|53rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|
January 5, 2011 – October 29, 2015
|Preceded by||Nancy Pelosi|
|Succeeded by||Paul Ryan|
|House Minority Leader|
January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||Nancy Pelosi|
|Succeeded by||Nancy Pelosi|
|Leader of the |
House Republican Conference
January 3, 2007 – October 29, 2015
|Preceded by||Dennis Hastert|
|Succeeded by||Paul Ryan|
|House Majority Leader|
February 2, 2006 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Roy Blunt (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Steny Hoyer|
|Chair of the House Education Committee|
January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2006
|Preceded by||William F. Goodling|
|Succeeded by||Howard McKeon|
|Chair of the House Republican Conference|
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 1999
|Preceded by||Dick Armey|
|Succeeded by||J. C. Watts|
|Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives|
from Ohio's 8th district
January 3, 1991 – October 31, 2015
|Preceded by||Buz Lukens|
|Succeeded by||Warren Davidson|
|Member of the
Ohio House of Representatives|
from the 57th district
January 3, 1985 – December 31, 1990
|Preceded by||Bill Donham|
|Succeeded by||Scott Nein|
John Andrew Boehner
November 17, 1949
Reading, Ohio, U.S.
Deborah Gunlack ( m. 1973)
|Education||Xavier University ( BA)|
|Branch/service||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1968 (8 weeks)|
John Andrew Boehner ( // BAY-nər; [a]  born November 17, 1949) is an American politician who served as the 53rd speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2011 to 2015.  A member of the Republican Party, he was the U.S. Representative for Ohio's 8th congressional district from 1991 to 2015. The district included several rural and suburban areas near Cincinnati and Dayton.
Boehner previously served as the House Minority Leader from 2007 until 2011, and House Majority Leader from 2006 until 2007. Boehner resigned from the House of Representatives in October 2015 due to opposition from within the Republican caucus.
In September 2016, Squire Patton Boggs, the third largest lobbying firm in the U.S., announced that Boehner would join their firm. It was also announced that Boehner would become a board member of Reynolds American, the second biggest tobacco firm in the U.S., for an estimated annual salary of $400,000. 
Early life, education, and career
Boehner was born in Reading, Ohio, the son of Mary Anne (née Hall; 1926–1998) and Earl Henry Boehner (1925–1990), the second of twelve children. His father was of German descent and his mother had German and Irish ancestry.  He grew up in modest circumstances, having shared one bathroom with his eleven siblings in a two-bedroom house in Cincinnati.  He started working at his family's bar at age 8, a business founded by their grandfather Andy Boehner in 1938.  He has lived in Southwest Ohio his entire life.  
Boehner attended Cincinnati's Moeller High School and was a linebacker on the school's football team, where he was coached by future Notre Dame coach Gerry Faust.  Graduating from Moeller in 1968, when United States involvement in the Vietnam War was at its peak, Boehner enlisted in the United States Navy but was honorably discharged after eight weeks because of a bad back.  He earned his B.A. in business administration from Xavier University in 1977, becoming the first person in his family to attend college, taking seven years as he held several jobs to pay for his education. 
Shortly after his graduation in 1977, Boehner accepted a position with Nucite Sales, a small sales business in the plastics industry. He was steadily promoted and eventually became president of the firm, resigning in 1990 when he was elected to Congress. 
Early political career
U.S. House of Representatives
In 1990, Boehner ran against incumbent Congressman Buz Lukens, who was under fire for having a sexual relationship with a minor. In a three-way Republican primary that included Boehner, Lukens, and former Congressman Tom Kindness, Boehner won with 49 percent of the vote.  He then handily beat his Democratic opponent, Greg Jolivette, in the November election. He was subsequently re-elected to Congress 12 times, each by a substantial margin.
Boehner's closest races were those in:
- 2006, when he defeated the Democratic Party candidate, U.S. Air Force veteran Mort Meier, 64% to 36%; 
- 2008, when he defeated Nicholas Von Stein, 68% to 32%; 
- 2010, when he garnered 66% percent of the vote in a four-way race against Democratic nominee Justin Coussoule, Constitution Party nominee Jim Condit, and Libertarian nominee David Harlow. 
Gang of Seven and Contract with America
During his freshman year, Boehner was a member of the Gang of Seven which was involved in bringing media attention to the House banking scandal.  The group also investigated the Congressional Post Office, leading to the indictment of Congressman Dan Rostenkowski.  Later, he, along with Newt Gingrich and several other Republican lawmakers, was one of the engineers of the Contract with America in 1994 that politically helped Republicans during the 1994 elections during which they won the majority in Congress for the first time in four decades.
From 1995 to 1999, Boehner served as House Republican Conference Chairman, making him fourth-ranking House Republican behind Gingrich, Majority Leader Dick Armey and Majority Whip Tom DeLay.  During his time as Conference Chairman, Boehner championed the Freedom to Farm Act that, among other provisions, revised and simplified direct payment programs for crops and eliminated milk price supports through direct government purchases.
In the summer of 1997 several House Republicans, who saw Speaker Newt Gingrich's public image as a liability, attempted to replace him as Speaker. The attempted "coup" began July 9 with a meeting between Republican conference chairman Boehner and Republican leadership chairman Bill Paxon of New York. According to their plan, House Majority Leader Dick Armey, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay, Boehner and Paxon were to present Gingrich with an ultimatum: resign, or be voted out. However, Armey balked at the proposal to make Paxon the new Speaker, and told his chief of staff to warn Gingrich about the coup. 
On July 11, Gingrich met with senior Republican leadership to assess the situation. He explained that under no circumstance would he step down. If he was voted out, there would be a new election for Speaker, which would allow for the possibility that Democrats—along with dissenting Republicans—would vote in Dick Gephardt as Speaker. On July 16, Paxon offered to resign his post, feeling that he had not handled the situation correctly. Paxon was the only unelected member of the leadership group, having been appointed to his position by Gingrich. 
After Republicans lost seats in the 1998 elections, the House Republican leadership underwent a reorganization. Armey and DeLay kept their positions, but Gingrich was replaced by Dennis Hastert, and Boehner lost his position as conference chairman to J.C. Watts. 
Chairman of Committee on Education and Labor
Following the election of President George W. Bush, Boehner was elected as chairman of the House Education and the Workforce Committee, serving from 2001 until 2006. There he authored several reforms including the Pension Protection Act and a successful school choice voucher program for low-income children in Washington, DC. 
Boehner and Senator Ted Kennedy authored the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which was signed by President George W. Bush in 2002.  Boehner said that it was his "proudest achievement" in two decades of public service.  Boehner was friends with Kennedy, also a Roman Catholic, and every year they chaired fundraisers for cash-strapped Catholic schools. 
House Republican Leader
Delay resigned as Majority Leader in 2005 after being indicted, and Boehner, House Majority Whip Roy Blunt of Missouri, and Representative John Shadegg of Arizona, all sought to succeed Delay.  Boehner campaigned as a reform candidate who wanted to reform the so-called " earmark" process and rein in government spending. In the second round of voting by the House Republican Conference, Boehner defeated Blunt with 122 to 109 votes. Blunt kept his previous position as Majority Whip, the No. 3 leadership position in the House. (There was some confusion on the first ballot for Majority Leader as the first count showed one more vote cast than Republicans present,  due to a misunderstanding as to whether the rules allowed Resident Commissioner Luis Fortuño of Puerto Rico to vote). 
After the Republicans lost control of the House in the 2006 elections, the House Republican Conference chose Boehner as Minority Leader. While as Majority Leader he was second-in-command behind Speaker Dennis Hastert, as Minority Leader he was the leader of the House Republicans. As such, he was the Republican nominee for Speaker in 2006 and 2008, losing both times to Pelosi.
According to the 2008 Congress.org Power Ranking, Boehner was the 6th most powerful congressman (preceded by Speaker Pelosi, Majority Leader Hoyer, Ways and Means Committee Chairman Sander M. Levin, Dean of the House John Dingell, and Appropriations Committee Chairman Dave Obey, all Democrats) and the most powerful Republican.  As Minority Leader, Boehner served as an ex officio member of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.
Speaker of the House
The Republicans won a majority in the House of Representatives during the 2010 midterm elections, with a net gain of 63 seats. During his solemn victory speech, Boehner broke into tears when talking about "economic freedom, individual liberty and personal responsibility...I hold these values dear because I've lived them...I've spent my whole life chasing the American Dream".  On November 17, 2010, Boehner was unanimously chosen by the House Republicans as their nominee for Speaker,   all but assuring his formal election to the post when the new Congress convened with a Republican majority in January 2011. He received the gavel from outgoing Speaker Pelosi on Wednesday, January 5, 2011.  He was the first Speaker from Ohio since fellow Republicans Nicholas Longworth (1925 to 1931) and J. Warren Keifer (1881 to 1883). He was also the first Speaker who has served both as majority and minority floor leader for his party since Texas Democrat Sam Rayburn.[ citation needed]
As Speaker, he was still the leader of the House Republicans. However, by tradition, he normally did not take part in debate, although he had the right to do so, and almost never voted from the floor.  He was not a member of any House committees during his Speakership.
Boehner appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on January 23, 2014. When asked by Leno if he would ever run for president, the Speaker said no, adding, "I like to play golf. I like to cut my own grass. I do drink red wine, I smoke cigarettes. And I'm not giving that up to be President of the United States." 
In July 2014, Boehner moved forward on a lawsuit to force the President to impose penalties on companies who failed to provide health care coverage for their employees.  Boehner had pressed for legislation to delay this mandate the previous year.  The third law firm selected finally filed the suit in November 2014, after Boehner criticized Obama's unilateral moves on immigration policy. 
On September 25, 2015, Boehner announced that he would step down as Speaker and resign from Congress at the end of October 2015. Boehner's resignation took place after Pope Francis' address to Congress the day before, an event considered by Boehner personally as the highest point in his legislative career. Sources in his office indicated he was stepping aside in the face of increasing discord while trying to manage passage of a continuing resolution to fund the government. Conservative opposition to funding Planned Parenthood as part of the resolution, and stronger threats to Boehner's leadership on account of the controversy, prompted the abrupt announcement.  Originally, House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy of California had announced he would run for Speaker and was seen as the prohibitive favorite. On October 8, 2015, McCarthy abruptly announced he would not run for Speaker, citing that he felt he could not effectively lead a fractured Republican Caucus. After McCarthy's announcement, Boehner announced that he would stay on as Speaker until a successor was chosen.  After initially turning down requests from Republican leaders, House Ways and Means Committee Chairman and 2012 Republican Vice Presidential nominee Paul Ryan of Wisconsin announced he would run for Speaker and had received Boehner's blessing.  In his final act as Speaker, Boehner presided over the election to succeed him. After announcing that Ryan had garnered a majority of votes on the House floor, Boehner officially passed off the Speaker's gavel to Ryan on October 29, 2015.  Boehner's resignation from Congress became official October 31, 2015, at 11:59 p.m. 
This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject. (June 2015)
Connections to lobbyists
In June 1995, Boehner distributed campaign contributions from tobacco industry lobbyists on the House floor as House members were weighing how to vote on tobacco subsidies.  In a 1996 documentary by PBS called The People and the Power Game, Boehner said "They asked me to give out a half dozen checks quickly before we got to the end of the month and I complied. And I did it on the House floor, which I regret. I should not have done. It's not a violation of the House rules, but it's a practice that's gone on here for a long time that we're trying to stop and I know I'll never do it again."  Boehner eventually led the effort to change House rules and prohibit campaign contributions from being distributed on the House floor. 
A September 2010 New York Times story said Boehner was "Tightly Bound to Lobbyists" and "He maintains especially tight ties with a circle of lobbyists and former aides representing some of the nation's biggest businesses, including Goldman Sachs, Google, Citigroup, R.J. Reynolds, MillerCoors and UPS.". 
In November 2010, Boehner, along with Minority Whip Eric Cantor, called for the cancellation of an exhibit in the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery after he learned that it featured a video by David Wojnarowicz, A Fire in My Belly, that contained an image of a crucifix with ants crawling on it. Boehner spokesman Kevin Smith said, "Smithsonian officials should either acknowledge the mistake and correct it, or be prepared to face tough scrutiny beginning in January when the new majority in the House moves [in]." 
Hurricane Sandy relief bill
On January 1, 2013, after passing the fiscal cliff deal, Boehner adjourned the House without passing the $60 million Hurricane Sandy relief bill. Some Representatives, especially from the Northeast and including Republicans as well as Democrats, and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie harshly criticized Boehner.  Boehner later promised to pass the bill.  However, some commentators praised Boehner for not passing a bill they saw as full of pork barrel. 
Challenged 2015 House Chair election
Many Republicans were ready for a new House of Representatives Chairman following the 2014 mid-term elections. EMC Research reported 60% of participants in their telephone survey wanted a new chairman.  In the end there were a total of 25 votes against Boehner, 29 were needed in order to choose a new speaker. Boehner responded by removing those who opposed him from influential committees. 
A profile in the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review said, "On both sides of the aisle, Boehner earns praise for candor and an ability to listen."  The Plain Dealer says Boehner "has perfected the art of disagreeing without being disagreeable." 
Boehner has been classified as a "hard-core conservative" by OnTheIssues.  Although Boehner has a conservative voting record, when he was running for House leadership, religious conservatives in the GOP expressed that they were not satisfied with his positions. According to the Washington Post: "From illegal immigration to sanctions on China to an overhaul of the pension system, Boehner, as chairman of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce, took ardently pro-business positions that were contrary to those of many in his party. Religious conservatives – examining his voting record – see him as a policymaker driven by small-government economic concerns, not theirs." 
Boehner opposes same-sex marriage, as evidenced by his vote for the Federal Marriage Amendment in both 2004 and 2006. In a letter to the Human Rights Campaign, Boehner stated, "I oppose any legislation that would provide special rights for homosexuals... Please be assured that I will continue to work to protect the idea of the traditional family as one of the fundamental tenets of western civilization."  
On May 25, 2006, Boehner issued a statement defending his agenda and attacking his " Democrat friends" such as Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi. Boehner said regarding national security that voters "have a choice between a Republican Party that understands the stakes and is dedicated to victory, and a Democrat Party with a non-existent national security policy that sheepishly dismisses the challenges of a post- 9/11 world and is all too willing to concede defeat on the battlefield in Iraq."
"I'm not qualified to debate the science over climate change," Boehner said at a press conference on May 29, 2014 at which he criticized proposed federal regulations on coal-fired power plants.   
In 2011, Boehner opposed the NATO-led military intervention in Libya.  In 2015, Boehner supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, saying: "I applaud the Saudis for taking this action to protect their homeland and to protect their own neighborhood." 
On September 18, 2008, Congressman Boehner attended a closed meeting with congressional leaders, then-Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke, and was urged to craft legislation to help financially troubled banks. That same day (trade effective the next day), Congressman Boehner cashed out of an equity mutual fund. 
On October 3, 2008 Boehner voted in favor of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP),  believing that the enumerated powers grant Congress the authority to "purchase assets and equity from financial institutions in order to strengthen its financial sector."
Boehner has been highly critical of several initiatives by the Democratic Congress and President Barack Obama, including the " cap and trade" plan that Boehner says would hurt job growth in his congressional district and elsewhere. He opposed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and said that, if Republicans took control of the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections, they would do whatever it takes to stop the act. One option would be to defund the administrative aspect of the Act, not paying "one dime" to pay the salaries of the workers who would administer the plan.  He also led an opposition to the 2009 stimulus and to Obama's first budget proposal, promoting instead an alternative economic recovery plan  and a Republican budget (authored by Ranking Rep. Paul Ryan, R- WI).  He has advocated for an across-the-board spending freeze, including entitlement programs. Boehner favors making changes in Social Security, such as by raising the retirement age to 70 for people who have at least 20 years until retirement, as well as tying cost-of-living increases to the consumer price index rather than wage inflation, and limiting payments to those who need them. 
In 2013, Boehner led his caucus in a strategy to hold Defense spending hostage in order to avoid reducing the deficit with revenue increases. 
As Republican House Leader, Boehner was a Democratic target for criticism of Republican views and political positions. In July 2010, President Barack Obama began singling out Boehner for criticism during his speeches.  In one speech, Obama mentioned Boehner's name nine times  and accused him of believing that police, firefighters, and teachers were jobs "not worth saving." 
Boehner made headlines in April 2016 when he referred to Republican presidential candidate Ted Cruz as " Lucifer in the flesh" in an interview at Stanford University.  On May 12, after Donald Trump became the presumptive Republican nominee, Boehner's support for him became public, though he distanced himself on several policies and expressed satisfaction with Cruz not securing the nomination: "Thank God the guy from Texas didn't win."  On February 23, 2017, Boehner predicted Republicans would "fix" the Affordable Care Act and give it a different name as opposed to their stated intent to repeal and replace. 
In 2018 Boehner joined the board of Acreage Holdings, a cannabis corporation, to promote the medical use of cannabis and advocate for federal de-scheduling of the drug (a shift from his previous stance while in Congress).  In 2019 Boehner was named chair of the National Cannabis Roundtable, a cannabis lobbying organization. 
In reporting his pending retirement, Politico summarized his Speakership:
- Boehner came into power on the momentum of the 2010 tea party wave. But it was that movement that gave him constant problems. He clashed with social conservatives over the debt limit, government funding, Obamacare and taxes. But his tenure will also be remembered for his complicated relationship with President Barack Obama. He and Obama tried — but repeatedly failed — to cut a deal on a sweeping fiscal agreement. But Boehner has had some significant victories, including the trade deal that Congress passed this year, and changes to entitlement programs. 
Paul Kane in the Washington Post emphasizes how none of the "big deals" he sought were ever reached:
- Boehner never landed the really big deal he craved. Not the $4 trillion tax-and-entitlement deal he reached for in 2011, not the repackaged version a year later and not the immigration overhaul he sought in 2014. 
Furthermore, Kane argues, Boehner's persona alienated conservative Republicans who demanded more vigorous attacks on Obama and instead perceived, "a country club Republican who loved to play 18 holes of golf and drink merlot afterward while cutting deals. In an era of shouting and confrontation, on talk radio or cable TV, Boehner's easygoing style did not fit." 
|Natural Law||William Baker||8.613||4|
|Democratic||John W. Griffin||52,912||29|
|Democratic||John G. Parks||66,293||26|
|Democratic||Nicholas Van Stein||95,510||32|
Speaker of the House elections
|Democratic||Nancy Pelosi ( CA 8)||233||53.56|
|Republican||John Boehner ( OH 8)||202||46.44|
|Democratic||Nancy Pelosi* ( CA 8)||255||53.56|
|Republican||John Boehner ( OH 8)||174||40.56|
|Republican||John Boehner ( OH 8)||241||55.88|
|Democratic||Nancy Pelosi* ( CA 8)||173||39.96|
|Democratic||Heath Shuler ( NC 11)||11||2.53|
|Democratic||John Lewis ( GA 5)||2||0.48|
|Democratic||Dennis Cardoza ( CA 18)||1||0.23|
|Democratic||Jim Costa ( CA 20)||1||0.23|
|Democratic||Jim Cooper ( TN 5)||1||0.23|
|Democratic||Steny Hoyer ( MD 5)||1||0.23|
|Democratic||Marcy Kaptur ( OH 9)||1||0.23|
|Republican||John Boehner* ( OH 8)||220||51.64|
|Democratic||Nancy Pelosi ( CA 12)||192||45.04|
|Republican||Eric Cantor ( VA 7)||3||0.70|
|Democratic||Jim Cooper ( TN 5)||2||0.47|
|Republican||Allen West [b]||2||0.47|
|Republican||Justin Amash ( MI 3)||1||0.24|
|Democratic||John Dingell ( MI 12)||1||0.24|
|Republican||Jim Jordan ( OH 4)||1||0.24|
|Republican||Raúl Labrador ( ID 1)||1||0.24|
|Democratic||John Lewis ( GA 5)||1||0.24|
|Republican||Colin Powell [b]||1||0.24|
|Republican||David Walker [b]||1||0.24|
|Republican||John Boehner* ( OH 8)||216 [c]||52.95|
|Democratic||Nancy Pelosi ( CA 12)||164||40.20|
|Republican||Dan Webster ( FL 10)||12||2.95|
|Republican||Louie Gohmert ( TX 1)||3||0.74|
|Republican||Ted Yoho ( FL 3)||2||2.50|
|Republican||Jim Jordan ( OH 4)||2||0.50|
|Republican||Jeff Duncan ( SC 3)||1||0.24|
|Republican||Rand Paul [b]||1||0.24|
|Republican||Colin Powell [b]||1||0.24|
|Republican||Trey Gowdy ( SC 4)||1||0.24|
|Republican||Kevin McCarthy ( CA 23)||1||0.24|
|Democratic||Jim Cooper ( TN 5)||1||0.24|
|Democratic||Peter DeFazio ( OR 4)||1||0.24|
|Republican||Jeff Sessions [b]||1||0.24|
|Democratic||John Lewis ( GA 5)||1||0.24|
- The German pronunciation of the Low German surname Boehner/Böhner is [ˈbøːnɐ];  however, Boehner's biography at House.gov recommends the pronunciation // BAY-nər.
- Not a member of the House at the time. 
- Received a majority of the votes cast, and thus won the election, but failed to obtain a majority of the full membership (218). 
- Hanks, Patrick, ed. (2003). Dictionary of American Family Names. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-19-508137-4.
- "John Boehner – 8th District of Ohio". U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on May 13, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- "Boehner takes charge as new Congress convenes". CNN. January 5, 2011.
- "John Boehner Joins Squire Patton Boggs, Law Firm Known for Lobbying". Fortune.com. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Harnden, Toby. "John Boehner: the second of twelve kids". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "Office of Speaker Boehner's Photos – January 2011". Facebook.
- Thompson, Clifford (2006). Current Biography Yearbook 2006. H.W. Wilson Company. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8242-1074-8.
- "boehner". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
-     
- Banikarim, Susie; Francis, Enjoli (November 3, 2010). "'American Dream': John Boehner Set to Take House Helm". ABC News.
- Harnden, Toby (September 17, 2010). "John Boehner: the second of 12 kids from Ohio who is Barack Obama's elitist target". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Grunwald, Michael; Newton-Small, Jay (November 5, 2010). "Tanned, Tested, Ready: John Boehner". Time. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Brian Williams (interviewer) and John Boehner (interviewee) (January 6, 2011). Boehner talks about tearfulness: 'It's who I am'. NBC Nightly News. Event occurs at 3:03.
- Peter J. Boyer (December 13, 2010). "House Rule". The New Yorker.
- Catalina Camia (December 6, 2010). "Boehner: Tea Party rally showed him need for strong GOP". USA Today.
- "John Boehner: Speaker-in-Waiting?". CBS News. October 21, 2010.
- Jennifer Steinhauer and Carl Hulse (October 14, 2010). "Boehner's Path to Power Began in Southern Ohio". The New York Times.
- Eric Bradley (October 4, 2010). "John Boehner rose from humble roots". Cincinnati Enquirer.
- Deirdre Walsh (August 31, 2010). "President's critic powerful insider, little-known outside the Beltway". CNN. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012.
-       
- Weiser, Carl. "Military service rare on delegation," Cincinnati Enquirer, 23 September 2002, accessed October 12, 2013.
- Boehner, John Andrew. US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Alberta, Tim (November 1, 2017). "John Boehner Unchained". Politio. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- "State Races: Ohio 2006 Elections". CNN. November 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2006.
- "State Election Results". CNN. January 12, 2009. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
- Official candidate list Archived June 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Ohio Secretary of State
- A Rabble-Rouser, Then and Now, New York Times, Carl Hulse, July 4, 2009
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- Gingrich, Newt (1998). Lessons Learned the Hard Way. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-0-06-019106-1.
- George F. Will (September 14, 2003). "Today's principle civil rights fight". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
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- Rudalevige, Andrew (June 10, 2002). "Accountability and Avoidance in the Bush Education Plan: The 'No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.'" (PDF). "Taking Account of Accountability" Conference, Program on Education Policy and Governance. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
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- "Roll Call". Archived from the original on February 4, 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-04.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown ( link)
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- Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress