Door County, Wisconsin

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Door County
Door County Government Center
Door County Government Center
Map of Wisconsin highlighting Door County
Location within the U.S. state of Wisconsin
Map of the United States highlighting Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 45°01′N 87°01′W / 45.02°N 87.01°W / 45.02; -87.01
Country United States
State  Wisconsin
Founded1861
Named for Porte des Morts
Seat Sturgeon Bay
Largest citySturgeon Bay
Area
 • Total2,370 sq mi (6,100 km2)
 • Land482 sq mi (1,250 km2)
 • Water1,888 sq mi (4,890 km2)  80%
Population
 ( 2010)
 • Total27,785
 • Estimate 
(2018)
27,610
 • Density12/sq mi (4.5/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 ( Central)
 • Summer ( DST) UTC−5 ( CDT)
Congressional district 8th
Website www.co.door.wi.gov

Door County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,785. [1] Its county seat is Sturgeon Bay. [2]

The county was created in 1851 and organized in 1861. [3] It is named after the strait between the Door Peninsula and Washington Island. The dangerous passage, known as Death's Door, is scattered with shipwrecks and was known to Native Americans and early French explorers.

Door County is a popular vacation and tourist destination, especially for Illinois residents. [4]

History

Paleo-Indian artifacts were found at the Cardy Site, including four Gainey points. [5] [6] The relationship between Gainey points [a] and the more ubiquitous Clovis points [b] is being researched, but there are some similarities. [7] Most of the material collected from the Cardy site by 2003 was made of Moline chert, [c] [8] which is not found in Wisconsin. [5] As of 2007, seven Clovis points have been found in the county. [9] Careful study of certain Paleo-Indian artifacts from western Wisconsin suggests that they were made in the Door peninsula and carried across the state. [10]

Artifacts from an ancient village site at Nicolet Bay Beach date to about 400 BC. This site was occupied by various cultures until about 1300 AD. [11]

In 246 B.C (±25 years), a dog was buried in a Native American burial site on Washington Island. [12]

Native Americans and French

Porte des Morts legend

Door County's name came from Porte des Morts ("Death's Door"), the passage between the tip of Door Peninsula and Washington Island. [13] It is a common misconception that the name "Death's Door" arose from the number of shipwrecks associated with the passage. It was instead the result of Native American tales, heard by early French explorers and published in greatly embellished form by Hjalmar Holand, about a failed raid by the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) tribe to capture Washington Island from the rival Pottawatomi tribe in the early 1600s. [14]

Potawatomi and Menominee

Before and during the 19th century, various Native Americans occupied the area that became Door County and its islands. 17th-century French explorers made contact with various tribes in the Door Peninsula. In 1634, the Jean Nicolet expedition landed at Rock Island. This is considered the first visit by men of European descent to what is now Wisconsin. [15] In 1665, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers spent the winter in the county with the Potawatomi. In 1669, Claude-Jean Allouez also wintered with the Potawatomi. He mentioned an area called "la Portage des Eturgeons." In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet stayed in the county about three months as part of their exploration. [16] In 1679, the party led by La Salle purchased food from a village of Potawatomi in what is now Robert La Salle County Park. [17] During the 1670s Louis André ministered to about 500 Native Americans at Rowleys Bay, where he erected a cross. The cross stood until about 1870. [18] Around 1690, Nicolas Perrot visited the Potawatomi on Washington Island. In 1720, Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix visited the area with eight experienced voyageurs. [16]

Six Jesuit rings marked with letters or symbols [19] and turquoise colored glass trade beads were found on Rock Island in remains left by Potowatomi, Odawa, and Huron- Peton-Odawa Native Americans during the 17th and 18th centuries. [20] The remains of four Native American buildings were documented at the Rock Island II Site during 1969–1973 excavations. [21]

By the end of French rule over the area in 1763, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin. Later, some Potawatomi moved back from Michigan to northern Wisconsin. Some but not all Potawatomi later left northern Wisconsin for northern Indiana and central Illinois. [22]

In 1815, Captain Talbot Chambers was falsely reported [23] to have died fighting Blackhawk Indians on Chambers Island; the island was named for him in 1816. [24] During an attack in 1835, one of two fishermen squatting on Detroit Island was shot and killed along with one or more Native Americans. [25] From the 1840s to the 1880s, the Clark brothers operated a fishing camp at Whitefish Bay that employed 30 to 40 fishermen. Additionally, 200–300 Potawatomis extracted fish oil from the fish waste at the camp. [26]

Potawatomi Chief Simon Onanguisse Kahquados, 1919

The Menominee ceded their claim to the Door Peninsula to the United States in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars after years of negotiations with the Ho-Chunk and the U.S. government over how to accommodate the incoming populations of Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, and Brothertown peoples who had been removed from New York. [27] As a result of this treaty, settlers could purchase land, but many fishermen still chose to live as squatters. At the same time, the more decentralized Potawatomi were divested of their land without compensation. Many emigrated to Canada because of invitations from other Native Americans already in Canada, favorable treaty arrangements, and a desire to avoid the harsh terms of the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. Although not all Potawatomi participated in the Treaty of Chicago, it was federal policy that any who did not relocate westward as the treaty stipulated would not be compensated for their land. [28]

Potawatomi Chief Simon Kahquados traveled to Washington, D.C. multiple times in an attempt to get the land back. In 1906, Congress passed a law to establish a census of all Potawatomi formerly living in Wisconsin and Michigan as a first step toward compensation. The 1907 "Wooster" roll, named after the clerk who compiled it, documented 457 Potawatomi living in Wisconsin and Michigan and 1423 in Ontario. Instead of returning the land, a meager monthly payment was issued. [28] Although Kahquados was unsuccessful, he increased public awareness of Potawatomi history. In 1931, 15,000 people attended his burial in Peninsula State Park. [29]

Settlement and development

19th–20th century settlement

Graves of Increase Claflin and family.

The 19th and 20th centuries saw the immigration and settlement of pioneers, mariners, fishermen, loggers, and farmers. The first white settler was Increase Claflin. [30] In 1851, Door County was separated from what had been Brown County. [16] In 1854 on Washington Island, the first post office opened in the county. [31] In 1855, four Irishmen were accidentally left behind by their steamboat, leading to the settlement of what is now Forestville. [32] In 1853, Moravians founded Ephraim as a religious community after Nils Otto Tank resisted attempts at land ownership reform at the old religious colony near Green Bay. [33] In the 19th century, a fairly large-scale immigration of Belgian Walloons populated a small region in southern portion of the county, [11] including the area designated as the Namur Historic District. They built small roadside votive chapels, some still in use today, [34] and brought other traditions over from Europe such as the Kermiss harvest festival. [35]

With the passage of the Homestead Act of 1862, people could purchase 80 acres of land for $18, provided they resided on the land, improved it, and farmed for five years. This made settlement in Door County more affordable.

When the 1871 Peshtigo fire burned the town of Williamsonville, sixty people were killed. The area of this disaster is now Tornado Memorial County Park, named for the whirlwinds of fire. [36] [37] [38] Altogether, 128 people in the county perished in the Peshtigo fire. [16] Following the fire, some residents decided to use brick instead of wood. [39]

In 1885 or 1886, what is now the Coast Guard Station was established at Sturgeon Bay. [40] [41] The small seasonally open station on Washington Island was established in 1902. [42]

In 1894 the Ahnapee and Western Railway was extended to Sturgeon Bay. In 1969, a train ran north of Algoma into the county for the last time, [43] although further south trains continued to operate until 1986. [44]

This 1924 postcard produced by Curt Teich & Company reads, "Cedar Glen, one of the many free tourists' camp sites in Peninsula State Park, Door County Wisconsin."
1914 Sturgeon Bay real estate advertisement
1914 Sturgeon Bay real estate advertisement
From a 1914 promotional booklet, caption reads "Children enjoy picking cherries in Door County orchards"

Early tourism

From 1865 through 1870, three resort hotels were constructed in and near Sturgeon Bay along with another one in Fish Creek. [45] Tourists could visit the northern part of the county on a Great Lakes passenger steamer, sometimes as part of a lake cruise featuring music and entertainment. [46] Improved highways of crushed stone facilitated motor tourism in the early 1900s. [16] By 1909 at least 1,000 tourists visited per year. [47] In 1938 Jens Jensen cautioned about negative cultural impacts of tourism. He wrote, "Door County is slowly being ruined by the stupid money crazed fools. This tourist business is destroying the little bit of culture that was." [48]

Orchard boosterism

In 1865, the first commercial fruit operation was established when grapes were cultivated on one of the Strawberry Islands. By 1895, a large fruit tree nursery was established and fruit horticulture was aggressively promoted. Not only farmers but even "city-bred" men were urged to consider fruit husbandry as a career. The first of multiple fruit marketing cooperatives began in 1897. In addition to corporate-run orchards, in 1910 the first corporation was established to plant and sell pre-established orchards. Although apple orchards predated cherry orchards, by 1913 it was reported that cherries had outpaced apples. [49]

Cherry crop labor sources

Women and children were typically employed to pick fruit crops, but the available work outstripped the labor supply. By 1918, it was difficult to find enough help to pick fruit crops, so workers were brought in by the YMCA and Boy Scouts of America. Cherry picking was marketed as a good summer camp activity for teenage boys in return for room, board, and recreation activities. One orchard hired players from the Green Bay Packers as camp counselors. Additionally, members of the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin and other native tribes were employed to pick fruit crops. [50] [51] A Civilian Conservation Corps camp was established at Peninsula State Park during the Great Depression. In the summer of 1945, Fish Creek was the site of a POW camp under an affiliation with a base camp at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. [52] [53] [54] The German prisoners engaged in construction projects, cut wood, and picked cherries in Peninsula State Park and the surrounding area. [55] During a brief strike, the POWs refused to work. In response the guards established a "no work, no eat" policy and they returned to work, picking 11 pails per day and eventually totaling 508,020 pails. [56]

The Wisconsin State Employment Service established an office in Door County in 1949 to recruit Tejanos to pick cherries. Work was unpredictable, as cherry harvests were poor during certain years and workers were paid by the amount they picked. In 1951, the Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare conducted a study documenting conflict between migrant workers and tourists, who resented the presence of migrant families in public vacation areas. [57] A list of recommendations was prepared to improve race relations. [58] The employment of migrants continues to the present day. In 2013, there were three migrant labor camps in the county, housing a total of 57 orchard laborers and food processors along with five non-workers. [59]

20th–21st-century events

In 1905, the Lilly Amiot was in Ellison Bay with a load of freight, dynamite, and gasoline when it caught fire. After being cut loose, it drifted until exploding; the explosion was heard up to 15 miles away. [60]

In 1912, the barnstormer Lincoln Beachey demonstrated his biplane during the county fair; this is believed to be the first takeoff and landing in the county. [61]

In 1913, The Old Rugged Cross was first sung at the Friends Church in Sturgeon Bay as a duet by two traveling preachers. [62]

In 1919, the first Army-Navy hydrogen balloon race was won by an Army team whose balloon splashed down in the Death's Door passage. Two soldiers endured 10-foot waves for an hour before their rescue by a fisherman. [63]

In 1925, a cow in Horseshoe Bay named Aurora Homestead Badger produced 30,000 pounds of milk, at the time a world record for dairy cattle. [64]

In June 1938, aerial photos were taken of the entire county; in 2011 the photos were made available online. [65]

In 1941, the Sturgeon Bay Vocation School opened. It is now the Sturgeon Bay campus of Northeast Wisconsin Technical College.

In December 1959, the Bridgebuilder X disappeared after leaving a shipyard in Sturgeon Bay where it had been repaired. Its intended destinations were Northport and South Fox Island. Possible factors included lack of ballast and a sudden development of 11 foot waves. The body of one of the two crew members was found the following summer. [66]

In 2004, the county began a sister cities relationship with Jingdezhen in southeastern China. [67]

Geography

Sturgeon Bay Shipping Canal

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,370 square miles (6,100 km2), of which 482 square miles (1,250 km2) is land and 1,888 square miles (4,890 km2) (80%) is water. [68] It is the largest county in Wisconsin by total area. The county also has 298 miles (480,000 m) of shoreline. The county covers the majority of the Door Peninsula. With the completion of the Sturgeon Bay Shipping Canal in 1881, the northern half of the peninsula technically became an island. [69] This canal is believed to have somehow caused a reduction in the sturgeon population in the bay due to changes in the aquatic habitat. [70] The 45th parallel north bisects this "island," and this is commemorated by Meridian County Park. [71] [72]

Dolomite outcroppings of the Niagara Escarpment are visible on both shores of the peninsula, but the karst formations of the cuesta are larger and more prominent on the Green Bay side as seen at the Bayshore Blufflands. Progressions of dunes have created much of the rest of the shoreline, especially on the easterly side. Flora along the shore provide clear evidence of plant succession. The middle of the peninsula is mostly flat or rolling cultivated land. Eskers are only found in the far southwest corner of the county, but drumlins and small moraines also occur further up the peninsula. [73]

Escarpment

Door Bluff Headlands County Park, [d] view of the escarpment

The escarpment is an attractive location for quarrying, homes, and communications towers. [74] A wind turbine project was completed in 1999. At the time the 30.5-acre (12.3-ha) Rosiere Wind Farm was the largest in the eastern United States. [75] High-tension power lines built partly along the escarpment carry electricity into the peninsula. Since the retirement of the Kewaunee Power Station in Carlton and the J. P. Pulliam Generating Station in Green Bay, power to Door County is primarily from the gas-powered plant in De Pere (Brown County) owned by SkyGen and the Point Beach Nuclear Plant in Kewaunee County. [76] An exception to this is Chambers Island, which has no electrical grid system. [77]

A former stone quarry on the escarpment five miles northeast of Sturgeon Bay is now a county park. [78]

Beyond the peninsula's northern tip, the partially submerged ridge forms the Potawatomi Islands, which stretch to the Garden Peninsula in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The largest of these is Washington Island. Most of them form the Town of Washington. [79]

Caves and sinkholes

Eagle Cave

A pit cave containing the skeletal remains of both present-day and pre-Columbian animals opens at the southern base of Brussels Hill. It is the deepest known [80] pit cave and the fourth-longest known cave of any sort in Wisconsin. It was discovered by excavating three sinkholes in an extensive project. [81] [82] Hundreds of sinkholes in the county have been found and marked on an electronic map. [83] Most sinkholes in the county are formed by gradual subsidence of material into the hole rather than a sudden collapse. Some are regularly filled by tilling or natural erosion, only to subside more due to meltwater or heavy rain. [84]

Many caves are found in the escarpment. [85] [86] One of them, Horseshoe Bay Cave, is Wisconsin's second-longest and includes a 45-foot-high underground waterfall. [87] [88] [89] Horseshoe Bay Cave is home to rare invertebrates. [e] Several tiny caves at Peninsula State Park are open and accessible to the public. Eagle Cave is larger but opens midway up the escarpment. [90]

Only one cave not formed by karst or lakeshore erosion has been discovered in the county. It opens in the basement of a nursing home in Sturgeon Bay. [91]

Door County is located on the edge of the Michigan Basin, a producing formation of oil and gas.
Door County is located on the edge of the Michigan Basin, a producing formation of oil and gas.

Oil

On three occasions in the early 1900s oil was found within a layer of shale in the middle and southern part of the county. [92] Additionally, solid bitumen has been observed in dolomite exposed along the Lake Michigan shore. [93]

Aquifers and springs

Door County has three types of aquifers. The newest is in a relatively shallow layer of sand and gravel, but tends to not to provide enough water except in the southeastern part of the county. Further down are layers of dolomite bedrock that are recharged by water percolating from the layer of sand and gravel. Past the dolomite is a layer of shale that does not contain water, although potentially it is a source of oil. Past the shale is a layer of sandstone that is also host to a bedrock aquifer. Only a few wells tap this deepest and oldest aquifer. [94] Due to the tilt of the layers and erosion, there are areas of the county missing certain layers. A study of three city wells serving Sturgeon Bay found that water from the surface fell anywhere from 13 to 115 feet per day from the surface down to the dolomite aquifer. When the snow melted in the spring, the water coming up from one well changed 9 days later to reflect the character of the new meltwater. [95]

Groundwater burbles up from the shallow aquifer through the fractured bedrock, forming fracture springs. It also may seep more slowly through the ground, forming seepage springs. Detailed measurements were taken of one fracture and three seepage springs during a 2014–2017 survey. [96] Although the fracture spring had large variations in output, it still had a greater flow rate than the other 409 springs surveyed. It had one of the highest specific conductance measurements (995 µS/cm) among the springs studied, due to the minerals dissolved in the water. [97] An earlier study comparing spring water and well water from five springs and 47 wells in Sevastopol found that spring water was more turbid than well water and more likely to be contaminated by coliform bacteria. Nitrates, chloride, and specific conductance were not significantly different between the springs and wells. [98]

View from the top of Old Baldy in August

Peaks

The 102 ft high Brussels Hill [99] (elevation 851 feet) is the highest named point in Door County. [100] It has been explained as the result of a meteorite impact. [101] [102] [103] The hill is missing blocks of rock ripped off during glaciation. The broken rocks leave behind nearly horizontal and vertical rock surfaces along the pre-existing weaknesses ( beds and joints) in the rock. [104] This is considered a feature of glaciokarst geology. [105]

Among the named peaks in the county [106] stands Old Baldy, the state's tallest sand dune [107] at 93 feet above the lake level, [108] Boyer Bluff and "The Mountain" on Washington Island, and Pottawatomie Point on Rock Island. [109]

Soils, crops, gravel pits, and minerals

Mr. John Backey (right), Manual Training teacher at Sturgeon Bay High School, demonstrates the use of the chisel during the 1915–1916 school year.

The most common USDA soil association in the northern two-thirds of the county is the Summerville [f]-Longrie [g]-Omena. [h] [110] These associated soils typically are less than three feet deep. Altogether, thirty-nine percent of the county is mapped as having less than three feet (about a meter) to the dolomite bedrock. This is a factor in lower agricultural productivity, basement flooding, and public health concerns.

Both sale prices and rental values of agricultural land are lower than most Wisconsin counties. [111] The most important field crops by acres harvested in 2017 were hay and haylage at 25,197 acres, soybeans at 16,790 acres, corn ( grain) at 15,371 acres, corn ( silage) at 9,314 acres, wheat at 8,790 acres, oats at 2,610 acres, and barley at 513 acres. [112] Despite lower productivity for other forms of agriculture, in the early 1900s the combination of thin soils and fractured bedrock was described by area promoters as beneficial to fruit horticulture, as the land would quickly drain during wet conditions and provide ideal soil conditions for orchard trees. [49] For apples, the influence of the calcium-rich dolomite on the soil was expected to promote good color. [113]

The prevalence of shallow soils hinders and even exposed bedrock hinders agriculture but is beneficial for mining. As of 2016, there are 16 active gravel pits and quarries in the county. They produce sand, gravel, and crushed rock for roadwork and construction use. [114]

Because there is relatively little soil over much of the peninsula and the bedrock is fractured, snowmelt quickly enters the aquifer. This causes seasonal basement flooding in some areas. [115]

Soils in the county are classified as "frigid" because they usually have an average annual temperature of less than 8 °C (46.4 °F). The implication of this classification is that county soils are expected to be wetter and have less microbial activity than soils in warmer areas classified as " mesic." County soils are colder than inland areas of Wisconsin due to the climate-moderating effects of nearby bodies of water. [116]

Minerals found in Door County include fluorite, [117] gypsum, [118] calcite, [119] dolomite, [120] quartz, [121] marcasite, [122] and pyrite. [123] Crystals may be found in vugs. [124]

Pollution

A marine safety technician responds to a reported oil sheen in the ship canal, July 30, 2013. Out of 193 spills of hazardous materials into county waterways from 1971–2015, 84% of them occurred in the Sturgeon Bay area. Most of the spills in the Sturgeon Bay area occurred at ship building and repair businesses. [125]

Wells, soils, and surface waters

The combination of shallow soils and fractured bedrock makes well water contamination more likely. At any given time, at least one-third of private wells may contain bacteria, and in situations with quickly flowing underground water, wells may test clean one day but contaminated the next. Some household wells turn brown every spring from nearby manure applications. [126] In September 2014, 16 people feel ill from drinking wellwater after rainwater washed manure went down a sinkhole in Jacksonport. [127]

The porous and fractured dolomite bedrock was implicated as a factor in a June 2007 epidemic when 229 patrons and employees of the newly opened Log Den restaurant were sickened by a norovirus. Six were hospitalized. The virus was found to have traveled from a septic field 188 m (617 ft) away to the restaurant's well, contaminating their water. [128] From September to December 2007 a study was conducted in which dyes were placed into the septic system. The dyes traveled through the groundwater at about 2 miles per year, and researchers concluded that viral contaminants could travel "many miles in their life times." [129]

After the Milwaukee Journal published an Insight article about septic system problems in the county in 1971, 28% of tourists surveyed in person and 57% of tourists surveyed by telephone reported having read the article. 13% of tourists surveyed by phone said that if water pollution increased, they would stop visiting the county. But the Chamber of Commerce spokesman and one other resort owner said they thought the publicity was good advertising. 14 out of 15 resort owners surveyed said their business had not declined from the previous year, although six thought the article hurt tourism and two thought their businesses had been negatively affected. A study found that those who thought bad water was the county's main problem were less likely to return, and that the water quality problem was hurting tourism. [130]

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources reports 137 leaking underground storage tank sites, 385 spill locations, and 104 other areas involving contamination, such as of soils and groundwater, including 24 cases which polluted one or more neighboring properties and 82 open cases such as cherry orchards left with arsenic and lead contaminated soils from pesticide use during the 1960s and earlier. [131] Additionally, two landowners voluntarily cooperated with the DNR, limiting their future liability. [132] Mines, prior landfills, and former orchard sites are considered impaired lands and specially marked on an electronic county map. [83] A different electronic map shows the locations of private wells polluted with lead, arsenic, and other contaminants down to the section level. [133]

PCBs from Green Bay have been deposited into the county as windborn dust [134] and off of contaminated waters. [135] The state lists 6.85 miles of the Ahnapee River in Door County as an impaired waterway due to PCB pollution, a designation extending past the county line. [136]

A 2009 study of Union, Gardener, and Nasewaupee property owners along with property owners in townships from other counties along southern Green Bay found that people owning bayfront properties valued a reduction in nonpoint source pollution more strongly than those owning properties further inland. [137] Another factor motivating opposition to nonpoint source pollution in the county has been a desire to have a suburban rather than agricultural neighborhood environment. [138] In 2017, farmers spent $2,825,000 on agricultural chemicals, [139] in addition to $5,295,000 on fertilizer, lime, and soil conditioners; [140] as a result agricultural practices are potential source of nonpoint-source pollution.

Air

2016 HYSPLIT map

Most air pollution in Door County comes from outside the county. This map shows how air travels to the pollution monitor in Newport State Park. [141] Because the monitor is near the shore, only the red lines (which show the lower air currents) meaningfully depict the path of ozone to the monitor. As shown on the map, these lower currents carry polluted air from major urban areas. But further inland, the air from higher up mixes more, so all color lines are significant when tracing the path of air pollution further inland. These higher currents (shown in green and blue) blow in from cleaner, mostly rural areas. [142]

The stability of air over the Lake Michigan shore along with the lake breezes [i] may increase the concentration of ozone along the shoreline. [143]

Climate and weather

Fewer late spring freezes

The moderating effects of nearby bodies of water reduce the likelihood of damaging late spring freezes. Late spring freezes are less likely to occur than in nearby areas, and when they do occur, they tend not to be as severe. [144]

Climate data

The county has a humid continental climate ( Köppen: Dfb) with warm summers and cold snowy winters. Data is from the city of Sturgeon Bay, which has an average temperature ranging from 68.7 °F (20.4 °C) in the summer down to 18.0 °F (−7.8 °C) in the winter.

Peninsular Agricultural Research Station north of Sturgeon Bay
Peninsular Agricultural Research Station north of Sturgeon Bay
Climate chart ( explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
1.8
 
 
24
8
 
 
1.1
 
 
28
11
 
 
2.1
 
 
38
21
 
 
2.7
 
 
50
32
 
 
2.9
 
 
64
43
 
 
3.5
 
 
74
53
 
 
3.4
 
 
79
59
 
 
3.6
 
 
77
57
 
 
3.4
 
 
69
50
 
 
2.7
 
 
56
39
 
 
2.5
 
 
42
28
 
 
1.8
 
 
30
16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Climate-Charts.com

Climate records

On January 7, 1967 Washington Island received 17 inches of snow, setting the county record for the greatest one-day snowfall. [148]

Ice accumulation during the winter of 2014 was the highest ever recorded on Lake Michigan. [149]

Tornadoes

Four tornadoes touched down between 1844 and 1880, and six from 1950 to 1989, but there were no fatalities in any of them. Two crossed the Door-Kewaunee county line. [150] From 1989 to 2019, there were 2 additional tornadoes, including the F3 " Door County tornado" which hit Egg Harbor in 1998. [151]

Date of Tornado Time F-Scale Length Width (yards) [152]
7/1/1956 12:05 PM CST F2 10.6 miles 50 yards
7/25/1966 6:20 PM CST F0 2 miles 17 yards
4/22/1970 9:10 PM CST F2 2.3 miles 500 yards
4/22/1970 9:30 PM CST F2 4.3 miles 500 yards
7/12/1973 7:30 AM CST F1 0 miles 100 yards
6/8/1985 8:00 PM CST F2 5 miles 150 yards
8/23/1998 5:30 PM CST F3 5.1 miles 1,300 yards
7/13/2000 2:55 PM CST F0 0.1 miles 50 yards

Weather monitoring

Weather in the county is reported by WXN69 (FM 162.425), the NOAA weather radio station in Sister Bay. [153] Green Bay and Lake Michigan ice thickness reports and forecasts are produced by NOAA. [154]

Weather monitors in the county report terrestrial and marine weather conditions:

Attractions

Road in Shivering Sands wetland complex, January 1st

In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt recommended that the Shivering Sands area be protected. [156] Today this area includes Whitefish Dunes, Kellner's Fen, Shivering Sands wetland complex, [157] and Cave Point County Park. [158] Hjalmar Holand, an Ephraim resident, [159] promoted Door County as a tourist destination in the first half of the 20th century. He served on a committee begun in 1927 to protect and promote historical sites, [160] and as a result of this effort the county historical society purchased lands that are now county parks, including Tornado Park, Robert LaSalle Park, Murphy Park, Increase Claflin Park, and the Ridges Sanctuary. [161]

Since then the tourism industry has grown. Most tourists and summer residents come from the metropolitan areas of Milwaukee, Chicago, Madison, Green Bay, and the Twin Cities, [162] although Illinois residents are the dominant group both in Door County and further south along the eastern edge of Wisconsin. [4]

In 2003, researchers found that compared to other Wisconsin counties, Door County had a high number of campgrounds, golf courses, amusement businesses, [j] and downhill ski hills and a middling amount of inland water acreage, forestland, county-owned acreage, and rail trail mileage. [163]

Recreational lands

View in August from the currently closed observation tower at Potawatomi State Park. The small island is Heaven On Earth island, formerly Bug Island. [164] On the left is Cabot Point, part of the Idlewild area, and on the right is the northwest shore of Sturgeon Bay featuring the rock cut of the Old Stone Quarry, once the largest in the state. [78] Green Island appears as a very faint line along the horizon.
Nicolet Bay at Peninsula State Park, Nicolet Beach in the center. Since this was taken in mid-September, the beach is mostly empty.

Lands open to public use

Door County is home to five state parks: Newport State Park, northeast of Ellison Bay; Peninsula State Park, east of Fish Creek; Potawatomi State Park, along Sturgeon Bay; Rock Island State Park, off the tip of the Door Peninsula; and Whitefish Dunes State Park, along Lake Michigan. [165] Besides those in the state parks, there are three other nature centers. There are four State Wildlife and Fishery Areas [k] and also State Natural Areas that allow free public access. [166] [l]

Besides county, [167] town, and community parks, [168] [169] there is a boy scout camp, a Christian camp, [170] and a public site operated by The Archaeological Conservancy. [171] [5] A local land trust operates 14 privately owned parks open to the public, [172] and 3,277.3 acres (1326.3 ha) of privately owned lands are open to the public for hunting, fishing, hiking, sight-seeing and cross-country skiing under the Managed Forest Program. [173]

Beaches

Including both the Lake Michigan and Green Bay shores, there are 54 public beaches or boat launches [174] and 39 kayak launch sites, [175] leading to the area's promotion as "the Cape Cod of the Midwest." [176] Although Door County has fewer sunny days than most counties in Wisconsin and Illinois, it also has less rainfall and lower summer temperatures, [177] making for an optimal beach-going climate.

Lake breezes

On hot summer days, cool lake breezes start in around noon and grow more intense my mid afternoon. This effect can be noticed at the shoreline and around a mile or so inland. [178] Although lake breezes are capable of penetrating considerably further inland, they are able to heat up quickly after passing onto land. After as little as a mile of travel inland, they may be nearly as warm as the air they push away. [179] When a lake breeze encounters an inward curving shoreline, such as at Sister Bay, the breeze becomes more intense. The curve of the shore guides the breezes from opposing sides of the bay and makes them converge upon each other at the middle. [180]

Contamination

35 beaches are routinely monitored for water quality advisories. [181] Before the state beach monitoring program, an outbreak at Nicolet Beach in Peninsula State Park sickened 68 people in July 2002. [182] A two-year study of selected Door County beaches concluded that neither the abundance of bird droppings nor bird populations reliably predicted E. coli contamination, [m] [184] although rainfall was associated with elevated E. coli levels in six out of eight beaches studied. [185] From 2011–2015, a beach improvement program worked to reduce runoff. [186]

Mats of Cladophora algae provide homes for Salmonella bacteria. [187]

Eagle Bluff Lighthouse was constructed in 1868 on orders from President Andrew Johnson, at a cost of $12,000. It was restored in 1964 and opened to the public; it is located in Peninsula State Park. [69]

Significant structures and sites

Lighthouses

Including both lake and Green Bay shorelines, there are ten lighthouses. Most were built during the 19th century and are listed in the National Register of Historic Places: Baileys Harbor Range Lights; Cana Island Lighthouse; [188] Chambers Island Lighthouse; Eagle Bluff Lighthouse; Pilot Island Lighthouse; Plum Island Range Lights; [189] Pottawatomie Lighthouse; and Sturgeon Bay Canal Lighthouse. The other lighthouses in the county are: Baileys Harbor Lighthouse; Sherwood Point Lighthouse; and the Sturgeon Bay Canal North Pierhead Light. [190]

Historical sites

Thirteen historical sites are marked [191] in the state maritime trail for the area [192] in addition to eight roadside historical markers. [193] In Sturgeon Bay, the tugboat John Purves is operated as a museum ship. Including lighthouses, the county has 72 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are 214 known confirmed and unconfirmed shipwrecks listed for the county, [194] including the SS Australasia, Christina Nilsson, Fleetwing, SS Frank O'Connor, Grape Shot, Green Bay, Hanover, Iris, SS Joys, SS Lakeland, SS Louisiana, Meridian, Ocean Wave, and Success. Some shipwrecks are used for wreck diving. [195]

Buildings made from cordwood construction survive in the county, especially in the Bailey's Harbor area. Some, such as the The Blacksmith Inn, are covered with clapboards on the outside. [196] [197]

From a 1924–1925 Sturgeon Bay High School yearbook

Waters

Sturgeon Bay and Little Sturgeon are considered biodiversity hotspots because they support a large number of different fish species. [198]

North of the peninsula, warm water from Green Bay flows into Lake Michigan on the surface, while at the same time, cold lakewater enters Green Bay deep underneath. [199] This is a major reason why oxygen levels in the bay are often too low. [200]

Salmon

In 2018, Door County ranked second in the state in the Chinook salmon harvest, with 14,268 fish caught, below Kewaunee County, which had 26,557. [201] Chinook salmon are sought after by tourists enjoying chartered fishing trips. [202] Several state record salmon have been caught out of county waters on the Lake Michigan side. In 1994 the state record Chinook was taken; it weighed 44 pounds, 15 ounces, and was 47.5 inches long. In 2016 the state record for pinook (a hybrid of the pink and Chinook salmons) was set at a weight of 9 pounds, 1.6 ounces, and 27.87 inches. [203] Beginning in 1964, first coho and then Chinook salmon were stocked in Lake Michigan. [204] New Chinook fingerling stocking in the spring and egg and milt collection from late September to early November primarily takes place at the Strawberry Creek Chinook Facility in southern Door County. The facility is a public attraction during stocking and collection times. [205]

In recent years there has been concern that the alewife population will not support the salmon population, [206] especially as the Chinook population has already collapsed in Lake Huron. [207] A 2016 survey of Wisconsin anglers found they would on average pay $140 for a trip to catch Chinook salmon, $90 for lake trout, and $180 for walleye. [208] Should the Chinook salmon fishery be replaced with a native lake trout fishery, the economic value would decrease by 80%. [209]

Spawning

Fishermen drying a net and hauling lake trout; part of a 1940 mural in the Sturgeon Bay Post Office.
The fish tug Oliver H. Smith,[210] lifting nets in a northeast gale outside of Baileys Harbor.
The fish tug Oliver H. Smith, [210] lifting nets in a northeast gale outside of Baileys Harbor.

There are numerous reefs of exposed bedrock in the Porte des Mortes passage and off both the Green Bay and Lake Michigan shores. [211] A 1995 study found the greatest abundance of spawning lake trout in Lake Michigan was on the Clay Banks Reef off of Door and Kewaunee counties. [212] County waters are also used for spawning by alewife, herring, lake whitefish, round whitefish, brown trout, brook trout, chubs, longnose suckers, white suckers, smallmouth bass, and burbot. It is assumed that longnose dace also spawn in county waters. [213]

Other fishing

Walleye found in the Sturgeon Bay and Little Sturgeon area had 87% more PCBs [n] than walleye from the western side of Green Bay at the mouth of the Oconto River. This fits what is known about the distribution of PCBs which spread from industries in the Fox River Valley. [214]

Round gobies eat mussels off the rocky shoreline. [215] In 2014 the state speargun record for the invasive round goby was taken by out of Door County waters on the Lake Michigan side. It weighed 5.0 ounces and was 8.25 inches long. [203]

Lake whitefish and yellow perch are caught commercially. [216] Lake whitefish are also caught commercially by ice fishing. [217] Tagging studies have shown whitefish migrating from Big Bay de Noc which has less food to the plentiful waters off the peninsula. [218]

Remains of sturgeon, catfish, sucker, smallmouth bass, white bass, walleye, and drum left behind by Native Americans were found near North Bay in the 1960s. [219]

Boating

The boat on the left overturned during the 2013 wooden boat competition. The participants are reduced to swimming around the buoy.

In 2012, 8,341 registered boats were kept in the county. Most of the county boating accidents reported in 2012 occurred in Green Bay. [220] A 1989–90 study of recreational boating in Wisconsin found that the county's Green Bay and Lake Michigan waters had a higher frequency of Great Lakes boating than any other county bordering Lake Michigan or Lake Superior. The typical motor used in the county's Green Bay and Lake Michigan waters had a horsepower over 90, while the typical motor used for inland county waters had a horsepower under 50. Overall, boaters perceived county waters as uncrowded and boater satisfaction was average. [221]

An annual race is held for which participants build small plywood boats. [222]

The county's longest river canoe route is on the Ahnapee River from County H south to the county line. [223]

Some itineraries connecting the Great Loop around the eastern U.S. and through the Mississippi include stops in Door County. [224]

A charity holds sailing classes each summer. [225] 1972–1973 surveys of high school juniors and seniors in northeast Wisconsin found that students from Door County were more likely to use sailboats than students from other counties. [226]

Plants and fungi

Recognized natural areas

There are 29 state-defined natural areas in the county. [166]

SNA # SNA Name Reference Image
12 Peninsula Park Beech Forest [227] Peninsula Park Beech Forest.jpg
13 Peninsula Park White Cedar Forest [228] Thuja occidentalis forest 2 Wisconsin.jpg
17 The Ridges Sanctuary [229] The Ridges Sanctuary.jpg
47 Sister Islands [230] Sister Islands.jpg
57 Toft Point [231] Toft Point.jpg
90 Newport Conifer-Hardwoods [232] Newport Conifer-Hardwoods.jpg
110 Jackson Harbor Ridges [233] Jackson Harbor Ridges.jpg
125 Mud Lake [234] Mud Lake.jpg
175 Whitefish Dunes [235] Whitefish Dunes.jpg
204 Marshall's Point [236] Marshall's Point.jpg
218 Mink River Estuary [237] Mink River Estuary State Natural Area.jpg
233 Moonlight Bay Bedrock Beach [238] Moonlight Bay Bedrock Beach.jpg
276 Coffey Swamp [239] Coffey Swamp.jpg
284 Baileys Harbor Boreal Forest and Wetlands [240] Baileys Harbor Boreal Forest and Wetlands.jpg
335 Kangaroo Lake [241] Kangaroo Lake Aerial.JPG
377 Bayshore Blufflands [242] Niagara Escarpment at Bayshore Blufflands.jpg
378 Ellison Bluff [243] Ellison Bluff.jpg
379 Europe Bay Woods [244] Europe Bay Woods.jpg
381 North Bay [245] North Bay State Natural Area.jpg
382 Rock Island Woods [246] Rock Island Woods.jpg
383 White Cliff Fen and Forest [247] White Cliff Fen and Forest.jpg
391 Big and Little Marsh [248] Big and Little Marsh.jpg
403 Thorp Pond [249] Thorp Pond.jpg
413 Detroit Harbor [250] Detroit Harbor.jpg
543 Logan Creek [251] Logan Creek.jpg
544 Meridian Park [252] Meridian Park.jpg
554 Little Lake [253] Little Lake.jpg
559 Cave Point-Clay Banks [254] Cave Point-Clay Banks.jpg
688 Peninsula Niagara Escarpment [255]
Rare plants

Along with nearby Marinette and Delta (see Garden Peninsula) counties, Door County is home to endemic plants and disjunct populations, [256] such as those protected at Plum Island, Coffee Swamp, Cave Point County Park, the adjacent Whitefish Dunes State Park, and The Ridges Sanctuary. The Grand Traverse islands have some of Wisconsin's richest rare plant reserves. [257]

Inland waters

Besides Lake Michigan and Green Bay, there are 25 lakes, ponds, or marshes and 37 rivers, creeks, streams, and springs in the county. [258] 4,631 ha (11,400 acres) of Door Peninsula Coastal Wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention as wetlands of international importance. [259] The listing includes three areas previously recognized as "Wetland Gems." [260]

Plant communities unique to the area

The county is home to a variety of plant communities, including some unique to the area. Boreal rich fen is called "rich" because the dolomite makes the soil more fertile. [261] Calcicole plants growing in these fens depend on minerals which the dolomite contributes to the soil. [262] The southernmost boreal forests in the state are on the eastern side of the peninsula. [263] In white cedar variant forests, white cedar coexists with hardwoods and balsam fir in upland stands that ordinarily would not support cedar. This forest cover is likely due to the alkaline soil and mostly grows on the Niagara Escarpment along the Green Bay side of the peninsula or near the Lake Michigan shoreline. A combination of high humidity, high levels of calcium and magnesium carbonates from the dolomite, and weathered, nutrient poor soils are thought to limit microbial activity. As a result, a layer of humus builds up from organic matter falling to the ground. [264] The escarpment also features the dry cliff natural community [265] and is home to two rare species of whitlow grass. [266] [267] Other uncommon communities are alvar and the similar Great Lakes alkaline rockshore, [268] [269] also home to rare plants. [256]

Individual trees

Some trees have attracted attention:

  • One white cedar found on the escarpment was over 600 years old and near other old-growth cedars. [270]
  • The largest tree in the county is a 170-year-old eastern cottonwood on the west side of Highway 57 passing through Institute. It is 110 feet tall and 35 feet in circumference. [271]
  • In 1997, striped maple was discovered in a shoreline forest near Newport, the first time this species was documented in the state. [272]
  • In 1969, Franklin Gilbert introduced the Viking apple, an early Macintosh moderately resistant to apple scab and fireblight. [273] [274] The original Viking tree is exhibited to the public at the Peninsular Research Station.
Select trees, wildflowers, ferns, and fungi found in the county
Abies balsamea, balsam fir, Peninsula State Park
Picea glauca, white spruce, Peninsula State Park
Thuja occidentalis, eastern white cedar or arborvitae, Peninsula State Park
Juniperus communis var. depressa, common juniper, Potawatomi State Park
Rhus typhina, staghorn sumac, Potawatomi State Park
Cichorium intybus, chicory, Peninsula State Park
Vaccinium myrtilloides, velvetleaf huckleberry, Potawatomi State Park
Leucanthemum vulgare, oxeye daisy, Potawatomi State Park
Geum aleppicum, yellow avens, Peninsula State Park
Geum canadense, white avens, Peninsula State Park
Actaea pachypoda, white baneberry, Peninsula State Park
Mentha canadensis, Canadian or field mint, location unknown
Arctium minus, lesser burdock, Peninsula State Park
Campanula rotundifolia, bluebell bellflower, Peninsula State Park
Hypericum perforatum, common St. Johnswort, Potawatomi State Park
Asclepias syriaca, common milkweed, Peninsula State Park
Antennaria neglecta, field pussytoes, Peninsula State Park
Prunella vulgaris, common selfheal, Peninsula State Park
Iris lacustris, dwarf lake iris, Peninsula State Park
Achillea millefolium, common yarrow, Potawatomi State Park
Clintonia borealis, bluebead, Newport State Park
Viola nephrophylla, northern bog violet, Newport State Park
Cornus sericea, redosier dogwood, Potawatomi State Park
Erigeron strigosus, prairie fleabane, Potawatomi State Park
Arabidopsis lyrata, lyrate rockcress, Whitefish Dunes State Park
Mistassini primrose, primula mistassinica, The Ridges
Adiantum pedatum, northern maidenhair, Peninsula State Park
Spinulum annotinum, common club-moss, Newport State Park
Laetiporus sulphureus, sulphur polypore, Peninsula State Park
Pholiota aurivella, golden Pholiota, unspecified campground

Plant species lists

As of 2019, 1201 species and hybrids of vascular plants have been identified in the county, [275] including the yellow lady's-slipper Cypripedium parviflorum, the official county flower. [276] 255 unique taxa of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts [277] have been identified in Door County.

Islands

In 2001, species lists were compiled for the county's islands. Snake Island had 156 species, Cana Island had 111, Hat Island 22, Chambers Island 398, Adventure Island 58, Little Strawberry Island 44, Jack Island 28, Horseshoe Island 49, Sister Island 6, Spider Island 42, Plum Island 259, Detroit Island 25, Pilot Island 40, Washington Island 626, Hog Island 34, Rock Island 333, and Gravel and Fish islands were devoid of plant life. [278] In particular, Washington Island is one of only two places in Wisconsin where the fern Asplenium viride (green spleenwort) is found. [279]

Lakes

In 2006, 60 species of aquatic plants or macrophytic algae were found in Clark Lake and nearby upstream, including spotted pondweed, Potamogeton pulcher, which is endangered in Wisconsin. [280] [281] In 2017, 9 species of aquatic plants were found in the Forestville Millpond, also called the Forestville Dam or Forestville Flowage. [282]

Plants in Newport State Park recolonizing the drawdown zone in August 2013 during a period of low lake levels. Plants present in the background include Anthriscus sylvestris (Queen Anne's lace), goldenrod, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass). The foreground includes the woody plants Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), and Cornus sericea (red-osier dogwood).

Invasive species

A county-wide electronic map of Japanese knotweed, Phragmites, teasel, and wild parsnip infested locations is updated annually. [83] Locations of other problem species have also been documented. [283]

Vegetation during low lake levels

Yearly fluctuations in lake levels alternately kill off vegetation during periods of high water and promote succession during times of low water. Even during times of high water when low-lying plants are inundated, the populations may persist uphill by clonal expansion and spreading their seeds. Lake Michigan has more diverse shoreline vegetation than Lake Ontario, which has a more stable water level due to human intervention. Without the changing lake levels the shoreline would be dominated by woody plants or highly competitive and even invasive water-loving species such as cattails, reed canary grass, or purple loosestrife. Wet meadows like this one thrive when flooding does not occur often enough to allow emergent vegetation to prevail but is still too frequent to allow the establishment of trees and shrubs. [284]

Living collections

Orchids

Although The Ridges Sanctuary is home to wild orchids, it also operates an orchid restoration project to cultivate and introduce rare orchids into otherwise natural plant communities. [285] 25 native orchid species are kept at the Ridges. [286]

Potatoes

The U.S. Potato Genebank at the Peninsular Research Station just north of Sturgeon Bay is the world's largest living collection of wild and domesticated potatoes. [287]

Garden plants

A master gardeners association operates a one-acre botanical garden on the Peninsular Research Station grounds with about 350 varieties of plants. [288]

Macrofungi species lists

As of 2019, 243 species of mushrooms and other macrofungi have been identified north of the canal, [289] with 326 species for the county as a whole, including those found in lichens. [290] Several of the more uncommon lichens found in the county are Cetraria arenaria, which grows on the ground, [291] and Anaptychia crinalis, which grows on tree bark. [292]

Hybrid yeast

In 2009, a unique hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was found on fallen cherries near Fish Creek. This strain of S. cerevisiae descended from both oak-tree and vineyard lineages. [293]

FWS staff banding a cormorant on Spider Island at night in July. The island is home to a nesting colony, [294] which is protected along with two other islands as the Wisconsin Islands Wilderness. Banding was done at night so the chicks would be sleeping and less aware.

Vertebrate animals

Animal species lists

From 1971 through 1976, 11 species of small mammals were found at Toft Point, [295] the Newport State Park Mammals Checklist has 34 species, [296] and in 1972 44 mammals were listed for the entire county. [297] From 1981 through 1995, 7 species of frogs and toads were recorded in the county. [298] In 1992 six amphibians and eight reptiles were found in and around Potawatomi State Park. [299]

As of 2018, 166 species of birds have been confirmed to live in Door County, excluding birds seen which lack the habitat to nest and must only be passing through. [300] Reverse migration is occasionally observed in the county. When birds traveling north reach the tip of the peninsula and the islands beyond, the long stretches of water sometimes unnerves them. Instead of crossing over to the Garden Peninsula, they turn around and fly back down the peninsula. [301] Brood parasitism by red-breasted mergansers has been observed on Gravel and Spider islands and on another island known informally as "The Reef." They laid eggs into the nests of mallards, gadwalls, and lesser scaups. [302]

In 1999, the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory listed 24 aquatic and 21 terrestrial animals in Door County as "rare." [303]

Distribution of Tamias striatus subspecies: T. s. griseus (triangles), T. s. doorsiensis (circles), and T. s. peninsulae (squares). The black symbols mark where collected specimens were taken from, while the open symbols refer to other records.
Distribution of Tamias striatus subspecies: T. s. griseus (triangles), T. s. doorsiensis (circles), and T. s. peninsulae (squares). The black symbols mark where collected specimens were taken from, while the open symbols refer to other records.

Herring gulls

During the 20th century, thousands of herring gulls were banded on Hat Island [304] to determine their migratory patterns. [305] Banded birds were found as far north as Hudson Bay and as far south as Central America. [164]

Endemic chipmunk

Tamias striatus doorsiensis, a subspecies of eastern chipmunk, was described in 1971. [306] [307] It is only found in Door, Kewaunee, Northeastern Brown, and possibly Manitowoc counties. [308] Compared to other chipmunks nearby in Michigan and Wisconsin, they have brighter patches behind their ears, grayer hair along their backs, and more white on their tails. [309] It is smaller than T. s. griseus but larger than the least chipmunk (Neotamias minimus). [308]

Invertebrates

Rare snails

From 1996 to 2001, researchers identified 69 species of snails in Door County, the most out of the 22 counties in the study. Most of these were found on rock outcrop habitats. Ranking second was Brown County with 62 species. 48 species were found in Kewaunee County, ranking eighth. Slugs were found in all three counties. Peninsula State Park is home to the northernmost known population of Strobilops aenea. The species Vertigo hubrichti and Vertigo morsei are endemic to the upper Midwest. These two species had the highest occurrence frequencies along the Door and Garden Peninsulas. Door County is also home to several uncommon species from the genus Oxychilus, which is non-native and introduced from Europe. One was found near a vacation home and may have been introduced by landscape plantings. Within the county, Brussels Hill, North Kangaroo Lake, Rock Island and the escarpment with its cool algific habitat supports populations of rare snails. [310] [311] Out of 63 locations in the county where snails were found, the most species (28) were located on a cliff in Rock Island. [312]

Rare bees

The sweat bee Lasioglossum sagax was collected on Ridges Road in 2006. Aside from a single collection from Manitowoc County in 2005, it had previously been found only in Colorado. [313]

The kleptoparasitic bee Stelis labiata is considered very rare. [314] It was collected at Toft point in 2006. This was only the second time this species had been found in Wisconsin; the earlier collection's county of origin is unknown. [315]

Mayflies

In June 2016, an estimated several thousand mayflies hatched in Sawyer Bay, which is part of Sturgeon Bay. This was the result of an experiment to stock millions of eggs from the species Hexagenia limbata and Hexagenia bilineata in the lower Green Bay area in an attempt to reintroduce the species. The last mayfly from the genus Hexagenia had been collected in the lower Green Bay area in 1955. As mayfly populations can be unstable and not all stocking locations appeared to be successful, as of 2017 it was not yet known whether it would be possible for populations of Hexagenia mayflies to become self-sustaining. [316]

Horseshoe Bay Cave

In 2014 an invertebrate survey of Horseshoe Bay Cave found an apparently groundwater-dwelling amphipod of the genus Crangonyx. Groundwater-dwelling Crangonyx species had never been documented in Wisconsin before. [317] A springtail of the genus Pygmarrhopalites (a genus name synonymous with Arrhopalites) was "found on the surface of drip pools." It appeared to be adapted to cave life and the study concluded that it "could represent an undescribed cave species." [318]

Toft Point

In 2004, an invertebrate species list for Toft Point was published listing five isopods, four millipedes, six daddy longlegs, and 113 spiders. Of these, two of the millipedes and 14 of the spiders had never been documented in Wisconsin before. [319]

Spiders

The local climate may allow for the better survival of the northern black widow spider. [320]

Additionally, the county is home to the fishing spider Dolomedes tenebrosus, which can grow to about three inches, half the size of a tarantula. [321]

Others

Kangaroo Lake State Natural Area has the largest breeding population of the endangered Hine's Emerald Dragonfly in the world. [322]

The Lake Huron locust lives on dunes in the county and is not found anywhere else in the state. [323]

Research on apple maggots infesting cherries in Door County contributed to the study of sympatric speciation in the 1970s. [324]

In the 20th century, seven fish parasites were found in Hibbards Creek and 13 in Sturgeon Bay. [325]

By season

Although Door County has a year-round population of about 27,610, it experiences an influx of tourists each summer between Memorial Day and Labor Day, with over 2.1 million visitors per year. [326] Most businesses are targeted to tourism and operate seasonally. Based on room tax collections from 2017–18, July is the busiest month of the year, although sales tax revenue is higher in August. The fewest room taxes are collected for January, and the fewest sales taxes are collected for April. [327]

Room occupancy for motels, resorts, and inns in Door County, July 2018 – November 2019 [328]

A motel, Sturgeon Bay, October 2009
An inn, Egg Harbor, October 2009
A resort, Ephraim, printed between circa 1930 and circa 1945

Springtime

Maple syrup production [329] was 983 gallons in 2017 from seven operations. This was similar to figures from 2012, but down from 2007 when 15 operations produced 2,365 gallons. [330]

The sucker run, which was a popular fishing event in the 19th century, [331] occurs in March and April. [332] Suckers may be taken by frame dip nets, [333] and the sucker run is also sought out as viewing opportunity. [334] Another permitted method of fishing for suckers is by speargun. In April 2018, the state speargun record for longnose sucker was taken by out of Door County waters on the Lake Michigan side. It weighed 3 pounds, 9.9 ounces and was 21.25 inches long. [203]

Another attraction is mushroom hunting on public land. [335] [336] Additionally, as of 2017 there are two commercial mushroom operations. [337]

Summer

Cherry tree

In 2017, there were ten operations growing 14 acres of strawberries. [338]

In 2017, there were eight operations harvesting five acres of fresh cut herbs, up from four acres in 2012. [339] Two of these operations grow lavender on Washington Island. [340] [341]

In Baileys Harbor, religious tourism includes the Blessing of the Fleet. [342]

Door County has a history of strawberry, [343] apple, cherry, and plum growing that dates back to the 19th century. [344] [49] Farmers were encouraged to grow fruit on the basis of the relatively mild climate on the peninsula. This is due to the moderating effects of the lake and bay on nearby land temperatures. U-pick orchards and fruit stands can be found along country roads when in season, and there are two cherry processors. [345]

However, the cherry and apple businesses have declined [346] since peaking in 1941 [347] and 1964 [49] [348] respectively due to concerns about pesticides, [349] lack of migrant labor and a difficulty in finding local help, the closure of all processing plants save one, unpredictable harvests, the introduction of Drosophila suzukii, land-use competition with tourism and residential development, better growing conditions to the east in the fruit belt, such as the nearby Traverse City area, [350] [49] and intentional destruction of a portion of the crop ordered by the processor in order to drive up prices. [351] In 2017, there were only 1,945 acres of tart cherry orchards, down from 2012 when there were 2,429 acres. [352]

Fall

Fall color, October 12, 2008

Additionally, there were 400 acres of apple orchards in 2017, down from 468 acres in 2012. [353] In 2017, there were 12 acres of pear orchards, spread among 11 operations. [354] In 2017, there was only one acre of plum orchards, spread among four operations. [355] In 2007, there were two acres of apricot orchards, spread among six operations. [356] Research on the development of cold-hardy peaches has continued since the 1980s. [357] In 2012, there were two acres of peach orchards, spread among seven operations. [358]

In 2018, a county total of 4,791 deer were killed as a total of all deer hunting seasons, down from the total harvest of 5,264 deer in 2017. [359] Chronic wasting disease as of 2018 has never been detected within the county. [360]

Another autumn activity is leaf peeping. [361]

Skiing and skating at Sturgeon Bay High School
Kaddy on skis.jpg
Skating rink at the lower campus.jpg
Mary-Tillie on skis.jpg
Skating rink at the lower campus 2.jpg

Winter

Winter attractions include ice fishing, sledding, [o] cross-country skiing, [366] camping, [367] broomball, [368] pond hockey, [369] snowmobiling, [370] watching lake freighters in Sturgeon Bay, [371] and Christmas tree farms. [372] [373] In 2017, 860 Christmas trees were cut, down from 1,929 in 2012. [374] Nearly 60% of the time, Door County has a white Christmas. [375]

Culture

Food

Some foods of Door County
Lapskaus stand, Sister Bay, Lapskaus is a Norweigan potato stew
Swedish meatballs, Sister Bay
fish boil platter, within the county
booyah, location not described
Sturgeon Bay High School (7-12) students eating, from the 1916–1917 school year, caption reads "Just lunching"

Agritourism and culinary tourism supports local food production. [376] [377] [378] Cooking classes are offered to tourists. [379]

Distinctive local foods include:

This stave church in Baileys Harbor was constructed from 1939 to 1947. Inside are 41 frescoes and carved-wood furnishings.

Scandinavian heritage

Scandinavian heritage-related attractions include The Clearing Folk School, two stave churches, [404] structures in Rock Island State Park furnished with rune-inscribed furniture, [405] and Al Johnson's Swedish Restaurant, which features goats on its grassy roof. In Ephraim, the Village Hall, the Moravian and Lutheran churches, and the Peter Peterson House are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, as is the L. A. Larson & Co. Store building in Sturgeon Bay. Although fish boils have been attributed to Scandinavian tradition, [406] several ethnicities present on the peninsula have traditions of boiling fish. The method common in the county is similar to that of Native Americans. [407] [q]

Industry

In Sturgeon Bay, industrial tourism includes tours of the Bay Shipbuilding Company, [408] CenterPointe Yacht Services [409] [410] and other manufacturers. [411] In particular, Bay Ship owns a blue gantry crane that dominates the skyline. [412] A cheese factory in Clay Banks conducts public tours. [413]

Sports

Door County Fairgrounds
Door County fairgrounds grandstand
Bengi LaCross, 2006, at Sturgeon Bay. Later in 2006 he won the IMCA Modified National Championship. He returned to Sturgeon Bay in 2007, and was track champion.
Kettle Moraine Rough Riders drill team competing at the 2006 Door County Fair

Sports tourism includes an underwater hockey team, [414] a motor racetrack in Sturgeon Bay, [415] and a semi-pro football team in Baileys Harbor. [416]

A county-wide men's baseball league has eight teams. [417]

High school sports teams play in the Packerland Conference, except for girls' swimming and golf, which compete in the Bay Conference.

In 2014, Door County ranked 264th out of all 3,141 U.S. counties by number of golf courses and country clubs. The county has nine courses, tying with 42 other counties. Door County had the 87th highest number of courses per resident of all U.S. counties. [418]

Arts

Tourism supports an arts community, including weavers, [419] painters, [420] decorative artists, [421] blacksmiths, [422] actors, [r] songwriters, [423] musicians, [424] and hymn-singers. [425]

A quilt trail along roadside barns was organized in 2010. [426]

The interesting landscape makes it an attractive target for photography. Several photographs have been used for commemorative stamps. A Town of Sturgeon Bay farm was featured on a stamp commemorating the Wisconsin Sesquicentennial in 2004, [427] and a cherry orchard near Brussels was featured on 2012 Earthscapes series stamp.

Astronauts on missions using every space shuttle and living in three different space stations have photographed the county. In 2014, one picture was featured as the NASA Earth Observatory Image of the Day. [149]

Select astronaut photography of Door County
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Radio stations

Surfing

Lake Michigan shoreline is used for lake surfing. [428] Another water sport is windsurfing. [429]

Motorcycling

In 2018, 3,476 motorcycles were registered in the county, up from 1,806 in 2018. [430] A local motorcycle club hosts a regional burning man event [431] involving a large wooden cow and maintains the adjacent Wisconsin Motorcycle Memorial. [432]

Flying

In 2019, 46 aircraft were registered in the county, most owned by individuals. [433] During the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh, a fish boil is held as a $100 hamburger event at the Washington Island Airport to entice AirVenture conventiongoers to land on the island. [434]

Ephraim no longer dry

Ephraim, view along Water Street

In 2014–15, there were 257 liquor licenses in the county, [435] including one issued for a tavern on Washington Island which sells more Angostura bitters than any other tavern worldwide. [436] The county also has businesses that produce alcoholic beverages, [437] and as a result was recognized as part of a larger federally designated wine grape-growing region in 2012. In 2017, there were 40 acres of vineyards, down from 78 in 2012. [438] To encourage tourism, Ephraim residents passed referenda in 2016 to allow beer and/or wine sales within the village. Until then, Ephraim had been the state's last dry municipality. [439]

Economics of tourism

Door County's economy is similar to that of Bayfield, Iron, Oneida, Sawyer, and Vilas counties. These six northern Wisconsin counties have been categorized as having "forestry-related tourism"-based economies. [440]

An analysis comparing 1999 data for select Wisconsin counties found that Door County was especially strong in the retail of building and materials, groceries, apparel and accessories, miscellaneous retail, and restaurants. For services, it ranked strong in amusement, movie, and recreation and lodging. Door County ran a fiscal surplus in all categories to all other counties, with the exception of furniture & home furnishing, in which Door County had a leakage of sales to other counties. [441]

Real estate

House pricing, real estate, and development

Between 2000 and 2017, prices for houses in Door County rose only 1.3% annually, less than the U.S. average of 2.5%. [442] In a 2008 survey of county residents, the most frequent local concern was the need to control rampant overdevelopment, including condos. [443] In 2006, nonresidents paid about 60% of the property taxes in the northern half of the county. [444]

A cottage along Lake Michigan
Shoreline development

As of 2011, 7,889 residential buildings were located in within a quarter mile (402 meters) of the shore. Shoreline developments are vulnerable to erosion [445] and destruction from ice shoves. [446]

Shoreline parcels, which tend to be the most highly valued real estate, are typically owned by non-Wisconsin residents unless they are public property. [447]

Effects of high property values

In 2017 the county had the second highest property values per capita in the state. [448] The high property values combined with low enrollment serve to punish local school districts in the state funding formula. As a result, the county's school districts often have referenda for additional property tax funding. [449]

For forested lands, high property values drive up property tax levies, which in turn encourages landowners to enroll their land in the Managed Forest Program to reduce their taxes. [450]

Effects of protected areas on nearby development

A 2012 report found that Door County's preserved open spaces reduced the likelihood that nearby land would be subdivided, but if it was subdivided, areas near the open space were divided into more parcels than those further away. It did not appear to affect agriculture-related development. [451]

County finances

Revenues

County spending in Door County is supported by property taxes, sales taxes, and state aid. In 2017, the county had the highest per capita property tax burden in the state, [452] although when compared by amount levied per $1,000 of property the tax was comparatively low with the county having the fifteenth lowest per capita property tax rate per $1,000 out of all 72 Wisconsin counties. [453] The county also collected $140 in per capita sales taxes in 2017, the second highest in the state, [454] and received the ninth highest level of per capita state financial assistance to the county government in 2015 figures. [455]

Expenses

Operating expenses of the Door County Tourism Zone Commission, 2008–2019 [456]
In 2014, Door County spent $11,287 per resident on advertising and other forms of tourism promotion, the second-most per capita of any Wisconsin county, [457] and expenses continue to grow. 30% of the expenses reflected in this graph are refunds to individual municipalities collecting the tax. The municipalities are not required to spend this money on tourism promotion. [458]

In 2015, Door County had the third-highest level of per capita county spending in Wisconsin. [459] It was Wisconsin's only county with high per capita government spending in 2005 that did not also have a large low-income population. High per capita county government spending in Wisconsin is typically due to poverty. [460] Door County's spending can be explained by both the need to provide services to people present only during the tourism season [461] and by development patterns. A 2004 study showed that residential and commercial land tends to require more in government services than property taxes generate. These in turn are subsidized by taxes on industrial, agricultural, and open lands, which generally require few government services. [462] The dispersal of residential developments is a compounding factor. A 2002 study found that Wisconsin town residents are typically subsidized by city and village residents. [463]

Crime

Frequencies of property crime are lowest in the southern part of the county, somewhat higher in the center, and highest in the northern part of the county. [464] The county has been a focus of sex-trafficking enforcement efforts. [465]

Seasonality in both employment and housing

Number of homes, cabins, and cottages permitted for short term rentals, 2008–2019 [466]
The seasonal housing problem has been made more severe as properties once available to residents or seasonal laborers have been turned into Airbnb-style short-term rentals for tourists. [467] In 2019, a documentary interviewed residents to examine and publicize this economic challenge. [468]

Door County unemployment rates during the summer and fall are considerably lower than in winter. [469] [470] Annual earnings in Door County are typically less than similar jobs in other areas of Wisconsin. This has been attributed to the seasonal nature of much of the employment. For example, in 2009, it was found that people were 4.85 times more likely to be employed by hotels and motels in Door County as opposed to the rest of the nation. [471]

22.0% of the county's 13,728 employed workers [s] in 2018 served in the leisure and hospitality sector, more than any other sector. However, because leisure and hospitality jobs tend not to pay very well, they only earned 12.9% of all wages earned in the county. In contrast, manufacturing employees received 24.5% of the wages paid in 2018, even though they only made up 17.0% of the workforce. This is despite the average annual wage for leisure and hospitality workers being 109.3% of the state average wage for leisure and hospitality in 2018. In contrast, workers employed in manufacturing received 86.7% of the state average wage for manufacturing. Wages in Door County trailed state averages for every sector except leisure and hospitality. [472] The effects of the low earnings are compounded by average housing prices; other areas in Wisconsin with low wages tend to have low housing prices. [473] The unaffordability of housing has been linked to the labor shortage problem, as new employees may be unable to afford housing and decide to leave. [474] A 2019 study found the county to have the eighth highest cost of living out of all Wisconsin counties. [475]

Reliance on immigrant and foreign student labor

As high school enrollment in the county has dwindled, [t] employers have turned to J-1 visas to fill seasonal positions instead. [476]

J-1 visas issued for work in Door County, 2016–2019

Migrant worker housing (March, 2011) Because the cost of living in Door County is high compared to the limited income many tourism-industry jobs provide, temporary workers are often hired, both domestic and foreign. Workers come from as far away as Ukraine, [477] Scandinavia, Uzbekistan, Turkey, or South Africa.

Because foreign workers brought in under the Summer Work Travel Program are sometimes housed in a different community from where they are employed, some have ended up bicycling 10–15 miles a day since they lack cars and the county has limited public transportation. [477] Additionally, illegal or undocumented immigrants who work in the tourism industry often lack drivers' licenses. [478] In 2012, Door County District Attorney Ray Pelrine said the "illegal immigrant workforce is now built into the structure of a lot of businesses here." [479]

For reported labor, people in the county tend to work in the county, and jobs in the county tend to be performed by county residents. According to 2011–2015 ACS data, out of 17 counties in northeastern Wisconsin, Door County had the second lowest percentage of residents commuting out-of-county to work. Only Brown County residents were less likely to commute out of their county to work. 89.08% of reported jobs Door County are performed by workers residing in the county, the highest percentage in the 17-county area. The cause of this has been attributed to the county being on a peninsula, which limits the directions people can practically commute. [480]

Equitable and inequitable costs and benefits

Geographic distribution of tourist spending

The economic impact of tourism is not the same throughout the county. A 2018 survey of tourists reported that Forestville and Brussels were the county's least visited communities. [481] Due to tourism's impact on restaurant prices, some residents of the more rural southern part of the county cannot afford to eat at restaurants in the northern part. [482]

Income inequality

Measures of income inequality show mixed results in Door County. Using the ACS five-year estimates from 2012–2016, the household income ratio between the 80th to 20th percentiles was only 3.76, the 352nd lowest such ratio out of 3,140 U.S. counties. On the other hand, 23.1% of all household income in the county was earned by the top 5th percentile, the 452nd greatest percentage out of 3,135 U.S. counties reporting data. [483]

Housing inequality

Most of the homeless in Door County are couch surfers, although in the summer many will camp or live out of their vehicles. [484]

The largest single-family house in the state is in Liberty Grove. [485] It was built in 1996 and is about 35,000 square feet. Although in 2005 it sold for about $20 million, in 2016 it sold for only $2.7 million, [486] and in 2019 was assessed at $2.625 million. [487]

Elderly and housing

A 2019 report by the Wisconsin Bureau of Aging and Disability Resources based on data from 2013 to 2017 found that while only 12.7% of Door County residents aged 65 and older rented (compared to 23.5% statewide), 59.8% of those who did rent spent 30% or more of their income on rental costs (compared to 55.4% statewide). [488]

Playbill near the entrance of an outdoor theater in Baileys Harbor listing Romeo and Juliet and The Tempest as the shows for the 2015 acting season

Arts spending

In 2015, Door County arts and cultural organizations spent $9.7 million, of which 70.9% was spent locally, in addition to $15.0 million spent by attendees. An estimated 1,582 volunteers for arts and cultural organizations averaged 35.7 hours each. In 2015, 194,424 people attended arts and cultural events in the county, 78.0% of them non-residents. In 2016, the average arts event attendee from the county spent $28.96, while the average nonresident spent $90.53. In 2016, 50.6% of non-residents said the arts event was the primary reason they made the trip to the county. 66.0% of county resident attendees in 2016 were 65 or older, while 48.6% of non-resident attendees were 65 or older. [489]

Transportation

Land

WIS 42 near Gills Rock in October

According to the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, in 2017 Door County had 1270 miles of roadways. [490]

State highways

Rustic roads

  • There are five rustic roads in the county. [492] In addition to state-recognized rustic roads, Liberty Grove manages a heritage roads program. As of 2019 there were 12 heritage roads in the town. [493]

Bridges across Sturgeon Bay

Aerial view of the Michigan Street Bridge in February with a laker in Sturgeon Bay. Ships routinely come into the bay for servicing at Bay Ship.
  • Sturgeon Bay Bridge, (also called Michigan Street Bridge) (11.5 feet clearance, overhead-truss, Scherzer-type, double-leaf, rolling-lift bascule) [494]
  • Oregon Street Bridge (reinforced concrete slab, rolling lift bascule girder with mechanical driven center locks) [495]
  • Bayview Bridge (monolithic concrete placed on structural deck with steel girder superstructure, open grating on deck, bascule) [496]

Snowmobile

  • There are about 250 miles of snowmobile trails, [497] which are opened as trails are groomed. [498]

Non-motorized

Air

A daily private shuttle service operates between Green Bay–Austin Straubel International Airport and Sturgeon Bay. [503] The nearest intercity bus station with regular service is in Green Bay. [504] There are eleven airports in the county, including private or semi-public airports.

Ferry Robert Noble [v] serving Washington Island and Northport

Water

Ferries

  • Washington Island is served by two ferry routes. The first route is to take a 30-minute ferry ride from the Door Peninsula to Detroit Harbor on the island from a freight, automobile, and passenger ferry that departs daily from the Northport Pier at the northern terminus of Highway 42. This ferry makes approximately 225,000 trips per year. [503] The second route is a passenger-only ferry that departs from the unincorporated community of Gills Rock on a 20-minute route. [513]
  • Rock Island State Park is reachable by the passenger ferry Karfi from Washington Island. [514] (During winter Rock Island is potentially accessible via snowmobile and foot traffic.)
  • Although Chambers Island has no regularly scheduled ferry, there are boat operators which transport people to the island on call from Fish Creek.

Boat ramps and marinas

Population and its health

2000 Census Age Pyramid for Door County. [w]
Walloon lyrics to the song "Tins d' eraler," (Time to go home), written in Latin letters

Demographics

2000 Census

As of the 2000 census, [517] there were 27,961 people, 11,828 households, and 7,995 families residing in the county. The population density was 58 people per square mile (22/km²). There were 19,587 housing units at an average density of 41 per square mile (16/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.84% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.69% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 39.4% were of German and 10.3% Belgian ancestry. A small pocket of Walloon speakers forms the only Walloon-language region outside of Wallonia and its immediate neighbors. [518] [519]

Out of a total of 11,828 households, 58.10% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.40% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.84.[ citation needed]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18602,948
18704,91966.9%
188011,645136.7%
189015,08229.5%
190017,58316.6%
191018,7116.4%
192019,0731.9%
193018,182−4.7%
194019,0955.0%
195020,8709.3%
196020,685−0.9%
197020,106−2.8%
198025,02924.5%
199025,6902.6%
200027,9618.8%
201027,785−0.6%
Est. 201827,610 [520]−0.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [521]
1790–1960 [522] 1900–1990 [523]
1990–2000 [524] 2010–2018 [1]

For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18 (a decrease from 25.9% being under the age of 18 in the 1990 census [525]), 6.10% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, and 27.70% from 45 to 64.[ citation needed]

Births, abortions, deaths, migration

In 2017, there were 217 births, giving a general fertility rate of 59 births per 1000 women aged 15–44, the 49th highest rate out of 72 Wisconsin counties. [526] Additionally, there were eleven reported induced abortions performed on women of Door County residence in 2017. [527]

Between April 2010 and January 2019, there were an estimated 1,869 births and 2,904 deaths in the county. Although the greater number of deaths served to decrease the population by an estimated 1,035 people, this was more than offset by a net gain of 1,900 people who moved in from outside the county. Altogether, the population increased by an estimated 865 persons during this period. [528]

Most elderly and youthful communities

From ACS data from 2014–2018, the most elderly community in the county was the village of Ephraim with a median age of 65.4, the seventh most elderly out of all 1965 cities, towns, and villages having available data. Following Ephraim was Egg Harbor with a median age of 64.0, the 14th most elderly in the state, Sister Bay with a median age of 63.4, tied with Sherman in Iron County as the 18th most elderly, Washington Island with a median age of 62.9, tied with Union in Burnett County as the 22nd most elderly, Liberty Grove with a median age of 62.4, tied with Lakewood in Oconto County as the 26th most elderly, Egg Harbor with a median age of 59.8, tied with three other towns as the 55th most elderly, Gibraltar with a median age of 59.4, tied with the town of Raddison in Sawyer county as the 64th most elderly, and Bailey's Harbor with a median age of 58.5, tied with Big Bend in Rusk County as the 83rd most elderly.

The youngest community in Door County was the village of Forestville with a median age of 39.0. It tied with 12 other communities as the 429th youngest community in the state. Following the village of Forestville was the city of Sturgeon Bay with a median age of 42.8, tied with 9 other communities as the 742nd youngest in the state, Brussels with a median age of 46.9, tied with 8 other communities as the 1163rd youngest in the state, the town of Forestville with a median age of 47.4, tied with 9 other communities as the 1222nd youngest in the state, and Gardner with a median age of 49.4, tied with 15 other communities as the 1434th youngest in the state. [529]

Children, Sturgeon Bay, 1917
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Based on ACS data from 2013 to 2017, the county had a median age of 52.4 years old, tied with Florence as the fifth most elderly of all Wisconsin counties. [488] This was an increase from the 2000 census, which reported a county median age of 43 years.[ citation needed] In the 2000 census, 18.70% of the county population was 65 years of age or older.[ citation needed] By 2015, the percentage of elderly climbed, with 25.8% of the population being 65 or older, the third highest in the state. [530]

Declining youth and overall population

According to ACS estimates, the number of people under 18 in the county dropped from 5,119 in 2010 to 4,479 in 2017. [531] In 2013, a researcher predicted that by 2040, the county's population would decline 4.2%, the 10th-largest percentage decline among all Wisconsin counties. [532]

From 2013 to 2017, 36.8% of the 9,358 households in the county included children, based on the ACS 5-year estimate, compared to 44.2% for Wisconsin in 2017, based on the ACS one-year estimate. [533]

Declining public school enrollment

With the exception of the preschool program in Sevastopol, all county districts saw enrollment declines from 2000–2019 at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. [534] The Door County Charter School in Sturgeon Bay is not listed as it was only in operation from 2002–2005. [535]

Declining high school enrollment [534] [x] has been blamed for the shortage of seasonal workers, and credited with prompting the expansion of the J-1 visa program. [536] [y]

Total 9–12 enrollment at all five Door County high schools, 2000–2019

Marriages

Justice of the Peace office in Sturgeon Bay, from the 1918–1919 Sturgeon Bay High School yearbook

Five-year ACS data from 2012 to 2016 show that an estimated 24.6% of women aged 45–54 in the county had never been married, the 69th highest percentage of never-married women in this age bracket out of 3,130 U.S. counties reporting data. The ACS estimate also found that 75.9% of women aged 35–44 were married, the 389th highest number of married women in this age bracket out of 3,136 counties reporting data, and that the county was tied with three other counties in having the 180th lowest percentage of births to unmarried women out of 3,021 counties reporting data. 13.4% of births were to unmarried women. [483]

In 2015, the county had the 20th-most marriages and 43rd-most divorces out of all Wisconsin counties. August and September tied as the months with the most weddings, with 75 each. [537] In 2016 the county was the 45th-most populous in the state. [538]

Median incomes

According to 2014–2018 ACS data, four communities had median incomes lower than the median for the county, which was $58,287. Of these, Sister Bay had the lowest median household income at $40,944, ranking the 135th lowest in the state out of 1,951 cities, villages, and towns which had available data. Following Sister Bay was the village of Forestville at $49,500 and ranking 444th lowest in a tie with New London in Waupaca County, the city of Sturgeon Bay at $52,917 and ranking 610th lowest, and Washington Island at $55,341 and ranking 737th lowest.

Gibraltar had the highest median income in the county at $80,602, the 232nd highest in the state, followed by Ephraim at $77,500 and ranking 305th highest, Egg Harbor at $75,833 and ranking 343rd highest, and Jacksonport at $70,625 at 483rd highest. [529]

In 2016, the county had the third highest per capita personal income in the state [539] and in 2015 it had the seventh lowest poverty level in the state. [540] In 2015, 39.0% of the population had an associate degree or more, making Door County the 12th most educated out of all 72 Wisconsin counties. [541]

Cattle and deer

In 2018, there were an estimated 23,500 head of cattle in the county. [542] In 2017, Door and Kewaunee counties were reported to have equal deer-to-human ratios, although Kewaunee County had a considerably greater cow-to-human ratio. [543]

Religious statistics

Stella Maris Catholic Parish, a six-point parish in the northern part of the county. This church building is located in Jacksonport. [544]

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Door County was the Catholics, with 9,325 adherents worshipping at six parishes, followed by 2,982 ELCA Lutherans with seven congregations, 2,646 WELS Lutherans with seven congregations, 872 Moravians with three congregations, 834 United Methodists with four congregations, 533 non-denominational Christians with six congregations, 503 LCMS Lutherans with two congregations, 283 LCMC Lutherans with one congregation, 270 Converge Baptists with three congregations, 213 Episcopalians with one congregation, 207 UCC Christians with one congregation, and 593 other adherents. Altogether, 69.3% of the population was counted as adherents of a religious congregation. [545]

In 2014, Door County had the 719th-most religious organizations per resident out of all 3,141 U.S. counties, with 34 religious organizations in the county. [418]

Public health

In most measures of public health for 2015, the county has figures as healthy as or healthier than those of the entire state. [546] According to calculations based on 2010–2014 data, children born in Door County have a life expectancy of 80.9 years, the ninth highest of Wisconsin's 72 counties. [547] From 2000 to 2010, the county's premature death rate for people under 75 fell 35.0%, the second-greatest reduction in Wisconsin. [548]

In December 2018, Door County residents aged 18–64 were less likely to be receiving government payments for disability than the averages for Wisconsin and the United States as a whole. [549] Five-year ACS estimates for 2012–2016 found that that Door County tied with 24 other counties in having the 573rd lowest percentage of disabled residents under 65 out of all 3,145 U.S. counties. 9.3% were disabled. [483]

From 2009 to 2013 the county had the highest skin cancer rate in the state. [550]

A CDC survey of people reporting frequent mental distress (14–30 mentally unhealthy days in the last 30 days, data aggregated over 2003–2009) found that people in Door County were more likely to be distressed than those in most Wisconsin counties, but less likely to be distressed than those in the heavily urbanized southeast portion of the state. [551]

Tick-borne illnesses

A study of the risk of getting Lyme disease in Door County between 1991 and 1994 found it to be relatively low, possibly due to its having less vegetation than most Wisconsin counties. [552] From 2015 through 2017 reported cases of Lyme disease increased from 4 cases in 2015 to 30 cases in 2017. [553] As of 2017, no cases of babesiosis have been reported in the county, but it expanded its range from 2001 to 2015, and is already present in Brown County. [554]

Vehicle accidents

Most fatal or incapacitating vehicle accidents in the county between 2010 and 2014 involved visitors. 6% of those involved in these accidents were from Illinois, 3% from Florida, and 7% from other states. [555] In a study of car accident data from 1992 to 2001, the risk of incurring a severe traffic injury during a stretch of driving was found to be lower in Door County than in Kewaunee County, but Door County had more fatalities per 100 people severely injured than Kewaunee, Brown, Manitowoc, and Sheboygan counties. This was thought to be due to the relatively long distance it takes to get people injured in Door County to treatment, as the nearest hospital with a high level of trauma certification was St. Vincent Hospital in Green Bay. [556] Currently, St. Vincent's and Aurora BayCare are certified as level II trauma centers. [557]

Communities

Towns in 1915; the borders remain the same today except for annexations by the City of Sturgeon Bay and the four villages.

Incorporated communities

City

Villages

Towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Historical county border adjustments

Tourist's Pocket Map Of Michigan (Samuel Augustus Mitchell, 1835).jpg
County boundaries in 1835, Michilimackinac County in blue and Brown County in yellow. The Door Peninsula is labeled as "Cape Townsend," one of its British colonial era names. [558] Other obsolete names for the peninsula include "Vermilion Point" and "Long Point." [559]

In 1818, Michilimackinac and Brown counties were formed by the Michigan territorial legislature. The border between the two ran through the peninsula at Sturgeon Bay. What is now the southern part of Door County was in Brown County, while the northern part was in Michilimackinac County.

1851 boundaries of Brown County, prior to the separation of Door County in 1851
1851 boundaries of Brown County, prior to the separation of Door County in 1851

In 1836, the northern part of Door County was taken from Michilimackinac County and added to Brown County as part of an overall border adjustment limiting Michilimackinac to areas within the soon-to-be-reduced Michigan Territory.

1852 boundaries of Door County, prior to the separation of Kewaunee County in 1852
1852 boundaries of Door County, prior to the separation of Kewaunee County in 1852

When Door County was separated off from Brown County in 1851, it included what is now Kewaunee County. Kewaunee County was separated off of Door County in 1852. [560]

Although the Door– Marinette county lines within the Wisconsin part of Green Bay were assigned to the "center of the main channel of Green Bay," [561] not all maps drew the positions of the islands and the main channel of Green Bay correctly. [z] In particular, some once incorrectly considered Green Island in what is now the town of Peshtigo in Marinette County to be in the town of Egg Harbor in Door County. [562]

In 1923, Michigan claimed ownership of Plum, Detroit, Washington, and Rock islands in Door County, although it did not take possession of them. In 1926, the Supreme Court dismissed Michigan's claim. In doing so, the court mistakenly appeared to award islands north of Rock Island in Delta County to Wisconsin (and by extension to Door County). Door County never assumed jurisdiction over these Michigan islands, and the matter was fixed again before the Supreme Court in the 1936 Wisconsin v. Michigan decision, [563] which left governance of the islands in Door and Delta counties as they had been before the litigation.

Due to economic, ethnic, and cultural differences between the northern and southern parts of the present-day Door County, arguments are sometimes started about the most appropriate place to draw the Door–Kewaunee line. [482]

Present-day adjacent counties

Notable people

Politics

Door County has voted for the winning candidate in every presidential election since 1996.

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results [569]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 48.8% 8,580 45.6% 8,014 5.7% 998
2012 46.0% 8,121 53.0% 9,357 1.1% 193
2008 40.7% 7,112 58.0% 10,142 1.3% 227
2004 50.9% 8,910 47.8% 8,367 1.2% 214
2000 51.3% 7,810 43.1% 6,560 5.6% 850
1996 40.4% 4,948 45.6% 5,590 14.0% 1,713
1992 39.7% 5,468 34.4% 4,735 25.9% 3,574
1988 55.6% 6,907 43.7% 5,425 0.7% 90
1984 67.4% 8,264 31.9% 3,916 0.7% 91
1980 55.2% 7,170 38.2% 4,961 6.6% 851
1976 57.4% 6,557 39.9% 4,553 2.7% 307
1972 64.3% 6,503 33.9% 3,430 1.9% 188
1968 63.3% 5,647 30.6% 2,728 6.1% 541
1964 49.2% 4,289 50.7% 4,416 0.1% 9
1960 61.5% 5,790 38.4% 3,610 0.2% 14
1956 78.0% 6,722 21.6% 1,859 0.5% 41
1952 80.8% 7,621 19.0% 1,790 0.2% 19
1948 65.8% 4,911 32.7% 2,440 1.5% 108
1944 68.3% 5,668 31.3% 2,599 0.5% 38
1940 66.1% 5,461 33.3% 2,750 0.6% 49
1936 41.1% 3,146 51.6% 3,952 7.4% 566
1932 37.0% 2,488 61.6% 4,149 1.4% 97
1928 59.3% 3,636 40.0% 2,456 0.7% 42
1924 38.6% 1,891 4.8% 235 56.6% 2,778
1920 88.3% 3,817 8.9% 385 2.8% 119
1916 56.3% 1,656 40.9% 1,204 2.9% 84
1912 41.2% 1,167 27.1% 769 31.7% 900
1908 73.9% 2,463 23.3% 778 2.8% 93
1904 80.5% 2,689 15.4% 515 4.1% 136
1900 76.3% 2,362 21.8% 674 1.9% 60
1896 71.3% 2,402 26.6% 895 2.1% 72
1892 58.2% 1,596 36.7% 1,007 5.1% 140

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ For more on Gainey points, see the entry on Gainey points on projectilepoints.net
  2. ^ For more on Clovis points, see the entry on Clovis points on projectilepoints.net
  3. ^ For more on Moline chert, see the entry on Moline chert on projectilepoints.net
  4. ^ Door Bluff Headlands County Park kiosk information
  5. ^ See § Horseshoe Bay Cave
  6. ^ Summerville soil series information, also see inceptisol as Summerville soils are inceptisols.
  7. ^ Longrie soil series information, also see spodosol, as Longrie soils are spodosols.
  8. ^ Omena soil series information, also see alfisol, as Omena soils are alfisols.
  9. ^ See § Lake breezes
  10. ^ such as go-kart tracks, water parks, and mini-golf
  11. ^ Gardner Swamp Wildlife Area, Mud Lake Wildlife Area, Reibolts Creek Public Access, and Schuyler Creek State Fishery Area
  12. ^ Access to SNAs depends on ownership, but most are free and open to the public. Complex ownership complicates a straightforward listing of the parks, as besides the local land trust, the Nature Conservancy manages five preserves in the county.
  13. ^ Bird counts at 10 beaches in the summer of 2004 (first year of this study) found that Whitefish Dunes had the most birds, followed by Portage Park, Ellison Bay, Egg Harbor, and Bailey's Harbor. Random grid sampling of avian waste found that the beach at Whitefish Dunes had the greatest number of droppings, followed by Portage Park in second place and Bailey's Harbor in third, with Ellison Bay and Sister Bay tying as the beaches with the fourth most droppings. Meanwhile, the five beaches with the highest average E. coli concentrations were at Sunset Park, Otumba, Ellison Bay, Fish Creek, and Egg Harbor. [183]
  14. ^ This figure came from comparing an average concentration of PCBs from the whole body of the fish.
  15. ^ There are two public sledding hills in Sturgeon Bay, [362] one in Sister Bay, [363] one in Peninsula State Park, [364] and a small sledding hill in Potawatomi State Park. [365]
  16. ^ See Skorpa for fika by Bonnie Sparrman in Pietisten 12(2), Fall/Winter 2017
  17. ^ For a description of Belgian acculturation towards Native Americans, see The Walloon Immigrants Of Northeast Wisconsin An Examination Of Ethnic Retention by Jacqueline Tinkler, MA Thesis, UT-Arlington, May 2013, pages 26-27 (pages 33-34 of the pdf)
  18. ^ See Peninsula Players and Northern Sky Theater
  19. ^ Excluding unreported workers
  20. ^ See § Declining public school enrollment
  21. ^ The other five private airports:
    • Forscoro Airport, Forestville
    • Hill Road Airport, Sister Bay [508]
    • Mick Schier Field Airport, Namur [509]
    • Mave's Lakeview Road Airport, Ellison Bay [510]
    • Sunny Slope Runway Airport, Egg Harbor [511]
  22. ^ This ferry is named after Robert Noble, who was a shipwreck survivor and 19th century ferry operator across Sturgeon Bay. [512]
  23. ^ For an updated pyramid, see 2010-2040CoPyramids.xlsx
  24. ^ Due to incomplete reporting or reporting of statistics identical to the previous year by one or more county schools in 2002, 2003, these years are omitted from the graph; also the Washington Island data for 2018 is reflected in the total for 2019 as the most recent data was not reported.
  25. ^ See § Reliance on foreign students and immigrant laborers
  26. ^ For an example of a map assigning Green Island to Door County, see Johnson’s Map of Michigan and Wisconsin, 1863.

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Wisconsin: Individual County Chronologies". Wisconsin Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Rebecca L. Schewe; Donald R. Field; Deborah J. Frosch; Gregory Clendenning; Dana Jensen (May 15, 2012). Condos in the Woods: The Growth of Seasonal and Retirement Homes in Northern Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Pres. pp. 22–. ISBN  978-0-299-28533-3.
  5. ^ a b c Life During The End Of The Ice Age: The Cardy site could inform archaeologists about how humans dealt with a challenging environment., American Archaeology Vol. 14, No. 3, Fall 2010
  6. ^ Older than the Egyptian pyramids, stone tools found in Sturgeon Bay go on display by Liz Welter, Green Bay Press-Gazette Aug. 14, 2018
  7. ^ Iowa's Archaeological Past by Lynn M. Alex, Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 2000, page 50
  8. ^ Midwest Archeological Conference, 49th Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, October 16–19, 2003, page 26 (page 27 of the pdf)
  9. ^ A Survey of Wisconsin Fluted Points by Thomas J. Loebel, Current Research in the Pleistocene 24:118–119
  10. ^ Sourcing of an Unidentified Chert from Western Wisconsin Paleo-Indian Assemblages by Eric Bailey, Journal of Undergraduate Research 5, page 255-260
  11. ^ a b Soucek, G. (2011). Door County Tales: Shipwrecks, Cherries and Goats on the Roof. American Chronicles. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN  978-1-61423-383-1. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  12. ^ Analysis of Canis sp. remains recovered from the Richter Site (47DR80), a North Bay Phase Middle Woodland occupation on Washington Island, Wisconsin by Emily M. Epstein, Wisconsin Archaeologist, 2010
  13. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p.  108. Retrieved May 7, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  14. ^ Kohl, Cris & Joan Forsberg, Shipwrecks at Death's Door, Page 10.
  15. ^ A Guide to Significant Wildlife Habitat and Natural Areas Of Door County, Wisconsin, March, 2003, by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Sturgeon Bay Service Center, page 128.
  16. ^ a b c d e Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030. Chapter 3 – Historical and Cultural Resources. Volume II, Resource Report., Table 3.1: Timeline of Historic Events in Door County, pages 19-20 (page four through five of the pdf)
  17. ^ Robert LaSalle County Park kiosk historical notes
  18. ^ Liberty Grove Historical Museum, small sign engraved on the replica cross
  19. ^ Iconographic (Jesuit) Rings in European/Native Exchange by Carol I. Mason and Carol I. Kathleen L. Ehrhardt, in French Colonial History 10, 2009, a photo of one of rings together with five other rings from other sites is on page 56 of the article (page 2 of the pdf), page 63 of the article (page 9 of the pdf) associates the rings with the Pottawatomi and Ottawa, and details about each ring are described on pages 72-73 of the article (pages 18-19 of the pdf)
  20. ^ Stylistic and Chemical Investigation of Turquoise-Blue Glass Artifacts from the Contact Era of Wisconsin by Walder, Heather, Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 38(1) Spring 2013 page 123 (page 5 of the pdf) For pictures of the two remelted pendents found at Rock Island and possibly of a later origin than the beads, see page 127 (page 19 of the pdf)
  21. ^ Mason, Ronald J. (1986). Rock Island: Historical Indian Archaeology in the Northern Lake Michigan Basin. Kent State University Press.
  22. ^ Edmunds, R. David (1988). The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press (Civilization of the American Indian Series); ISBN  0-8061-2069-X
  23. ^ Forgotten Charms of Chambers Island by Patty Williamson, Peninsula Pulse, August 25th, 2017
  24. ^ Town of Gibraltar 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, chapter 2, page 3 (page 35 of pdf)
  25. ^ Book Excerpt, Island Tales: “History and Anecdotes of Washington Island” by Jessie Miner
  26. ^ Whitefish Dunes State Park History, Wisconsin DNR, January 7, 2015
  27. ^ "Menominee Treaties and Treaty Rights". Indian Country Wisconsin. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Potawatomi Migration from Wisconsin & Michigan to Canada". Geni. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  29. ^ "Kahquados, Chief Simon". Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Door County. Wisconsin Public Television. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  30. ^ Hjalmar Holand. History of Door County Wisconsin, The County Beautiful. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1917, p. 77.
  31. ^ Going For The Mail: A History Of Door County Post Offices by James B. Hale, Brown County Historical Society: Green Bay, WI. 1996. Full text on Internet Archive
  32. ^ Village of Forestville Comprehensive Plan, September 11th, 2009, pages 14–16 of the document
  33. ^ Inventory of the Church Archives of Wisconsin: Moravian Church, by the Historical Records Survey, Division of Women's and Professional Projects, Works Progress Administration, 1938, page 21 and "History of Ephraim, Door County, Wisconsin". by Hjalmar R. Holand, 1917
  34. ^ Lott, Katie (May 1, 2009). "Southern Door County's Belgian Wayside Chapels". Door County Living. Retrieved January 22, 2019.doorcounty.com. "Where to Find Belgian Chapels in Door County". Door County Visitor Bureau. Retrieved January 22, 2019., also Wisconsin Belgian Roadside Chapels in Google Maps
  35. ^ Holand, Hjalmar Rued, Wisconsin's Belgian community: an account of the early events in the Belgian settlement in northeastern Wisconsin with particular reference to the Belgians in Door County, Chapter VII Belgian Characteristics and Customs, page 82 and following, 1933. See also the Table of Contents for the entire book.
  36. ^ Tornadoes of Fire at Williamsonville, Wisconsin, October 8, 1871 by Joseph M. Moran and E. Lee Somerville, 1990, Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 31 pages
  37. ^ Skiba, Justin (2 September 2016). "The Fire That Took Williamsonville". Door County Living. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  38. ^ Tornado Memorial Park kiosk historical notes, also see page 19 of the County C Park and Ride lot panel draft pdf
  39. ^ Brick by Brick: A Comparative pXRF Analysis of Brickworks and Structures in the Belgian-American Community of the Door Peninsula by Lisa Marie Zimmerman, unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 2013 and Old World Wisconsin: around Europe in the Badger State by Fred L. Holmes. E. M. Hale and Company, 1944, page 163 (169 of the pdf)
  40. ^ II. Transportation Profile Draft, by the Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030 Transportation Advisory Workgroup, page 5 of the pdf
  41. ^ "Station Sturgeon Bay Canal, Wisconsin" (PDF). U.S. Coast Guard History Program. United States Coast Guard. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
  42. ^ "USCG Station Washington Island" (PDF). United States Coast Guard. January 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  43. ^ The Rise and Fall of the Ahnapee & Western Railway by Myles Dannhausen Jr. and Patty Williamson, Door County Living November 15th, 2011
  44. ^ Mailer, Stan (1989). Green Bay & Western The First 111 Years. Hundman Publishing.
  45. ^ Door County Wisconsin's Peninsular Jewel by Bruce Thomas, 1993, pages 33-34, and 41
  46. ^ Ships and Shipwrecks in Door County, Wisconsin, Volume 2 by Arthur C. and Lucy F. Frederickson, Frankfort, Michigan, 1963, page 3 (page 5 of the pdf)
  47. ^ State parks for Wisconsin. Report of John Nolen, Landscape Architect, With Letter of Transmittal by State Park Board, by John Nolen, 1909, page 31 (page 47 of the pdf)
  48. ^ quotation taken from the Green Bay Press Gazette, June 15, 1938 on page 194 of Door County's Emerald Treasure: A History of Peninsula State Park by William H. Tishler, Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2006
  49. ^ a b c d e Cain, Cortney (May 2006). "Chapter 4, Door County Apple Horticulture". The Development of Apple Horticulture in Wisconsin, 1850s-1950s: Case Studies of Bayfield, Crawford, and Door Counties (M.A. thesis). UW-Madison. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  50. ^ Geography of Apple Orchards in Wisconsin: Examining the Core of Cultivation by Kody Bankston, Morgan Jarocki, and Adrienne Miller, unpublished student paper, UW-Madison, 2012
  51. ^ Migrant Labor and Door County Cherries by Emily Irwin, July 1, 2017
  52. ^ Mariah Goode. " The Harvest of 1945: German POW Camps Filled Door County’s Labor Shortage". Door County Pulse, July 1, 2005.
  53. ^ cheyenne Lentz. " Story Of Wisconsin's German POWs Is A Piece Of Hidden History, Author Says". Wisconsin Public Radio, June 23, 2015.
  54. ^ Damien Jaques. " Cherry picking with German POWs in Door County". On Milwaukee, July 9, 2012.
  55. ^ Tishler, W.H. (2006). Door County's Emerald Treasure: A History of Peninsula State Park. Wisconsin Land and Life. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN  978-0-299-22073-0. Retrieved 2017-04-23.
  56. ^ Stalag Wisconsin: Inside WW II Prisoner-of-war Camps, by Betty Cowley, Oregon, Wisconsin: Badger Books, 2002, Section on Camp Sturgeon Bay 1945, pages 240 and 243
  57. ^ Mexicans in Wisconsin by Sergio González, Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2017
  58. ^ The list is found on pages 51 and following of Migrant agricultural workers in Door County by the Division for Children and Youth, State Department of Public Welfare, Wisconsin, 1951
  59. ^ Developing Strategies to Improve Farm Labor Camp Housing Policy in Massachusetts, by Daniel MacVeigh-Fierro Samantha Ricci Damani Walder, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Boston Project Center B.S. Interactive Qualifying Project, page 65 (page 79 of the pdf)
  60. ^ Shipwrecks of Lake Michigan by Benjamin J. Shelak, Black Earth, Wisconsin: Trails Books, 2003, page 41
  61. ^ They Wanted Wings: A History of Door County Aviation by John Enigl and Wallace "Bud" Felhofer, 2001, page 5 (page 11 of the pdf)
  62. ^ Hidden History of Sturgeon Bayby Heidi Hodges and Kathy Steebs, Charleston, North Carolina: The History Press, 2018, page 113
  63. ^ They Wanted Wings: A History of Door County Aviation by John Enigl and Wallace "Bud" Felhofer, 2001, page 13 (page 19 of the pdf) and U.S. Air Services, Volumes 2-4, page 33
  64. ^ Horseshoe Bay Farms Still Stands Tall by Myles Dannhausen Jr., Door County Living May 1, 2013
  65. ^ They are available from the WHAIFinder application, for reference see Wisconsin historic aerial photographs now available online by Howard Veregin, Wisconsin Geospatial News, February 23, 2011
  66. ^ More Mysteries in the Great Lakes (Archived February 7, 2020) by Meghan Morelli, UpNorthLive, December 14, 2012, also see 1959 Bridgebuilder X (Archived November 23, 2019) by Ross Richardson, Michigan Mysteries
  67. ^ Door County and Jingdezhen, China: Sister Cities by Door County Pulse, Door County Living, July 1, 2004, accessed December 12, 2019
  68. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
  69. ^ a b Wardius, K.; Wardius, B. (2013). Wisconsin Lighthouses: A Photographic and Historical Guide, Revised Edition. Wisconsin Historical Society Press. pp. 100–25. ISBN  978-0-87020-610-8. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  70. ^ City of Sturgeon Bay Comprehensive Plan Update, 2010, chapter 2 page 2 (page 14 of the pdf)
  71. ^ "Meridian County Park". Door County Parks. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  72. ^ Meridian County Park and Harter-Matter Sanctuary Map and trail guide
  73. ^ Wisconsin Geology electronic map, in the Layer List, "Landforms features (lines)" was selected to show the glacial landforms
  74. ^ The Niagara Escarpment: Inventory Findings 1999-2001 and Considerations for Management. Final Report, Craig Anderson, Eric Epstein, William Smith, Nicole Merryfield, May 2002, Natural Heritage Inventory Program Bureau of Endangered Resources Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, page 32 (page 40 of the pdf)
  75. ^ "Rosière Wind Farm". Madison Gas and Electric. Retrieved July 8, 2009. and   "MGE Celebrates 10th Anniversary of State's First Wind Farm". Wisconsin Ag Connection. July 7, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  76. ^ Town of Union 20-Year Comprehensive Plan, May 2007, Chapter 9, page 1, page 181 of the pdf
  77. ^ Chambers Island: An Escape to Simpler Pleasures by Susan Glenn, Door County Living, July 1st, 2005
  78. ^ a b George Pinney County Park kiosk information
  79. ^ "Soil Survey of Door County, Wisconsin" (PDF). USDA SCS. December 1978. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  80. ^ A Guide to Significant Wildlife Habitat and Natural Areas Of Door County, Wisconsin, March, 2003, by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Sturgeon Bay Service Center, page 52.
  81. ^ Wisconsin Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists Field Trip, May 30–31, 2009, page 85 (page 87 of the pdf)
  82. ^ Beneath the Door Peninsula: The Story of Paradise Pit Cave by Gary K. Soule, p. 239-246, NSS News, June 1986
  83. ^ a b c Web-Map of Door County, Wisconsin ... For All Seasons!, Door County Land Information Office, Accessed September 7th, 2019
  84. ^ Page 23 (page 27 of the pdf) of Effects of Geological Processes on Environmental Quality, Door Peninsula, Wisconsin by Ronald D. Stiegliz in The Silurian Dolomite Aquifer of the Door Peninsula: Facies, Sequence Stratigraphy, Porosity, and Hydrogeology: Field Trip Guidebook (Revised Version) for the 1996 Fall Field Conference of the Great Lakes Section of the SEPM, Green Bay, Wisconsin and Pre-meeting field trip for the 1997 Meeting of the North-Central Section of the GSA, Madison Wisconsin
  85. ^ Geology and Ground Water in Door County, Wisconsin, with Emphasis on Contamination Potential in the Silurian Dolomite By M. G. Sherrill, United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2047. 1978, locations of caves are shown on Plate 1
  86. ^ Man Goes Deep To Explore, Preserve The Hidden Treasures Of Door County’s Caves, by Joel Waldinger, October 14, 2014, Wisconsin Life PBS
  87. ^ Door County Coastal Byway Interpretive Master Plan by Schmeeckle Reserve Interpreters, page 36, (page 42 of the pdf), 2014
  88. ^ Horseshoe Bay Cave tour video, August 9, 2017, Door County WI Travel Show series, YouTube, Door County Visitors' Bureau
  89. ^ Door County's Legendary Horseshoe Bay Cave (Tecumseh Cave) Egg Harbor, WI by Gary K. Soule, Prepared for the Spelean History Section Series 22, July 2014
  90. ^ Wisconsin Underground: A Guide to Caves, Mines, and Tunnels in and Around the Badger State by Doris Green, Black Earth, Wisconsin: Trails Books, 2000, page 47
  91. ^ Dorchester Cave–An Unusual Urban Discovery, NSS News, June 2010, pages 18-24
  92. ^ At an exploratory hole drilled by the Tornado Oil & Gas Co. near Brussels, oil showings were reported at 760, 820, 947-950 feet in depth. A water well dug for the City of Sturgeon Bay found oil at 650 to 800 feet in depth, but mostly at about 800 feet. The report states: "it was of dark color and very offensive smell. So much was obtained that he said that they feared they would get oil rather than water." This problem was solved when they drilled deeper, past the layer of shale into sandstone. The inflow of water from the deepest aquifer washed away the oil. Similar findings were reported at the well dug for Sawyer on the northern side of the Sturgeon Bay. Structure and oil possibilities in Door County, Wisconsin by F. T. Thwaites and R. C. Lentz, Oil Indications, page 14-15 (page 16-17 of the pdf)
  93. ^ Hydrocarbons in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  94. ^ Geology and ground water in Door County, Wisconsin, with emphasis on contamination potential in the Silurian dolomite by M.G. Sherrill Section: "Hydrologic Characteristics of Rock Units," 1978, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2047, pages 11-12
  95. ^ Field Verification of Capture Zones for Municipal Wells at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin by Kenneth R. Bradbury, Todd W. Rayne, and Maureen A. Muldoon, 2002, Open-File Report 2001-01, page 3
  96. ^ Wisconsin Springs: Data, see the four points located in the county on the electronic map, Susan Swanson, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
  97. ^ An inventory of springs in Wisconsin by Susan K. Swanson, Grace E. Graham, and David J. Hart, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 113, 2019, page 8 (page 14 of the pdf) and page 13 (page 19 of the pdf)
  98. ^ Hydrogeology and Groundwater Monitoring of Fractured Dolomite in the Upper Door Priority Watershed, Door County, Wisconsin by Bradbury, K.R., Muldoon, M.A., Wisconsin Geological & Natural History Survey # WOFR1992-02, January, 1992
  99. ^ Town of Gardner 20 Year Comprehensive Plan, January 2010, Chapter 5, page 15 (page 78 of the pdf)
  100. ^ Town of Brussels 2020 Comprehensive Plan, Chapter 2, page 30 (p. 56 of the pdf)
  101. ^ Crater map, Wisconsin Geology electronic map attachment
  102. ^ A previously unrecognized impact structure at Brussels Hill, Door County, Wisconsin: Brecciation and shock-metamorphic features. by E. E. Zawacki, October 2014, presented at the 2014 Geological Society of America annual meeting
  103. ^ Crater Hunters Find New Clues to Ancient Impact Storm by Becky Oskin, LiveScience, October 31, 2014
  104. ^ Rosen, Carol & Day, Michael & Piepenburg, Kurt. (2013) Glaciokarst depressions in the Door peninsula, Wisconsin. Physical Geography 8(2). 160-168. 10.1080/02723646.1987.10642318
  105. ^ Glaciated Karst Terrain in the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin by Rosen, Carol J. and Day, Michael J. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 78 (1990), pages 39-44
  106. ^ PeakVisor Door County Named Mountains
  107. ^ Get A Bird's Eye View of Wisconsin's Fall Color by Travel Wisconsin, Sept. 21, 2017
  108. ^ Note that lake level changes from year to year. Whitefish Dunes State Park Trail descriptions, Wisconsin DNR, March 20th 2016, accessed September 7th, 2019
  109. ^ Geology of Washington Island and its Neighbors, Door County Wisconsin by Robert R. Schrock, Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters XXXII, 1940, pages 205 and 216 (pages 11 and 24 of the pdf)
  110. ^ Map 6.1: General Soil Association, Door County Comprehensive and Farmland Preservation Plan 2035
  111. ^ See the map of soils by suitability for agriculture for context. In 2016, the average rental value was $81.00 per acre, less than the Wisconsin average of $131.00 per acre and $144.00 per acre for Kewaunee County. The average sale price of agricultural land in 2016 was $3,861 per acre, less than the Wisconsin average of $5,306 per acre and $6,568 per acre for Kewaunee County. Statistics from the 2017 Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics pages 5 and 10 and (9 and 14 of the pdf), by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, September 2017
  112. ^ Quick Stats data from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service.
  113. ^ The Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture: A Reference System of Commercial Horticulture, Volume 1 by Granville Lowther and William Worthington, Seattle: Lowman and Hanford, 1914, page 90
  114. ^ Pit locations spreadsheet, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, 1/21/2016
  115. ^ Village of Ephraim Comprehensive Plan 2009 Chapter 6, page 5 (page 66 of the pdf)
  116. ^ Modeling Soil Temperatures and the Mesic-Frigid Boundary in the Central Great Lakes Region, 1951-2000 by Schaetzl, Randall J.; Knapp, Bruce D.; Isard, Scott A., Soil Science Society of America Journal 69(6), 2005, pages 2033-2040, DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2004.0349
  117. ^ Fluorite in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  118. ^ Gypsum in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  119. ^ Calcite in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  120. ^ Dolomite in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  121. ^ Quartz in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  122. ^ Marcasite in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  123. ^ Pyrite in Minerals of Wisconsin by William S. Cordua, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1998
  124. ^ Tales of the wild: a year with nature by Roy Lukes, ( entry on worldcat.org) Egg Harbor, Wisconsin: Nature-Wise, 2000, page 47
  125. ^ Door County Hazard Mitigation Plan – Chapter 2: Risk Assessment by the Door County Planning Department, June 28, 2016, page 33
  126. ^ Protect the Water You Drink pamphlet, by Debbie Beyer, UW-Extension Basin Education Initiative; Shelby Giguere, and the Door County Soil and Water Conservation Department. See also Groundwater Quality Changes in a Karst Aquifer of Northeastern Wisconsin, USA: Reduction of Brown Water Incidence and Bacterial Contamination Resulting from Implementation of Regional Task Force Recommendations by Kevin Erb, Eric Ronk, Vikram Koundinya, and John Luczaj, published in Resources 2015, 4, 655-672; doi:10.3390/resources4030655
  127. ^ Residents seek answers after Jacksonport manure spill, December 4, 2014, Door Couty Advocate
  128. ^ Norovirus outbreak caused by a new septic system in a dolomite aquifer, by Mark A. Borchardt, Kenneth R. Bradbury, Elizabeth C. Alexander, Rhonda J Kolberg, S Catherine. P Alexander, John R. Archer, Laurel A Braatz, Brian M. Forest, Jeffrey Alan Green, Susan K. Spencer, published in Ground Water. 2011 Jan-Feb;49(1):85-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00686.x.
  129. ^ Plum Bottom Closed Depression Groundwater Trace Final Report by E. Calvin Alexander, Jr., Jeffrey A. Green, and Scott C. Alexander 25 January 2008
  130. ^ Appendix H of Groundwater quality, Door County, Wisconsin: an assessment of the institutional and physical constraints on economic development, recreational growth, and ground water quality, edited by Harry Leslie. Report of the Water Resources Management Workshop held May, 1973. Madison : Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, pages 153-172 (pages 187-206 of the pdf)
  131. ^ Door County Well Monitoring Program - Fall 2019 Summary by the UW Oshkosh Environmental Research and Innovation Center, December 9–10, 2019, page 35 and RR Sites Map, Wisconsin DNR Remediation and Redevelopment
  132. ^ Door County Comprehensive and Farmland Preservation Plan 2035: Volume II, Resource Report, Chapter 5: Economic Development page 89 (page 31 of the pdf)
  133. ^ Groundwater Quality Viewer, UW-Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources, Groundwater Center
  134. ^ A Case Study of Atmospheric Dry Deposition by Jim J. Lin, Department of Life Sciences, National Air University, Tapeii, 1998
  135. ^ Atmospheric Deposition of PCBs into Green Bay (link to abstract), Journal of Great Lakes Research Volume 19, Issue 1, 1993, Pages 109-123, authors: Clyde W. Sweet, Thomas J. Murphy, James H. Bannasch, Cynthia A. Kelsey, and John Hong
  136. ^ Wisconsin Finds 240 More Impaired Waterways by Jackson Parr, Peninsula Pulse – November 22nd, 2017
  137. ^ Valuing a Spatially Variable Environmental Resource: Reducing Non-Point Source Pollution in Green Bay, WI by Rebecca Moore, Bill Provencher and Richard C. Bishop, University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Agricultural & Applied Economics, Staff Paper No. 538, May 2009
  138. ^ No trespassing in the Dairy Gateway: boundary work in deliberative cooperation in Wisconsin, USA by Tamara Metze, Working Paper for ECPR Joint Sessions, April 2006, page 4
  139. ^ USDA NASS Quick Stats database results for chemical expenditures, 1997 through 2017
  140. ^ USDA NASS Quick Stats database results for fertilizer expenditures, 1997 through 2017
  141. ^ Photo of the monitoring station on page 128 of WI DNR. "Air Monitoring Network Plan 2016 June 2015" (PDF). EPA. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  142. ^ U.S. EPA. "Wisconsin: Northern Milwaukee/Ozaukee Shoreline Area, Sheboygan County Area, Manitowoc County Area, Door County Area Final Area Designations for the 2015 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards Technical Support Document (TSD)" (PDF). Green Book. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  143. ^ Relations between Meteorology and Ozone in the Lake Michigan Breeze by Steven R. Hanna and Joseph C. Chang, Journal of Applied Meteorology 34, March 1995, page 678 (page 9 of the pdf)
  144. ^ A Climatology of Late-spring Freezes in the Northeastern United States by Brian E. Potter and Thomas W. Cate, USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC - 204, 1999, page 2 (page 4 of the pdf). Also see maps on pages 15 and 29 (pages 17 and 31 of the pdf)
  145. ^ "National Weather Service Climate". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
  146. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for Sturgeon Bay Exp Farm". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 18, 2017.
  147. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Washington Island, Wisconsin". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  148. ^ Wisconsin 1-Day Snowfall Extremes, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, October 22, 2018
  149. ^ a b Ice stringers, Lake Michigan, Earth Observatory, Image of the Day for March 10, 2014
  150. ^ A Tornado Climatology for Wisconsin by Pamela Naber Knox and Douglas Norgord, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 100, 2000, page 9 (page 17 of the pdf) and page 13 (page 21 of the pdf)
  151. ^ Development of the Door County Supercell on 23 August 1998 by James R. Jelinek, Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, May 2006
  152. ^ Door County Hazard Mitigation Plan – Chapter 2: Risk Assessment by the Door County Planning Department, June 28, 2016, page 16 and NOAA Storm Events Database results for tornadoes in Door County
  153. ^ Stations in Northeast and North-Central Wisconsin, NOAA Weather Radio-All Hazards by the Green Bay, WI Weather Forecast Office.
  154. ^ Latest Nowcast & Forecast GLCFS Winds, Waves, Surface Currents, Water Temps, Ice, and GLSEA SST & NIC Ice via Google Maps, glerl.noaa.gov
  155. ^ Green Bay Buoy, Great Lakes Observing System, UW-Milwaukee
  156. ^ Town of Sevastopol Comprehensive Plan 2028, November 2008, Chapter 6, page 7, page 104 of the pdf
  157. ^ Landings, Journal of the Door County Land Trust, Spring 2012, pages 6-7
  158. ^ A Data Compilation and Assessment of Coastal Wetlands of Wisconsin’s Great Lakes, 2002 (See M-16. Shivering Sands Area on page 37 of the document and page 43 of the pdf)
  159. ^ My first eighty years by Holand, Hjalmar Rued, 1957, Twayne Publishers, New York, page 10 (page 16 of the pdf)
  160. ^ Old peninsula days; the making of an American community, Chapter 26, "The Peninsula's County Parks" by Holand, Hjalmar Rued, 8th revised edition, 1959, page 242 and following (page 254 and following of the pdf)
  161. ^ Door County’s Original Historian: Hjalmar R. Holand by Steve Grutzmacher, Door County Living, September 4, 2015
  162. ^ Lyttle, Bethany (September 11, 2008). "The Cape Cod of the Midwest". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. Retrieved 2008-09-25.
  163. ^ Standardizing county-level recreation supply components: A precursor to the Wisconsin SCORP, 2005 Working Paper 03-2 November 2003 by Peter Herreid, Dave Marcouiller, and Jeff Prey
  164. ^ a b Door County’s Islands by Sally Slattery, Door County Living, July 1, 2014
  165. ^ Five State Parks in Door County Archived March 31, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Travel Wisconsin, Wisconsin Department of Tourism.
  166. ^ a b Wisconsin DNR. "Door". State natural areas by county. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  167. ^ Interactive map of State and County Parks
  168. ^ Parks (list)
  169. ^ Far From the Madding Crowd: Liberty Grove Town Parks
  170. ^ Camp Zion listing in the CCCA campgrounds directory, accessed December 10th, 2019
  171. ^ Ice Age Trail Guidebook 2014, Points of interest: Cardy Paleo-Indian Camp Archaeological Site, page 353 (page 6 of the pdf)
  172. ^ "Explore Our Preserves". Archived from the original on 2018-04-10. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  173. ^ Lands enrolled in the tax program are shown on the DNR Private Forest Lands Open for Public Recreation interactive map and Managed Forest Law 2019 Acreage Summary Report by Municipality by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, February 25, 2019, page 17
  174. ^ Map of Door County Beaches on Lake Michigan and Wisconsin's Great Lake Public Access Guide, electronic map
  175. ^ Bicycle and other silent sports map 2016, Door County Visitors Bureau
  176. ^ Lyttle, Bethany (September 11, 2008). "The Cape Cod of the Midwest". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  177. ^ See map at bottom of "Door County, Wisconsin, - Sperling's BestPlaces". Bestplaces.net. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  178. ^ The Land and Sea Breeze of Door Peninsula, Wisconsin by Eric R. Miller, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 20(5), 1939, pages 209-211
  179. ^ The climatology and prediction of the Chicago lake breeze by W. A. Lyons, Journal of Applied Meteorology 11, December 1972, page 1262 (page 4 of the pdf)
  180. ^ Some Uses of High-Resolution GOES Imagery in the Mesoscale Forecasting of Convection and Its Behavior by James F. W. Purdom, Monthly Weather Review 104 December 1976, page 1476 (page 3 of the pdf)
  181. ^ Wisconsin Beach Advisories on the Wisconsin Beach Health website; counties are located in the dropdown menu
  182. ^ Detection of escherichia coli in northern Lake Michigan waters using QPCR method C by Roland Hernandez Jr, May 2018, M.S. thesis, UW-Oshkosh
  183. ^ Door County Avian Waste Survey by Colleen McDermott, UW-Oshkosh, co.door.wi.us, pages 11 and 13, Archived December 7, 2015
  184. ^ Evaluation of Avian Waste and Bird Counts as Predicators of Escherichia coli Contamination at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches by Gregory T. Kleinheinz, Colleen M. McDermott, and Vinni Chomeau, J. Great Lakes Res. 32:117–123 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2006
  185. ^ Impact of Rainfall on Escherichia Coli Concentrations at Beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, Amanda M. Griesbach, unpublished M.S thesis, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, 2013
  186. ^ Implementation of BMP’s at Beaches to Improve Water Quality, Final Report, Door County Soil & Water Conservation Department, March 29, 2016
  187. ^ Seasonal stability of Cladophora-associated Salmonella in Lake Michigan watersheds by Muruleedhara N. Byappanahalli, Richard Sawdey, Satoshi Ishii, Dawn A. Shivelya, John A. Ferguson, Richard L. Whitman, and Michael J. Sadowsky, Water Research 43(2009), pages 806-814
  188. ^ Keeper Of The Light: A Modern Lighthouse Keeper by By Patty Murray, September 25, 2017 Wisconsin Originals, PBS
  189. ^ Women Learn Life Skills While Preserving Maritime Landmarks by Joel Waldinger, October 15, 2015, Wisconsin Life, PBS
  190. ^ More Door County Lighthouses Archived 2018-05-07 at the Wayback Machine. Door County Maritime Museum and Wisconsin Coastal Lighthouses Tour electronic map, Wisconsin Coastal Management Program
  191. ^ Maritime Trail video, July 15, 2011, Explore the Door, Door County Visitor Bureau and also see the Maritime trail markers for Door County listed by the Maritime Preservation Program of the Wisconsin Historical Society
  192. ^ On the Wisconsin DNR website, see Door County/Green Bay Trail (Marinette, Oconto, Brown, Door and Kewaunee counties)
  193. ^ Official List of Wisconsin’s State Historic Markers by the Wisconsin Historical Society, June 21, 2018 and Wisconsin Historical Marker, electronic map, Wisconsin Historical Society
  194. ^ Wisconsin Shipwrecks: Door County
  195. ^ Guide to Door County Shore Dives by Chuck Larsen and Wisconsin's Door County Full of Treasures for Scuba Divers by Brian E. Clark, July 7, 2012, updated November 9, 2015, Twin Cities Pioneer Press
  196. ^ Around the Shores of Lake Michigan: A Guide to Historic Sites by Margaret Beattie Bogue, University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, page 220
  197. ^ Stovewood: Pioneer Construction by Mariah Goode, Door County Living, November 15, 2005
  198. ^ Hotspots and bright spots in functional and taxonomic fish diversity by Katya E. Kovalenko, Lucinda B. Johnson, Valerie J. Brady, Jan J. H. Ciborowski, Matthew J. Cooper, Joseph P. Gathman, Gary A. Lamberti, Ashley H. Moerke, Carl R. Ruetz III, and Donald G. Uzarski, Freshwater Science 38(3), July 2, 2019, pages 484 and 486 (pages 5 and 7 of the pdf)
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  201. ^ Kewaunee/Door Peninsula Again Top in Chinook Harvest by Kevin Naze, Peninsula Pulse, May 1, 2019
  202. ^ It’s No Fish Tale… Charter Boat Captain Is Living His Dream by Joel Waldinger, November 5, 2015, Wisconsin Life, PBS
  203. ^ a b c Wisconsin Record Fish List, September 2018, Wisconsin DNR (The records are current as of September 2018.)
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  205. ^ Chinook Salmon Program at Strawberry Creek by Jim Lundstrom, Peninsula Pulse, October 16, 2015, also see the brochure for the Strawberry Creek Strawberry Creek Chinook Facility, Wisconsin DNR
  206. ^ Red flags signal possible trouble for Lake Michigan salmon where chinooks are king, by Howard Meyerson, The Grand Rapids Press, Updated Jan 21, 2019; Posted Apr 17, 2011
  207. ^ Charter Captain Meeting March 12, 2015, see pages 56-57, Archived November 1, 2019 also see Lake Huron’s Chinook salmon fishery unlikely to recover due to ongoing food shortage by Jim Erickson, March 14, 2016
  208. ^ Wisconsin Sea Grant documents value of recreational fishing in Lake Michigan by Aaron R. Conklin, Wisconsin Sea Grant, July 10, 2017
  209. ^ Can Native Species Compete with Valuable Exotics? Measuring Willingness to Pay for Recreational Fishing in Lake Michigan by Raynor, Jennifer and Phaneuf, Daniel, Presentation for the 2018 International Institute of Fisheries Economics & Trade
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  214. ^ Association between PCBs, Liver Lesions, and Biomarker Responses in Adult Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum vitreum) Collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin by Mace G. Barron, Michael Anderson, Doug Beltman, Tracy Podrabsky, William Walsh, Dave Cacela, and Josh Lipton, April 13, 1999, Journal of Great Lakes Research 3, page 11 (page 12 of the pdf)
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  216. ^ WI Natural Resources Board Agenda Item #6.B. by Bradley Eggold, August 2019 webcast
  217. ^ Commercial Ice Fishing Has Door County Resident Hooked by Joel Waldinger, December 15, 2017
  218. ^ Lake whitefish feeding habits and condition in Lake Michigan by Kelly-Anne Fagan, Marten A. Koops, Michael T. Arts, Trent M. Sutton, and Michael Power, Advanced Limnology 63, 2008, pages 401-410 (pages 3 and 12 of the pdf)
  219. ^ The Inland Shore Fishery of the Northern Great Lakes: Its Development and Importance in Prehistory by Charles E. Cleland, American Antiquity 47(4), October, 1982, page 770, (page 11 of the pdf)
  220. ^ 2012 Wisconsin Boating Program Report, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Law Enforcement Pub-LE-314-2012
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  222. ^ Jon Gast: It's safe to say Sturgeon Bay's Sikaflex 'boat' race is like no other by Jon Gast, Green Bay Press Gazette, August 7, 2018
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  224. ^ Kim Russo (July 6, 2017). "Both Sides of Lake Michigan". blogtalkradio.com (Podcast). Great Loop Radio., at 10:36 there is a discussion of Sister Bay, at 13:04 there is a discussion of anchorages off of Door County, at 14:00 there is a discussion of Fish Creek, and at 16:50 there is a discussion of fish boils. Also see the map of the Great Loop Segment: Drummond Island to Chicago, America's Great Loop Cruisers' Association website, Accessed February 10, 2020
  225. ^ Sturgeon Bay (#405), YouTube, Around the Corner with John McGivern, February 4, 2015, Milwaukee PBS and Sailing Classes - Info and Schedules, Sail Training Foundation website, Accessed December 31, 2019
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  228. ^ Peninsula Park White Cedar Forest (No. 13), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  229. ^ The Ridges Sanctuary (No. 17), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  230. ^ Sister Islands (No. 47), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  231. ^ Toft Point (No. 57), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  232. ^ Newport Conifer-Hardwoods (No. 90), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  233. ^ Jackson Harbor Ridges (No. 110), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  234. ^ Mud Lake (No. 125), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  235. ^ Whitefish Dunes (No. 175), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  236. ^ Marshall's Point (No. 204), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  237. ^ Mink River Estuary (No. 218), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  238. ^ Moonlight Bay Bedrock Beach (No. 233), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  239. ^ Coffey Swamp (No. 276), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  240. ^ Baileys Harbor Boreal Forest And Wetlands (No. 284), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  241. ^ Kangaroo Lake (No. 335), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  242. ^ Bayshore Blufflands (No. 377), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  243. ^ Ellison Bluff (No. 378), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  244. ^ Europe Bay Woods (No. 379), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  245. ^ North Bay (No. 381), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  246. ^ Rock Island Woods (No. 382), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  247. ^ White Cliff Fen And Forest (No. 383), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  248. ^ Big and Little Marsh (No. 391), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  249. ^ Thorp Pond (No. 403), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  250. ^ Detroit Harbor (No. 413), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  251. ^ Logan Creek (No. 543), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  252. ^ Meridian Park (No. 544), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  253. ^ Little Lake (No. 554), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  254. ^ Cave Point-Clay Banks (No. 559), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
  255. ^ Peninsula Niagara Escarpment (No. 688), Wisconsin DNR, January 31, 2020
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  258. ^ Wisconsin DNR (November 27, 2009). "Page 20 of the pdf, Tables 4.15 and 4.16" (PDF). Door County Comprehensive Plan 2030: Chapter 4, Agricultural and Natural Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  259. ^ United States designates its 37th Ramsar Site, April 27, 2015 United States of America
  260. ^ Document RIS 2218: Door Peninsula Coastal Wetlands, Ramsar Information Service, March 25, 2015, also see Door Peninsula Coastal Wetlands in the Ramsar Sites Information Service
  261. ^ Boreal rich fen, Detailed Community Description from Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin General natural community overview, Wisconsin DNR, accessed September 9th, 2019
  262. ^ Biodiversity Investment Areas: Coastal Wetland Ecosystems by Patricia Chow-Fraser and Dennis A. Albert, State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference 1998, July 1999, Table 5.6 Lake Michigan shoreline reaches and their characteristic wetlands, page 46 (page 51 of the pdf)
  263. ^ Boreal forest, Detailed Community Description from Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin General natural community overview, Wisconsin DNR, accessed January 20, 2020.
  264. ^ The Origins and Properties of Alkaline Raw Humus by Harry Merrill Galloway, MS thesis, UW-Wisconsin, 1938
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  266. ^ Hoary Whitlow-grass (Draba cana), Wisconsin DNR, accessed September 10th, 2019
  267. ^ Rock Whitlow-grass (Draba arabisans), Wisconsin DNR, accessed September 10th, 2019
  268. ^ Alvar, Detailed Community Description from Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin General natural community overview, Wisconsin DNR, accessed September 9th, 2019.
  269. ^ Great Lakes alkaline rockshore, Detailed Community Description from Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin General natural community overview, Wisconsin DNR, accessed September 9th, 2019
  270. ^ Door County Comprehensive Forest Plan, completed about 2008, see also for reference the map of all Door county woodlands
  271. ^ Door County Coastal Byway Interpretive Master Plan by Schmeeckle Reserve Interpreters, page 25, (page 30 of the pdf), 2014
  272. ^ Chapter 15, Northern Lake Michigan Coastal Ecological Landscape. from The ecological landscapes of Wisconsin: An assessment of ecological resources and a guide to planning sustainable management. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2015. PUB-SS-1131Q 2015, page Q-23 (page 33 of the pdf)
  273. ^ Growing Fruit in the Upper Midwest by Don Gordon, University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1991, page 47
  274. ^ History of the Department of Horticulture, Chronology of the Department’s Research Highlights and Growth, University of Wisconsin Madison, 2014, page 16
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  277. ^ Mycology Collections Portal. "Consortium of North American Bryophyte Herbaria". (CNABH). Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  278. ^ Flora and vegetation of the Grand Traverse Islands (Lake Michigan), Wisconsin and Michigan by Judziewicz, EJ., The Michigan Botanist, Vol. 40. 2001, page 85
  279. ^ Conservation Assessment for Green Spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum) L by the USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, March 2002, subsection "Habitat and Ecology, page 9
  280. ^ Darrin Hoverson and Nancy Turyk (November 2006). "2006 Summary and Comparisons of Clark Lake - Door County Aquatic Macrophyte Community Surveys" (PDF). University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point Center for Watershed Science and Education. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  281. ^ Potamogeton pulcher Tuck. spotted pondweed, USDA PLANTS database, Accessed December 13, 2019
  282. ^ Door County Soil and Water Conservation Department (June 2018). "Table 7-2. Plant Species, page 41" (PDF). Final Report for Comprehensive Lake Management Planning Grant Project #LPL162317 Forestville Millpond. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  283. ^ Priority Invasive Species Lists in Wisconsin, electronic map
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  285. ^ Orchid Restoration Work at The Ridges By Door County Pulse, Peninsula Pulse, January 20, 2017
  286. ^ Jones, Meg (September 17, 2013). "Rare native orchids in Door County get a helping hand". Jsonline. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  287. ^ Jones, Gary (September 16, 2009). "Door County's Potato Genebank". Door County Pulse. Retrieved January 22, 2019., also see NRSP6: The US Potato Genebank: Acquisition, Classification, Preservation, Evaluation and Distribution of Potato (Solanum) Germplasm
  288. ^ The Garden Door Fact Sheet by the Door County Master Gardeners Association, Accessed December 18, 2019
  289. ^ Charlotte Lukes. "Biodiversity of Macrofungi in Northern Door County, WI". UWGB Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  290. ^ Mycology Collections Portal. "Search for Door, Wisconsin". Mycoportal. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
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  294. ^ Feeding Flights of Breeding Double-Crested Cormorant at Two Wisconsin Colonies by Thomas W. Custer and Christine Bunck, J. Field Ornithology 63(2), pages 203-211
  295. ^ Johnson, Wendel J. (1978). "Small mammals of the Toft Point scientific area, Door County, Wisconsin: a preliminary survey". The State of Wisconsin Collection. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  296. ^ Melinda Kleinedler (March 2017). "Newport State Park Mammals Checklist" (PDF). Newport Wilderness Society. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  297. ^ Col. James M. Miller (October 1974). "Draft Environmental Statement for the Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Canal, Wisconsin". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  298. ^ Monitoring long-term trends in Wisconsin frog and toad populations, chapter 21 in Status and Conservation of Midwestern Amphibians ed. Mossman, M. J. chapter by M. J. Mossman, L. M. Hartman, R. Hay, J. R. Sauer, and B. J. Dhuey, University of Iowa Press, 1998, pages 169-198, county level species distribution maps are found on pages 185-186, (pages 16-18 of the pdf)
  299. ^ Dreux J. Watermolen (December 1992). "page 6 of the pdf, Amphibians and Reptiles of the Potawatomi State Park Area with Notes on Other Door County Localities" (PDF). Chicago Herpetological Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-01-23. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  300. ^ Nick Anich (October 2, 2018). "Season 4 Preliminary Results and Stats". UWGB Cofrin Center for Biodiversity. Retrieved January 22, 2019. and ebird.org. "Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  301. ^ Reverse migration of Juvenile Broad-winged hawks by Robert Demars, The Passenger Pigeon 63(4), 2001, pages 301-304, (pages 3-6 of the pdf)
  302. ^ Nest Parasitism by Red-Breasted Mergansers in Wisconsin by Henry W. Pelzl, The Auk 88(1), January 1, 1971, Pages 184–185
  303. ^ Door County Soil and Water Conservation Department (27 June 1999). "Figure 11 General Distribution of Rare Species and Habitats in Door County, page 62 of the pdf" (PDF). Surface Water Inventory of Door County. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  304. ^ The Herring Gulls of Hat Island, Wisconsin by Murl Deusing, The Wilson Bulletin, September, 1939 Vol. 51, No. 3
  305. ^ Door to Nature column by Roy and Charlotte Lukes, June 12, 2008
  306. ^ ITIS Report for Tamias striatus doorsiensis, accessed 10 September 2019
  307. ^ Long, C.A. (2008). The Wild Mammals of Wisconsin. Pensoft Series Faunistica. Coronet Books Incorporated. p. 181. ISBN  978-954-642-313-9. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  308. ^ a b Tales of the wild: a year with nature by Roy Lukes, ( entry on worldcat.org) Egg Harbor, Wisconsin: Nature-Wise, 2000, page 73
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  310. ^ Terrestrial gastropod fauna of Northeastern Wisconsin and the Southern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Jeffrey C. Nekola, 2003, American Malacological Bulletin 18(1-2)
  311. ^ A Guide to Significant Wildlife Habitat and Natural Areas Of Door County, Wisconsin, March, 2003, by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Sturgeon Bay Service Center, pages 52, 83, 85, and 99.
  312. ^ Terrestrial gastropod richness of carbonate cliff and associated habitats in the Great Lakes region of North America by J. C. Nekola, Malacologia 41(1), 2000, page 246 (page 16 of the pdf)
  313. ^ See Lasioglossum sagax (article in Swedish), Bees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) by A. T. Wolf, J. S. Ascher, Great Lakes Entomologist, 2009, page 153
  314. ^ Stelis labiata, F, Side, NC, Moore County, usgs.gov, picture taken December 17, 2019
  315. ^ Bees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) by A. T. Wolf, J. S. Ascher, Great Lakes Entomologist, 2009, page 156
  316. ^ Evaluation of lower Green Bay benthic fauna with emphasis on re-ecesis of Hexagenia mayfly nymphs by Jerry L. Kaster, Christopher M. Groff, J. Val Klump, Danielle L. Rupp, Suneil Iyer, Ashely Hansen, Samantha Barbour, and Louisa Hall, doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2018.06.006, Journal of Great Lakes Research (2018), page 14
  317. ^ Horseshoe Bay Cave Update (cont’d) Echolocator, January 2015, page 12
  318. ^ Rapid Inventory & Assessment of Horseshoe Bay Cave by Redell, Jennifer and Schuster, William, sections "Conclusions from the invertebrate inventory" and "Invertebrate fauna of Horseshoe Bay Cave, Door County, Wisconsin, with notes on habitats and management recommendations" by Taylor, Steven J. and Soto-Adames, Felipe, pages 71, 197, 220, and 264, also see the Horseshoe Bay Cave presentation, 2014
  319. ^ Preliminary Survey of the Terrestrial Isopods (Isopoda), Millipedes (Diplopoda), Harvestmen (Opiliones), and Spiders (Araneae) of Toft Point Natural Area, Door County, Wisconsin by Bruce A. Snyder, Michael L. Draney, John L. Kaspar, and Joel Whitehouse, October 2004, The Great Lakes Entomologist 37(3-4), page 105ff.
  320. ^ Wisconsin's Top 10 Trends Of 2017 For Insects (And Other Pests) Reports Of Familiar And Invasive Species Points To 2018 Possibilities by PJ Liesch, UW-Extension April 26, 2018
  321. ^ Eeek! Spiders so big you will 'freak' by Scott Cooper Williams, Green Bay Press-Gazette, Aug. 22, 2014
  322. ^ "Hines Dragonfly". Hinesdragonfly.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
  323. ^ Factors affecting the distribution of the threatened Lake Huron locust, (Orthoptera: Acrididae) by Scholtens, Brian G., Reznik, Joseph, and Holland, Janet, Journal of Orthoptera Research 14(1), page 47 (page 4 of the pdf), DOI: 10.1665/1082-6467(2005)14[45:FATDOT]2.0.CO;2
  324. ^ The Evolution of Key Tree-Fruit Pests: Classical Cases by Stewart H. Berlocher and Jeffrey L. Feder, page 32 and following (page 49 of the pdf), published by CAB international in Biorational tree fruit pest management, 2009
  325. ^ Parasites of Fish from the Great Lakes: A Synopsis and Review of the Literature, 1871-2010 by Patrick M. Muzzall and Gary Whelan, February 2011, Great Lakes Fishery Commission Miscellaneous Publication 2011-01
  326. ^ Town of Sevastopol Comprehensive Plan 2028, November 2008, Chapter 4, page 11, (page 64 of the pdf)
  327. ^ Monthly Report, December 2019, Door County Visitor Bureau, pages 1 and 5
  328. ^ Administrator's Monthly Reports by Kim Roberts, Door County Tourism Zone website, Accessed February 14, 2020
  329. ^ Door County Syrup: It Depends by Jackie Nelson, Door County Visitor's Bureau, accessed September 7th, 2019 and The sweet taste of Door County maple syrup by Alyssa Bloechl, Green Bay Press-Gazette, April 1, 2016
  330. ^ NASS Quick Stats, 1997-2017
  331. ^ History of Little Lake, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin by John L. Herlache, 2018, Rotary Club of Sturgeon Bay, page 5
  332. ^ Atlas of the Spawning and Nursery Areas of Great Lakes Fishes, Volume IV Goodyear C. D., T. Edsall D. M. Ormsby Dempsey G 0 Moss and P. E. Polanski 1982 Fish and wildlife Service FNS/0BS-82/52, p. 155, 164 of the pdf
  333. ^ Spearing, Netting, and Bait Harvest Regulations 2019-2020, Wisconsin DNR, page 12
  334. ^ Door County Spring Information by the Door County Visitor's Bureau, 2017, page 1, Archived July 13, 2017
  335. ^ Shortcut to Door County’s Mushrooms by Jackson Parr, Door County Living, May 2, 2016
  336. ^ Morel mushroom hunt in Door County by Eric Peterson, Thursday, May 19th 2016, FOX 11 news
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  484. ^ Donations to United Way, Salvation Army Red Kettles help homeless Door County families Liz Welter, Green Bay Press Gazette Dec. 15, 2017
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  552. ^ Spatial Analysis of the Distribution of Lyme Disease in Wisconsin, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 145, No. 6, 1997, by Uriel Kitron and James J. Kazmierczak
  553. ^ EPHTracker, Wisconsin Department of Public Health, Accessed December 19, 2019
  554. ^ Babesiosis Surveillance — Wisconsin, 2001–2015 by Elizabeth Stein, Lina I. Elbadawi, James Kazmierczak, AND Jeffrey P. Davis, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 66, Issue Number XX, pages 687-691. For 2016 statistics, see Wisconsin Public Health Profile for Door County, 2016, Office of health informatics, Division of Public Health, Wisconsin Department of Health Services For 2017 statistics, see Wisconsin Public Health Profile for Door County, 2017, Office of health informatics, Division of Public Health, Wisconsin Department of Health Services
  555. ^ More Than Half of County Vehicle Accidents Involve Visitors by Door County Pulse, Peninsula Pulse, November 10, 2016
  556. ^ Geographic analysis of traffic injury in Wisconsin: impact on case fatality of distance to level I/II trauma care. by Maureen Durkin, Jane A. Mcelroy, Hui Guan, Wayne Bigelow, Tom Brazelton, Wisconsin Medical Journal 2005 Feb; 104(2):26–31.
  557. ^ Wisconsin Trauma Facilities electronic map, Wisconsin Department of Health Services
  558. ^ A Gazetteer of the Province of Upper Canada by David William Smyth, New York: Prior and Dunning, 1813
  559. ^ The American Gazetteer by Jedidiah Morse, Boston: S. Hall and Thomas & Andrews, 1797, page 584
  560. ^ Door County Board of Supervisors Comprehensive Planning Program by the Door County Board of Supervisors, Assisted by the Department of Resource Development, Chapter Three, "Development in Door County," Section "Political Boundaries," 1964, page 49
  561. ^ Private and Local Acts Passed by the Legislature of Wisconsin, Chapter 114, Section 2, 1879, page 113, detailing the county borders for Marinette County
  562. ^ Discovering Door County's past: a comprehensive history of the Door Peninsula in two volumes, Volume 1 by M. Marvin Lotz, Holly House Press, 1994, page 76
  563. ^ Wisconsin: Individual County Chronologies, Wisconsin Atlas of Historical County Boundaries by John H. Long, Peggy Tuck Sinko, Gordon DenBoer, Douglas Knox, Emily Kelley, Laura Rico-Beck, Peter Siczewicz, and Robert Will, Chicago: The Newberry Library, 2007
  564. ^ Arlington National Cemetery. Robert C. Bassett. "Bassett, who was born in Sturgeon Bay on March 2, 1911"
  565. ^ Gene Brabender by Rory Costello, Society for American Baseball Research
  566. ^ Traveling Back: In 2003, Door County was 'football capital of the world' by Robert Johnson, USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin, November 16, 2018
  567. ^ Henry Killilea by Dennis Pajot, Society for American Baseball Research
  568. ^ Five worst fires in Packers history by Cliff Christl, Green Bay Packers, May 6, 2015
  569. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018.

Further reading

External links


Latitude and Longitude:

45°01′N 87°01′W / 45.02°N 87.01°W / 45.02; -87.01