White Hispanic and Latino Americans

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White Hispanic and Latino Americans
Americanos hispanos y latinos blancos
Total population
Increase 26,735,713 [1]
53.0% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans
8.6% of total U.S. population
[1] (2010, census)
Regions with significant populations
All areas of the United States
  California6,503,487 [2]
  Texas5,398,738 [2]
  Florida2,867,365 [2]
American English • American Spanish • Mexican Spanish • Portuguese • Spanglish • Nuyorican English • Miami English
Predominantly Christianity
(mostly Roman Catholic, sizeable Protestant)
Minority Atheism • Irreligion • Judaism and others
Related ethnic groups
White Latin Americans, White Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Spanish Americans, Portuguese Americans, Italian Americans, French Americans

In the United States, a White Hispanic [3] is an individual who self-identifies as white and of Hispanic descent and/or speaks the Spanish language natively. White Latino Americans are a broader category, including people of Brazilian descent, who predominantly speak Portuguese, in addition to Spanish-speaking populations.

Based on the definitions created by the Office of Management and Budget and the U.S. Census Bureau, the concepts of race and ethnicity are mutually independent. For the Census Bureau, ethnicity distinguishes between those who report ancestral origins in Spain or Latin America ( Hispanic and Latino Americans), and those who do not (non-Hispanic Americans). [4] [5] [6] "Mexican" was officially added as a racial category on the United States Census beginning in 1930 in connection with the growing Mexican population, but was removed in the following decades due to much of the Mexican population being repatriated back to Mexico, in addition to political pressure. Prior to this, Latinos in the United States were often classified as "Mulattoes", "Indians" or, "Other" if they were not purely of European ancestry. Classification was up to each census official's discretion before the establishment of a centralized Census Bureau in 1902. [7] A designation for Hispanic and Latino citizens returned in 1970, again coinciding with an increase of immigration from Latin America. As had been the case historically, classification of Latinos presented difficulties in the United States, for the country did not have large mixed-race domestic populations. "Hispanic/Latino" will remain as an ethnicity , [8] Many employers had already given "Hispanic or Latino" the same demographic weight as a racial group for some time. [9] The U.S. Census Bureau asks each resident to report the "race or races with which they most closely identify." [10]

White Americans are therefore referenced as white Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, the former consisting of white Americans who report Hispanophone identity (Spain, Hispanic America, Equatorial Guinea), and the latter consisting of white Americans who do not report Hispanophone ancestry.

As of 2010, 50.5 million or 16.3% of Americans identified as Hispanic or Latino. [1] Of those, 26.7 million, or 53% (8.64% of the total U.S. population), also self-identified as white. [1]


A small minority of White Hispanics in the United States of America today is descended from original Spanish colonists who settled the so-called "internal provinces" and Louisiana of New Spain. As the United States expanded westward, it annexed lands with a long-established population of Spanish-speaking settlers, who were overwhelmingly or exclusively of white Spanish ancestry (cf. White Mexican). [11] This group became known as Hispanos. Prior to incorporation into the United States of America (and briefly, into Independent Texas), Hispanos had enjoyed a privileged status in the society of New Spain and later in post-colonial Mexico.

Racial identity

Concepts of multiracial identity have existed in Latin America since the colonial era, originating in a Spanish caste system that apportioned different rights to people based on their degree of European, African, and Indigenous American ancestry. During the 20th century, the concept of mestizaje, or 'blending', was adopted as a national identity by a number of Latin American countries in order to reduce racial conflict. [12]

A 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that one-third of U.S. Hispanics identify as "mestizo", "mulatto", or another multiracial identity. [12] Such identities often conflict with standard racial classifications in the U.S.: among Hispanic American adults surveyed by Pew Research who identified as multiracial, about 40% reported their race as "white" on standard race question as used on the U.S. Census; 13% reported belonging to more than one race or "mixed race"; while about 20% chose "Hispanic" as their race. [12]


In the 2010 United States Census, 50.5 million Americans (16.3% of the total population) listed themselves as ethnically Hispanic or Latino. Of those, 53.0% (26.7 million) self-identified as racially white. The remaining respondents listed their races as: some other race 36.7%, two or more races (multiracial) 6.0%, Black or African American 2.5%, American Indian and Alaska Native 1.4%, Asian 0.4%, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0.1%. [1]

The respondents in the "some other race" category are reclassified as white by the Census Bureau in its official estimates of race. This means that more than 90% of all Hispanic or Latino Americans are counted as "white" in some statistics of the US government. [13]

Hispanics and Latinos who are native-born and those who are immigrant identify as White in nearly identical percentages: 53.9 and 53.7, respectively, per figures from 2007. The overall Hispanic or Latino ratio was 53.8%. [14]

In 2017, the Pew Research Center reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of U.S. adults with Hispanic ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Hispanic. [15] First generation immigrants from Spain and Latin America identify as Hispanic at very high rates (97%) which reduces in each succeeding generation, second generation (92%), third generation (77%), and fourth generation (50%). [15]

White Hispanics are widespread, with Florida and Texas being 2 states with some of the highest percentages of Hispanics self identifying as white. [16]

Population by national origin

Population by national origin, 2010 [17]
Hispanic national origin Self-identified White population % of total Hispanic population Inside its own population
Mexican 16,794,111 63.0% 52.8%
Puerto Rican 2,455,534 9.2% 53.1%
Cuban 1,525,521 3.5% 85.4%
Salvadoran 663,224 3.3% 40.2%
Dominican 419,016 2.8% 29.6%
Guatemalan 401,763 2.1% 38.5%
Hispanic South Americans 1,470,464 5.5% 65.9%
All other Hispanics 2,018,397 6.8% 49.4%
Total 26,735,713 100% 53.0%

Some Hispanic or Latino American groups that have white majorities or pluralities originate in countries that do not. For example, Mexico's white population is 9% to 17% [18] [19] only, while Mexico is majoritarily mestizo, meaning that they have mixed European and Native American descent at an extent while 52.8% of Mexican Americans are White, or identify themselves as white in the Census (See the table). However, genetic studies performed in the general Mexican American and Mexican populations have shown that Mexicans residing in Mexico consistently have a higher European admixture in average (with results ranging from 37% [20] to 78.5% [21]) than Mexican-Americans (whose results, range from 50% [22] to 68% [23]). The discrepancy between the percentage of white Mexicans reported in United States and white Mexicans from Mexico can be explained if the differences in racial perceptions that exist in both countries are considered: The concept of race in Mexico is subtle not only including physical clues such as skin color but also cultural dispositions, morality, economic, and intellectual status. It is not static or well defined but rather is defined and redefined by situation. This makes racial distinctions different than those in other countries such as the United States. [24] [25]

Other important differences lay in the criteria and formats used for the censuses in each country: In Mexico, the only ethnic census including categories other than Amerindian (dated back to 1921) performed by the government offered the following options in the questionnaire: [26]

  • Full European heritage
  • Mixed indigenous and European heritage (the term "mestizo" itself was never used by the government)
  • Full indigenous
  • Foreigners without racial distinction
  • Other race

The census had the particularity that, unlike racial/ethnic census in other countries, it was focused in the perception of cultural heritage rather than in a racial perception, leading to a good number of white people to identify with "Mixed heritage" due cultural influence. [27] On the other hand, while only 2.9% of the population of the United States identifies as mixed race [28] there is evidence that an accounting by genetic ancestry would produce a higher number, but historical and cultural reasons, including slavery creating a racial caste and the European-American suppression of Native Americans, often led people to identify or be classified by only one ethnicity, generally that of the culture they were raised in. While many Americans may be biologically multiracial, they often do not know it or do not identify so culturally. [29]

Representation in the media

White Hispanics by state, 2007 ACS [2]
State Population % of state % of Hispanics
California 6,503,487 18 49
Texas 5,398,738 23 63
Florida 2,867,365 16 76
New York 1,161,663 7 37
Arizona 1,113,398 18 59
Illinois 715,315 6 37
New Jersey 660,649 8 48
Colorado 601,488 12 62
New Mexico 530,612 27 61
Nevada 412,985 16 64
U.S. Region 2000 [30]
West 37.7%
South 40.8%
Midwest 8.4%
Northeast 13%

In popular use, Hispanic and Latino are often mistakenly given racial values, usually non-white and mixed race, such as half-caste or mulatto, in spite of the racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans. Hispanics commonly draw ancestry from European, Native American, and or African populations in different proportions; some Hispanics are largely of European ancestry, and some are predominantly of Native Central or South American Indian origin, or African origins, but a large number of Hispanics are descended from an admixture of two, three or more origins. Paradoxically, it is common for them to be stereotyped as being exclusively non-white due merely to their Spanish-speaking country of origin, regardless of whether their ancestry is European or not. [31] [32] [33] [34] Judith Ortiz Cofer noted that appellation varies according to geographical location, observing that in Puerto Rico she was considered white, but in the United States she was considered a " brown person." [35]

On the other hand, since the early days of the movie industry in the United States of America, when White Hispanic actors are given roles, they are frequently cast in non-Hispanic white roles. [33] [36] Hispanic and Latino Americans began to appear in the American movie industry in the 1910s, and the leading players among them "were generally light skinned and Caucasian". [36]

Myrtle Gonzalez was one such American actress in the silent film era; she starred in at least 78 motion pictures from 1913 to 1917. [37] Anita Page was an American actress of Spanish descent who reached stardom in 1928, during the last years of the silent film. [38] Page was referred to as "a blond, blue-eyed Latin" and "the girl with the most beautiful face in Hollywood". [39] [40] Hilary Swank an American actress and film producer recipient of numerous awards, including two Academy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards. Her maternal grandmother, Frances Martha Clough (née Dominguez), was born in El Centro, California, and was of Mexican descent. [41]

Telenovelas ( soap operas) have been criticized for not fully reflecting the racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans, and for underrepresenting non-white Hispanic, Latino Americans, and non-white Latin Americans. [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] For example, in the 2005 U.S. Hispanic telenovela Olvidarte Jamas, white, blond, and blue-eyed Venezuelan American actress Sonya Smith portrayed Luisa Dominguez who is a poor mestiza woman; the actress had to wear a black wig to hide her obvious Caucasian appearance. Sonya Smith, however, was the first Hispanic actor to portray a Hispanic without stereotypical perception (portrayed as blond and blue-eyed Hispanic, not a Hispanic mestiza nor mulatta nor Mediterranean-looking Hispanic) in a Hollywood film Hunted by Night, an English-language movie with an all-Hispanic cast.

Marriage trends

A total of 27% of Hispanics marry outside their ethnicity. Non-Hispanic White/Hispanic intermarriage is the most common intermarriage in the United States representing 42% of interracial/ethnic marriages compared to White/Black at 11%. Intermarriage rates between whites and Hispanics do not differ significantly among the genders. [52]


Genetic research has found that the average non-European admixture is present in both White-Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites with different degrees according to different areas of the US. Average European admixture among self-identified White Hispanic Americans is 73% (the average for Hispanic Americans regardless of race is 65.1%), contrasting to that of non-Hispanic European Americans, whose European ancestry totals 98.6% on average. [53]


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010. (PDF).
  2. ^ a b c d "B03002. HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE". 2007 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Social & Demographic Statistics. "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
  4. ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia (2010). Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. p. 145. ISBN  978-1-4399-0050-5.
  5. ^ Nancy L. Fisher (1996). Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 19. ISBN  978-0-8018-5346-3.
  6. ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars (2012). Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN  978-1-118-27487-3.
  7. ^ https://scholar.harvard.edu/jlhochschild/publications/racial-reorganization-and-united-states-census-1850-1930-mulattoes-half-br. Missing or empty |title= ( help)
  8. ^ https://www.census2020now.org/faces-blog/same-sex-households-2020-census-r3976. Missing or empty |title= ( help)
  9. ^ https://medium.com/@anna.sarai.rosenberg/respectful-collection-of-demographic-data-56de9fcb80e2. Missing or empty |title= ( help)
  10. ^ "American Indian and Alaska Native persons, percent, 2000". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  11. ^ Fitzgerald, Kathleen J. (February 18, 2014). Recognizing Race and Ethnicity: Power, Privilege, and Inequality. Avalon Publishing. ISBN  9780813349312 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ a b c Gonzalez-Barrera, Ana (July 10, 2015). "'Mestizo' and 'mulatto': Mixed-race identities among U.S. Hispanics". Pew Research Center.
  13. ^ "T4-2008. Hispanic or Latino By Race". 2008 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  14. ^ Grieco, Elizabeth M. "Race and Hispanic Origin of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2007; American Community Survey Reports" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  15. ^ a b Lopez, Gustavo; Gonzalez-Barrera, Ana; Lopez, Mark Hugo (December 20, 2017). "Hispanic Identity Fades Across Generations as Immigrant Connections Fall Away". Pew Research Center.
  16. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  17. ^ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert (May 2011). "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 14 (Table 6). Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  18. ^ "CIA — The World Factbook – Mexico". Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  19. ^ "Mexico — Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  20. ^ Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Kaustubh Adhikari, Victor Acuña-Alonzo, Mirsha Quinto-Sanchez, Claudia Jaramillo, William Arias, Macarena Fuentes, María Pizarro, Paola Everardo, Francisco de Avila, Jorge Gómez-Valdés (2014). "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals". PLOS Genetics. PLOS. 10 (9): e1004572. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004572. PMC  4177621. PMID  25254375.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link)
  21. ^ Cerda-Flores RM, Kshatriya GK, Barton SA, et al. (June 1991). "Genetic structure of the populations migrating from San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas to Nuevo León in Mexico". Human Biology. 63 (3): 309–27. PMID  2055589.
  22. ^ Beuten J, Halder I, Fowler SP, et al. (July 2011). "Wide disparity in genetic admixture among Mexican Americans from San Antonio, TX". Annals of Human Genetics. 75 (4): 529–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00655.x. PMC  3115480. PMID  21592109.
  23. ^ Long JC, Williams RC, McAuley JE, et al. (February 1991). "Genetic variation in Arizona Mexican Americans: estimation and interpretation of admixture proportions". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 84 (2): 141–57. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330840204. PMID  2021190.
  24. ^ Alejandra M. Leal Martínez (2011). For The Enjoyment of All:" Cosmopolitan Aspirations, Urban Encounters and Class Boundaries in Mexico City (PhD thesis). Columbia University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 3453017.
  25. ^ McDonald, TK (June 24, 2016). "The Economics of Mexico's Middle Class". Investopedia.com. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  26. ^ Navarrete, Federico. "El mestizaje y las culturas" [Mixed race and cultures]. México Multicultural (in Spanish). Mexico: UNAM. Archived from the original on August 23, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
  27. ^ "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Academic investigation (in Spanish). university of the State of Mexico. 2005. p. 196. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  28. ^ Jones, Nicholas A.; Amy Symens Smith. "The Two or More Races Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
  29. ^ Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Faces of America: How 12 Extraordinary Americans Reclaimed Their Pasts (New York University Press, 2010)
  30. ^ Tafoya, Sonya (2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2008. (Note: As used in this source, the word "Spanish" obeys the Census Bureau usage of the term, which does not correspond to Americans with direct origins in Spain, whom the Census Bureau classifies as "Spaniards" instead. See Spanish American for more.)
  31. ^ Separated by a common language: The case of the white Hispanic. Rawstory.com.
  32. ^ Hispanics: A Culture, Not a Race. Campello.tripod.com.
  33. ^ a b "Hispanic roles on American television". Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved May 17, 2008.
  34. ^ "Latinas in U.S. Media". Retrieved May 17, 2008.
  35. ^ Pauline T. Newton (2005). "An Interview with Judith Ortiz Cofer". Transcultural Women Of Late-Twentieth-Century U.S. American Literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 161. ISBN  0-7546-5212-2.
  36. ^ a b "Silent Films, Sound, Resisting Stereotypes, The New Generation, Assessment, Oscar Winners and Nominees, Latinos., Latinas". Retrieved March 19, 2010.
  37. ^ Rosa Linda Fregoso (2003). MeXicana encounters: the making of social identities on the borderlands. University of California Press. pp. 108–111. ISBN  978-0-520-23890-9. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
  38. ^ Anita Page: Star of the silent screen. Independent.co.uk (September 8, 2008).
  39. ^ Heroes, Lovers, and Others. Books.google.co.uk.
  40. ^ Latinas in the United States. Books.google.co.uk (June 30, 2006).
  41. ^ "Dowling Family Genealogy Frances Martha DOMINGUEZ". Ancestry.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  42. ^ Quinonez, Ernesto (June 19, 2003). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien". Retrieved May 2, 2008.
  43. ^ The Blond, Blue-Eyed Face of Spanish TV. Washingtonpost.com (August 3, 2000).
  44. ^ Blonde, Blue-Eyed Euro-Cute Latinos on Spanish TV. Latinola.com (October 24, 2010).
  45. ^ Latinas Not Reflected on Spanish TV. Vidadeoro.com (October 25, 2010).
  46. ^ What are Telenovelas? – Hispanic Culture. Bellaonline.com.
  47. ^ Racial Bias Charged On Spanish-Language TV. Articles.sun-sentinel.com (August 6, 2000).
  48. ^ Black Electorate. Black Electorate (January 2, 2001).
  49. ^ Skin tone consciousness in Asian and Latin American populations. Boston.com (August 19, 2004).
  50. ^ Corpus: A Home Movie For Selena. Pbs.org.
  51. ^ Soap Operas on Latin TV are Lily White Archived May 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "Key facts about race and marriage, 50 years after Loving v. Virginia". Pewresearch.org. June 12, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  53. ^ Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L. (September 18, 2014). "The genetic ancestry of African, Latino, and European Americans across the United States". bioRxiv  10.1101/009340.. "Supplemental Tables and Figures". p. 42. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015.