas's army, but although repelled, the Bulgarians inflicted heavy casualties on Thomas's men, who broke and fled when Michael took to the field a few months later. Thomas and his supporters sought refuge in
Arcadiopolis, where he was soon blockaded by Michael's troops. In the end, Thomas's supporters surrendered him in exchange for a pardon, and he was executed. (Full article...)
Bourgeoisie takes more and more importance throughout the modern era.
World Colonization of 1492 (Early Modern World), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Age of Enlightenment), 1822 (Industrial revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I era), 1938 (World War II era), 1959 (Cold War era) and 1974, 2008 (Recent history).
Gold stag with eagle's head, and ten further heads in the antlers. An object inspired by the art of the Siberian Altai mountain, possibly
Pazyryk, unearthed at the site of Nalinggaotu,
Shenmu County, near
China. Possibly from the "Hun people who lived in the prairie in Northern China". Dated to the 4th–3rd century BCE, or
Han Dynasty period.
Shaanxi History Museum.
"If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it." An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie;
Truth (center) is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right,
Roman Empire 117 AD. The Senatorial provinces were acquired first under the
Roman Republic and were under the
Roman Senate's control; the Imperial provinces were controlled directly by the Roman emperor.
terracotta of ram-horned Jupiter Ammon, a form of
Zeus 1st century AD. Gods, could sometimes be transferred or adopted by many civilizations, and then adjusted for local conditions.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to
geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
The Iron Age kingdom of Israel (blue) and kingdom of Judah (yellow)
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