Maricopa County, Arizona

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maricopa County
County of Maricopa [1]
The Maricopa County Courthouse and Old Phoenix City Hall, also known as the County-City Administration Building, in 2013
The Maricopa County Courthouse and Old Phoenix City Hall, also known as the County-City Administration Building, in 2013
Flag of Maricopa County
Flag
Official seal of Maricopa County
Seal
Map of Arizona highlighting Maricopa County
Location within the U.S. state of Arizona
Map of the United States highlighting Arizona
Arizona's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 33°30′50″N 112°28′33″W / 33.513888888889°N 112.47583333333°W / 33.513888888889; -112.47583333333
Country United States
State  Arizona
FoundedFebruary 14, 1871
Named for Maricopa people
Seat Phoenix
Largest cityPhoenix
Area
 • Total9,224 sq mi (23,890 km2)
 • Land9,200 sq mi (24,000 km2)
 • Water24 sq mi (60 km2)  0.3%
Population
 ( 2010)
 • Total3,817,117
 • Estimate 
(2019)
4,485,414
 • Density410/sq mi (160/km2)
Time zone UTC−7 ( Mountain)
Congressional districts 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th
Website www.maricopa.gov

Maricopa County is located in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated its population was 4,485,414 as of 2019, making it the state's most populous county, and the fourth-most populous in the United States, containing about 62% of Arizona's population. It is more populous than 23 states. The county seat is Phoenix, [2] the state capital and fifth-most populous city in the United States.

Maricopa County is the central county of the Phoenix- Mesa- Glendale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Maricopa County was named after the Maricopa Native Americans. [3] There are five Native American Reservations located in the county. [4] The largest are the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (east of Scottsdale) and the Gila River Indian Community (south of Chandler).

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 9,224 square miles (23,890 km2), of which 9,200 square miles (24,000 km2) is land and 24 square miles (62 km2) (0.3%) is water. [5] Maricopa County is one of the largest counties in the United States by area, with a land area greater than that of four states. From west to east, it stretches 132 miles (212 km) and 103 miles (166 km) from north to south. [6] It is by far Arizona's most populous county, encompassing well over half of the state's residents. It is the largest county in the United States to have a capital city.

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Demographics

Median Household Income in 2015 across metro Phoenix; the darker the green, the higher the income [7]
Percent of people living in poverty across metro Phoenix in 2016; the darker the red, the higher the concentration of poverty [8]
Historical population
Census Pop.
18805,689
189010,98693.1%
190020,45786.2%
191034,48868.6%
192089,576159.7%
1930150,97068.5%
1940186,19323.3%
1950331,77078.2%
1960663,510100.0%
1970971,22846.4%
19801,509,17555.4%
19902,122,10140.6%
20003,072,14944.8%
20103,817,11724.2%
2019 (est.)4,485,414 [9]17.5%
U.S. Decennial Census [10]
1790–1960 [11] 1900–1990 [12]
1990–2000 [13] 2010–2018 [14]

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,072,149 people, 1,132,886 households, and 763,565 families living in the county. The population density was 334 people per square mile (129/km2). There were 1,250,231 housing units at an average density of 136/sq mi (52/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 77.4% White, 3.7% African American, 1.9% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.9% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more races. 29.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.1% reported speaking Spanish at home. [15]

There were 1,132,886 households, out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.21.

The population was spread out, with 27.0% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.80% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.10 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $45,358, and the median income for a family was $51,827. Males had a median income of $36,858 versus $28,703 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,251. About 8.0% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 3,817,117 people, 1,411,583 households, and 932,814 families living in the county. [16] The population density was 414.9 inhabitants per square mile (160.2/km2). There were 1,639,279 housing units at an average density of 178.2 per square mile (68.8/km2). [17] The racial makeup of the county was 73.0% white (58.7% non-Hispanic white), 5.0% black or African American, 3.5% Asian, 2.1% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 12.8% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 29.6% of the population. [16] The largest ancestry groups were: [18]

Of the 1,411,583 households, 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, and 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age was 34.6 years. [16]

The median income for a household in the county was $55,054 and the median income for a family was $65,438. Males had a median income of $45,799 versus $37,601 for females. The per capita income for the county was $27,816. About 10.0% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over. [19]

According to data provided by the United States Census Bureau in October 2015 and collected from 2009 to 2013, 73.72% of the population aged five years and over spoke only English at home, while 20.32% spoke Spanish, 0.56% spoke Chinese, 0.47% Vietnamese, 0.41% Tagalog, 0.37% Arabic, 0.36% German, 0.30% French, 0.25% Navajo, 0.21% Korean, 0.20% Hindi, 0.15% Italian, 0.14% Persian, 0.13% Russian, 0.13% Serbo-Croatian, 0.12% Telugu, 0.12% Polish, 0.11% Syriac, 0.11% Japanese, 0.11% spoke Romanian, and 0.10% spoke other Native North American languages at home. [20]

Religion

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Maricopa County was the Diocese of Phoenix, with 519,950 Catholics worshipping at 99 parishes, followed by 242,732 LDS Mormons with 503 congregations, 213,640 non-denominational adherents with 309 congregations, 93,252 AG Pentecostals with 120 congregations, 73,207 SBC Baptists with 149 congregations, 35,804 Christian churches and churches of Christ Christians with 29 congregations, 30,014 ELCA Lutherans with 47 congregations, 28,634 UMC Methodists with 55 congregations, 18,408 LCMS Lutherans with 34 congregations, and 15,001 PC-USA Presbyterians with 42 congregations. Altogether, 39.1% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information. [21] In 2014, the county had 1,177 religious organizations, the fifth most out of all US counties. [22]

Government, policing, and politics

Government

The governing body of Maricopa County is its Board of Supervisors. The Maricopa County Board of Supervisors consists of five members chosen by popular vote within their own districts. Currently, the Board consists of four Republicans and one Democrat. Each member serves a four-year term, with no term limits.

Maricopa County sheriff

The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, administers the county jail, and patrols the unincorporated areas of the county plus incorporated towns by contract.

Politics

For much of the time after World War II, Maricopa County was one of the more conservative urban counties in the United States. While the city of Phoenix has leaned Democratic in recent years, most of the rest of the county was strongly Republican. Until 2020, every Republican presidential candidate since 1952 had carried Maricopa County. This includes the 1964 presidential run of native son Barry Goldwater, who would not have carried his own state had it not been for a 21,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Until 2020, it was the largest county in the country to vote Republican. Since 1964, Democrats have held the margin within single digits only four times–in 1992, 1996, 2016, and 2020. In 2020, Joe Biden became the first Democrat in 72 years to win the county, which in turn, resulted in Arizona flipping to the Democratic column for the first time since 1996. [23] Furthermore, Biden became the first presidential candidate to win more than one million votes in the county. This makes Maricopa County the third county in American history to cast more than one million votes for a presidential candidate.

The county is considered a bellwether polity. [24]

Voter Registration as of October 2020 [25]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Republican 915,227 35.27%
Other 840,677 32.39%
Democratic 814,343 31.38%
Libertarian Party 25,025 0.96%
Total 2,595,272 100%


Presidential election results
Maricopa County presidential election results [26]
Year Republican Democratic Others
2020 48.0% 995,480 50.1% 1,040,553 1.6% 32,994
2016 47.7% 747,361 44.8% 702,907 7.5% 117,566
2012 54.3% 749,885 43.6% 602,288 2.1% 28,786
2008 54.4% 746,448 43.9% 602,166 1.7% 22,756
2004 56.9% 679,455 42.3% 504,849 0.9% 10,657
2000 53.2% 479,967 42.9% 386,683 3.9% 35,049
1996 47.2% 386,015 44.5% 363,991 8.2% 67,426
1992 41.1% 360,049 32.6% 285,457 26.4% 231,326
1988 64.9% 442,337 33.9% 230,952 1.2% 8,229
1984 72.0% 411,902 27.1% 154,833 1.0% 5,538
1980 65.0% 316,287 24.6% 119,752 10.4% 50,795
1976 61.7% 258,262 34.5% 144,613 3.8% 15,966
1972 69.3% 244,593 27.0% 95,135 3.8% 13,272
1968 59.1% 162,262 31.4% 86,204 9.5% 26,185
1964 53.9% 143,114 46.0% 122,042 0.1% 170
1960 59.4% 127,090 40.6% 86,834 0.1% 135
1956 63.0% 92,140 36.9% 54,010 0.1% 191
1952 60.6% 77,249 39.4% 50,285
1948 46.3% 36,585 51.3% 40,498 2.4% 1,909
1944 43.4% 24,853 56.2% 32,197 0.4% 208
1940 38.9% 22,610 60.4% 35,055 0.7% 414
1936 28.7% 13,671 67.3% 32,031 4.0% 1,908
1932 34.1% 15,086 64.6% 28,601 1.3% 593
1928 62.3% 20,089 37.6% 12,146 0.1% 34
1924 44.7% 10,611 38.6% 9,177 16.7% 3,970
1920 56.2% 11,336 43.8% 8,825
1916 39.3% 5,747 52.1% 7,634 8.6% 1,259
1912 11.3% 642 46.0% 2,606 42.7% 2,421

Despite its political leanings at the time, Maricopa County voted against Proposition 107 in the 2006 election. This referendum, designed to ban gay marriage and restrict domestic partner benefits, was rejected by a 51.6–48.4% margin within the county, and statewide by a similar margin. Two years later, however, a majority of county residents voted to pass a successful state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. The amendment was later invalidated by the Supreme Court's 2015 ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, which declared that same-sex marriage is a fundamental right in the United States.

Unlike cities and towns in Arizona, counties are subordinate to the state and do not have charters of their own. The county Board of Supervisors acts in executive authority under powers delegated by state law. The state legislature devotes considerable time to local matters, with limited discretion granted to the Board of Supervisors for minor ordinances and revenue collection. The chairperson of the board presides for a one year term, selected by the board members during a public hearing.

The County Sheriff, County Attorney, County Assessor, County Treasurer, Superintendent of Schools, County Recorder, Constables, Justices of the Peace, and Clerk of the Superior Court are elected by the people. Retention of Superior Court Judges is also determined by popular vote.

The county's dominant political figure for over two decades (from 1993 to 2017) was Sheriff Joe Arpaio, who called himself "America's Toughest Sheriff" and gained national notoriety for his flamboyant and often controversial practices and policies. [27]

Maricopa County is home to 62 percent of the state's population, thus dominating Arizona's politics. For example, in the 2018 Senate election, Democrat Kyrsten Sinema carried the county en route to becoming the first Democrat to win a Senate seat in Arizona since 1988. [28] She won the county by over 60,000 votes, more than enough for the victory; she won statewide by 55,900 votes. [29] All but one of the state's nine congressional districts include part of the county, and five of the districts have their population center located there. Most of the state's prominent elected officials live in the county. Further underlining Maricopa County's political dominance, Biden's margin of 45,109 votes was more than enough to carry the state; he only won Arizona by 10,457 votes.

Elected officials

United States Congress

District Name Party First elected [a] Area(s) represented
United States Senate
  Class I Senator Kyrsten Sinema Democratic 2018 entire state
  Class III Senator Mark Kelly Democrat 2020
United States House of Representatives
  1 Tom O'Halleran Democratic 2016 Gila River Indian Community
  3 Raul Grijalva Democratic 2002 Avondale, Buckeye, Phoenix
  4 Paul Gosar Republican 2010 Northern Maricopa County
  5 Andy Biggs Republican 2016 Mesa, Chandler, Gilbert
  6 David Schweikert Republican 2010 Phoenix, Scottsdale
  7 Ruben Gallego Democratic 2014 Phoenix
  8 Debbie Lesko Republican 2018 West Valley
  9 Greg Stanton Democratic 2018 Phoenix, South Scottsdale, Tempe
  1. ^ Due to redistricting in 2002 and again in 2012, many of the Representatives listed were first elected to a district other than the one they currently represent.

Board of Supervisors

Elected county officials

Party Office Name First elected Reference
  Republican Assessor Eddie Cook 2020† [30]
  Republican Clerk of the Superior Court Jeff Fine 2018† [31]
  Republican County Attorney Allister Adel ----† [32]
  Democratic County Recorder Adrian Fontes 2016 [33]
  Republican County School Superintendent Steve Watson 2016 [33]
  Democratic Sheriff Paul Penzone 2016 [33]
  Republican Treasurer Royce Flora 2016 [33]

†Member was originally appointed to the office.

Education

  • Maricopa County Library District operates the county libraries in Maricopa County.
  • The Maricopa County School Superintendent is charged with the general conduct and supervision of the public school system in Maricopa County. The Superintendent is one of six county-wide elected officials, elected by the voters of Maricopa County every four years. Since the inception of the office, there have been thirteen Maricopa County School Superintendents. The incumbent, Steve Watson, took office January 1, 2017.

Transportation

Major highways

Air

The major primary commercial airport of the county is Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX).

Other airports located in the county include:

Rail

In terms of freight rail, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad serve the county.

In terms of passenger rail, greater Phoenix is served by a light rail system. The county has no other passenger rail transport as Amtrak's Sunset Limited, which served Phoenix until June 2, 1996, has its closest stop in Maricopa in neighboring Pinal County. The train connects Maricopa to Tucson, Los Angeles, and New Orleans three times a week. However it does not stop in Phoenix itself.

Communities

Cities

Towns

Ghost towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Native American communities

County population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Maricopa County. [34] [35]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Population (2010 Census) Population (2017 Estimate) Municipal type Incorporated
1 Phoenix 1,445,632 1,626,078 City 1881
2 Mesa 439,041 496,401 City 1878 (founded)
3 Chandler 236,123 253,458 City 1920
4 Scottsdale 217,385 249,950 City 1951
5 Glendale 226,721 246,709 City 1910
6 Gilbert 208,453 242,354 Town 1920
7 Tempe 161,719 185,038 City 1894
8 Peoria (partially in Yavapai County) 154,065 168,181 City 1954
9 Surprise 117,517 134,085 City 1960
10 Avondale 76,238 84,025 City 1946
11 Goodyear 65,275 79,858 City 1946
12 Buckeye 50,876 68,453 City 1929
13 Queen Creek (partially in Pinal County) 26,361 39,184 Town 1990
14 Sun City 37,499 -- CDP
15 El Mirage 31,797 35,216 City 1951
16 Sun City West 24,535 -- CDP
17 Fountain Hills 22,489 24,583 Town 1989
18 Anthem 21,700 -- CDP
19 New River 14,952 -- CDP
20 Paradise Valley 12,820 14,293 Town 1961
21 Sun Lakes 13,975 -- CDP
22 Wickenburg 6,363 7,409 Town 1909
23 Tolleson 6,545 7,205 City 1929
24 Youngtown 6,156 6,760 Town 1960
25 Guadalupe 5,523 6,525 Town 1975
26 Litchfield Park 5,476 6,009 City 1987
27 Cave Creek 5,015 5,622 Town 1986
28 Citrus Park 4,028 -- CDP
29 Carefree 3,363 3,783 Town 1984
30 Gila Bend 1,922 2,069 Town 1962
31 Rio Verde 1,811 -- CDP
32 Komatke 821 -- CDP
33 Aguila 798 -- CDP
34 Wittmann 763 -- CDP
35 Maricopa Colony 709 -- CDP
36 Gila Crossing 621 -- CDP
37 St. Johns 476 -- CDP
38 Morristown 227 -- CDP
39 Arlington 194 -- CDP
40 Theba 158 -- CDP
41 Kaka 141 -- CDP
42 Wintersburg 136 -- CDP
43 Tonopah 60 -- CDP

Climate

Maricopa County
Climate chart ( explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
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31
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40
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49
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2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [36]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://search.maricopa.gov/search?entqr=0&ud=1&sort=date%3AD%3AL%3Ad1&output=xml_no_dtd&oe=UTF-8&ie=UTF-8&client=default_frontend&proxystylesheet=default_frontend&site=default_collection&q=%22county%20of%20maricopa%22
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p.  199.
  4. ^ Indian Reservations in the Continental United States, Bureau of Indian Affairs on National Park Service website. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 23, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  6. ^ "Quick Facts about Maricopa County". Maricopa County, Ariz. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  7. ^ "INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2016 INFLATION-ADJUSTED DOLLARS)". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  8. ^ "POVERTY STATUS IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  9. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  10. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  11. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  12. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  13. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  14. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  15. ^ "Language Map Data Center". apps.mla.org.
  16. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  17. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  18. ^ "DP02 Selected Social Characteristics in the United States – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  19. ^ "DP03 Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  20. ^ "Table 2. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for Maricopa County, AZ: 2009-2013". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  21. ^ "County Membership Report Maricopa County (Arizona)". The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  22. ^ "Social Capital Variables Spreadsheet for 2014". PennState College of Agricultural Sciences, Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development. December 8, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  23. ^ Merica, Dan (November 13, 2020). "Biden carries Arizona, flipping a longtime Republican stronghold". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2020. The Democratic victory -- declared days after CNN projected Biden's win in the presidential race -- was anchored by Maricopa County, home to Phoenix and nearly 60% of all people in the state. Maricopa is the fastest-growing county in the country, transforming over the last two decades into a sprawling mass of metropolitan hubs, sun-scorched planned communities and bustling strip malls.
  24. ^ David Wasserman (October 6, 2020), "The 10 Bellwether Counties That Show How Trump Is in Serious Trouble", Nytimes.com
  25. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics" (PDF). Arizona Secretary of State Elections Bureau. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
  26. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  27. ^ Joseph M. Arpaio Archived June 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, 2005. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
  28. ^ Romero, Simon (November 13, 2018). "How Kyrsten Sinema Won Her Senate Seat and Pulled Off a Historic Arizona Triumph". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  29. ^ "2018 Arizona Senate election results". CNN.
  30. ^ " https://www.mcassessor.maricopa.gov/
  31. ^ "Clerk of the Superior Court of Maricopa County". www.clerkofcourt.maricopa.gov. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  32. ^ http://recorder.maricopa.gov/electionarchives/2010/11-02-2010%20Final%20Summary%20Report.pdf
  33. ^ a b c d http://recorder.maricopa.gov/electionarchives/2012/11-06-2012%20Final%20Summary%20Report.pdf
  34. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Decennial Census by Decades". The United States Census Bureau.
  35. ^ https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/maps/block/2010/
  36. ^ "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. Retrieved January 30, 2016.

Further reading

  • Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, Maricopa County Sheriff's Office History and Pictorial. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing. Co., 2005.

External links


Latitude and Longitude:

33°30′50″N 112°28′33″W / 33.51389°N 112.47583°W / 33.51389; -112.47583