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Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo Navajo pronunciation:
O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak Uto-Aztecan pronunciation:
[ˡaɺi ˡʂonak]) is a
state in the
southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the
Western and the
Mountain states. It is the
6th largest and the
14th most populous of the 50 states. Its
largest city is
Phoenix. Arizona shares the
Four Corners region with
New Mexico; its other neighboring states are
California to the west and the
Mexican states of
Baja California to the south and southwest.
Arizona is the 48th state and last of the
contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of
Alta California in
New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the
Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the
Southern Arizona is known for its
desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters.
Northern Arizona features forests of pine,
Douglas fir, and
spruce trees; the
Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the
San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep
canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are
ski resorts in the areas of
Tucson. In addition to the internationally known
Grand Canyon National Park, which is one of the
world's seven natural wonders, there are several
national parks, and
About one-quarter of the state is made up of
Indian reservations that serve as the home of
27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the
Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although
federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the
state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley (1948).
Selected article -
The Gird Block containing the Mining Exchange Building where the hearing was held.
O.K. Corral hearing and aftermath was the direct result of the 30-second
Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, on October 26, 1881. During that confrontation, Deputy U.S. Marshal and Tombstone Town Marshal
Virgil Earp, Assistant Town Marshal
Morgan Earp, and temporary deputy marshals
Wyatt Earp and
Doc Holliday shot and killed
Billy Clanton, and
Frank McLaury. Billy's brother Ike, who had repeatedly threatened to kill the Earps for some time, had been present at the gunfight but was unarmed and fled. As permitted by territory law, he filed murder charges against the Earps and Doc Holliday on October 30.
In an unusual
Justice of the Peace
heard testimony from a large number of witnesses during the next 30 days. Friends of the Cowboys, most notably Cochise County Sheriff
, testified that the Cowboys had thrown up their hands or opened their coats and been shot in cold blood. Initially persuasive, his testimony motivated Spicer to jail Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday who had been free on bond. (Virgil and Morgan were recuperating from their wounds.) Friends of the lawman and several key neutral witnesses then testified that the Cowboys had drawn their guns and that Virgil Earp had called out, "Hold, I don't want that!" or words to that effect. In a lengthy ruling, Spicer concluded there was no basis for a trial. Although he criticized Virgil Earp's use of Wyatt and Holliday as deputies, he concluded that no laws were broken by the lawmen. He said the evidence indicated that the Earps and Holliday acted within the law and that Holliday and Wyatt had been properly deputized by Virgil. He described Frank McLaury's insistence that he would not give up his weapons unless the marshal and his deputies also gave up their arms as a "proposition both monstrous and startling!"
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Images of Arizona
The following are images from various Arizona-related articles on Wikipedia.
Extent of the Spanish language in the state of Arizona
La conquista del Colorado, by
Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition
This ornate grain basket by Akimel O'odham dates from the early 20th century, showing the Native American dimension to the state's culture
Major airfields in Arizona during World War II.
View of Monument Valley from
John Ford's Point
Geronimo (far right) and his
Apache warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers.
Signing of Arizona statehood bill in 1912
Arizona Territory in 1866
The South Rim of the Grand Canyon
A population density map of Arizona
Inspiration Copper Company smelter at Miami, Arizona, c. 1915
Harvey House hotel opened in 1905 overlooking the South Rim of the Grand Canyon; it remains in operation as the
El Tovar Hotel.
Cathedral Rock near Red Rock Crossing in
Saguaro cactus flowers and buds after a wet winter. This is Arizona's official state flower.
The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities)
1903 editorial cartoon by
Bob Satterfield, depicting Arizona and New Mexico as crazed gunfighters intent on gaining access to the "
E pluribus unum tavern".
Party registration by county:
Democrat >= 30%
Democrat >= 40%
Democrat >= 50%
Republican >= 30%
Republican >= 40%
Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937
A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at
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- Nickname: The Grand Canyon State
- Capital and largest city:
Doug Ducey (
- Total area: 295,254 km2 (113,998 sq mi)
- Population (2009 estimate): 6,595,778
- Date admitted to the Union: February 14, 1912
Kyrsten Sinema (
Martha McSally (R)
Tom O'Halleran (D),
Ann Kirkpatrick (D),
Raúl Grijalva (D),
Paul Gosar (R),
Andy Biggs (R),
David Schweikert (R),
Ruben Gallego (D),
Debbie Lesko (R),
Greg Stanton (D)
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