Gold Mountain (toponym)
Gold Mountain ( Chinese: 金山; pinyin: Jīnshān; Jyutping: Gam1saan1; Cantonese Yale: Gāmsāan, "Gam Saan" in Cantonese, often rendered in English as Gum Shan or Gumshan) is a commonly used nickname for San Francisco, California, and historically used broadly by Chinese to refer to western regions of North America, including British Columbia, Canada. After gold was found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, thousands of Chinese from Toisan in Guangdong, began to travel to the West in search of gold and riches during the California Gold Rush.
Chinese people historically referred to California and British Columbia as Gold Mountain, as evidenced by maps and returned Overseas Chinese. However, as a gold rush subsequently occurred in Australia, Bendigo in the then-colony of Victoria was referred to as "New Gold Mountain" (新金山), and California became known as Old Gold Mountain ( Chinese: 旧金山; simplified Chinese: 旧金山; traditional Chinese: 舊金山; pinyin: Jiù Jīnshān; Jyutping: Gau6 Gaam1saan1; Cantonese Yale: Gauh Gāmsāan); although "Old Gold Mountain" now specifically refers to San Francisco.
The name "Gold Mountain" was initially applied to California. Ships full of immigrants docked in San Francisco to disembark passengers, initially bound for the gold fields, but later to remain in the growing Chinese settlement in San Francisco. In the latter part of the 19th century, however, British Columbia also came to be referred to as "Gold Mountain" following the discovery of gold in the Fraser Canyon in the 1857 and the subsequent group of Chinese from San Francisco arriving by boat in June 1858, and further Chinese settlers coming from California and directly from China later on to British Columbia (which they also referred to as "The Colonies of T'ang" i.e. China).   The term thus broadened to mean "Western North America". The gold seekers in British Columbia first went to the Chinatown in Victoria, on the Colony of Vancouver Island, to obtain supplies. Victoria was the dominant political and economic centre before the economic ascendancy of Vancouver (which has its own Chinatown), and remains the official seat of political power in British Columbia today.
Following California Gold Rush, Australian gold rushes began in 1851, making Australia the 'New Gold Mountain' ( Chinese: 新金山; pinyin: Jīnshān; Jyutping: San1gam1saan1; Cantonese Yale: SānGāmsāan) , also refers to Melbourne :72; Sydney became 'Sydney Gold Mountain' ( Chinese: 雪梨金山; pinyin: Xuělíjīnshān; Jyutping: Syut3lei4gam1saan1; Cantonese Yale: SyutlèihGāmsāan).
- 唐番地/In the Colonies of Tang: Historical Archaeology of Chinese Communities in the North Cariboo District, British Columbia (1860s–1940s) / by Ying-ying Chen. c2001.
- Gold Mountain
- The Taishanese World
- Mapping Empires: Colonial Cartographies of Land and Sea: 7th International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, 2018 ( ISBN 978-3-030-23446-1/ ISBN 978-3-030-23447-8)
- Hasley, Karen J.: "Gold Mountain" (Denver, CO: Outskirts Press, 2012) a work of fiction describing this time in history
- "Escape to Gold Mountain: A Graphic History of the Chinese in North America" by David H.T. Wong. 2012.
- Overview of Chinese immigrants during California Gold Rush
- "Gold Mountain" from The Concubine's Children by Denise Chong. Accessed: 2006-04-09.
- "Chinese transformed 'Gold Mountain'" by Stephen Magagnini, San Francisco Chronicle, January 18, 1998. Accessed: 2006-04-09.
- Chinese and Westward Expansion from The Chinese in California, 1850-1925. University of California, Berkeley/Library of Congress. Accessed: 2006-04-09.
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