Charleston, West Virginia
Charleston, West Virginia
Views of Downtown Charleston, West Virginia
Charlie West 
Location within Kanawha County
Latitude and Longitude:
|• Mayor||Amy Shuler Goodwin ( D)|
|• City Council|
|• City||32.64 sq mi (84.54 km2)|
|• Land||31.50 sq mi (81.59 km2)|
|• Water||1.14 sq mi (2.95 km2)|
|Elevation||597–1,167 (varies due to mountains) ft (182–355 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||US: 832nd|
|• Density||1,477.29/sq mi (570.39/km2)|
|• Urban||153,199 (US: 214th)|
|• Metro||208,089 (US: 213rd)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 ( EST)|
|• Summer ( DST)||UTC−4 ( EDT)|
25301-25306, 25309, 25311-25315, 25317, 25320-25339, 25350, 25356-25358, 25360-25362, 25364-25365, 25375, 25387, 25389, 25392, 25396, 25064
|GNIS feature ID||1558347 |
Charleston is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of West Virginia. Located at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers, the city had a population of 51,400 at the 2010 census  and an estimated population of 46,536 in 2019.  The Charleston metropolitan area as a whole had an estimated 208,089 residents in 2019.  Charleston is the center of government, commerce, and industry for Kanawha County, of which it is the county seat. 
Early industries important to Charleston included salt and the first natural gas well.  Later, coal became central to economic prosperity in the city and the surrounding area. Today, trade, utilities, government, medicine, and education play central roles in the city's economy.
The first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1788. In 1791, Daniel Boone was a member of the Kanawha County Assembly.
Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Power minor league baseball team and the annual 15-mile (24 km) Charleston Distance Run. Yeager Airport and the University of Charleston are in the city. West Virginia State University is in the local area as well as West Virginia University and Marshall University satellite campuses.
- 1794 – " Virginia General Assembly designated 40-acres of George Clendenin's land, as Charlestown." 
- 1805 – "Salt-tub mill" begins operating. 
- 1808 – Farmers' Repository newspaper begins publication. 
- 1815 – Ruffner Mansion built. 
- 1819 – Spectator newspaper begins publication. 
- 1841 – Kanawha Lyceum active (approximate date). 
- 1850 – Population: 1,050.
- 1862 – Battle of Charleston fought near town during the American Civil War. 
- 1863 – June 20: Charleston becomes part of new U.S. state of West Virginia. 
- 1872 – Kanawha Chronicle newspaper begins publication. 
- 1875 – State capital moves from Charleston to Wheeling. 
- 1892 – Capitol City Commercial College founded. 
- 1897 – Sacred Heart Church built.
- 1900 – Chamber of Commerce organized. 
- 1905 – State Bureau of Archives and History headquartered in Charleston. 
- 1906 – Mason School of Music founded. 
- 1910 – Population: 22,996.
- 1913 – Chemical manufactory begins operating. 
- 1916 – Libbey-Owens-Ford glass manufactory  and Charleston High School built.
- 1917 – Owens Bottle Company manufactory in business in Kanawha City. 
- 1919 – Town of South Charleston incorporated near Charleston.
- 1920 – Charleston Daily Mail newspaper in publication. 
- 1921 – Charleston City Hall built.
- 1922 – Kearse Theater in business. 
- 1923 – Sacred Heart High School established.
- 1925 – West Virginia Governor's Mansion built. 
- 1929 – Charleston Municipal Airport established. 
- 1930 – Population: 60,408.
- 1932 – State Capitol building rebuilt. 
- 1934 – Kanawha County Public Library established. 
- 1935 – Morris Harvey College relocates to Charleston. 
- 1940 – Stonewall Jackson High School built.
- 1941 – Kanawha Boulevard constructed (approximate date). 
- 1947 – Kanawha Airport begins operating. 
- 1954 – WCHS-TV ( television) begins broadcasting. 
- 1957 – WBOY-TV ( television) begins broadcasting. 
- 1959 – Charleston Civic Center opens.
- 1960 – Population: 85,796.
- 1978 – Morris Harvey College renamed University of Charleston. 
- 1983 – Charleston Town Center shopping mall in business.
- 1998 – City website online (approximate date).  
- 2003 – Clay Center for the Arts and Sciences of West Virginia opens. 
- 2010 – Population: 51,400. 
- 2015 – Charleston Gazette-Mail newspaper is formed by the merger of the Charleston Gazette and Charleston Daily Mail.
After the American Revolutionary War, pioneers began making their way out from the early settlements. Many slowly migrated into the western part of Virginia. Capitalizing on its many resources made Charleston an important part of Virginia and West Virginia history. Today, Charleston is the largest city in the state and the state capital.
Charleston's history goes back to the 18th century. Thomas Bullitt was deeded 1,250 acres (5 km2) of land near the mouth of the Elk River in 1773. It was inherited by his brother, Cuthbert Bullitt, upon his death in 1778, and sold to Col. George Clendenin in 1786.  The first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1787 by Col. Savannah Clendenin and his company of Virginia Rangers. This structure occupied the area that is now the intersection of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. Historical conjecture indicates that Charleston is named after Col. Clendenin's father, Charles. "Charles Town" was later shortened to "Charleston" to avoid confusion with another Charles Town in eastern West Virginia, which was named after George Washington's brother Charles.
Six years later, the Virginia General Assembly officially established Charleston. On the 40 acres (160,000 m2) that made up the town in 1794, 35 people inhabited seven houses.
Charleston is part of Kanawha County. The origin of the word Kanawha (pronounced "Ka-NAH-wah"), Ka(h)nawha, derives from the region's Iroquoian dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. It was and is the name of the river that flows through Charleston. The grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia.  The phrase has been a matter of Register (sociolinguistics). A two-story jail was the first county structure to be built, with the first floor literally dug into the bank of the Kanawha River.
Daniel Boone, who was commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the Kanawha County militia, was elected to serve in 1791 in the Virginia House of Delegates. As told in historical accounts, Boone walked all the way to Richmond, the state capital.
By the early 19th century, salt brines were discovered along the Kanawha River, and the first salt well was drilled in 1806. This created a prosperous time and great economic growth for the area. By 1808, 1,250 pounds of salt were being produced a day. An area adjacent to Charleston, Kanawha Salines, now Malden, would become the top salt producer in the world. In 1818, the Kanawha Salt Company, the first trust in the United States, went into operation.
Captain James Wilson, while drilling for salt, struck the first natural gas well in 1815. It was drilled at the site that is now the junction of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard (near the present-day state capitol complex). In 1817, coal was first discovered and gradually became used as the fuel for the salt works. The Kanawha salt industry declined in importance after 1861, until the onset of World War I brought a demand for chemical products. The chemicals needed were chlorine and sodium hydroxide, which could be made from salt brine.
The town continued to grow until the Civil War began in 1861. After a popular vote, the state of Virginia seceded from the Union. However, Charleston, like much of western Virginia, was divided in loyalty between the Union and the Confederacy. On September 13, 1862, the Union and Confederate armies clashed in the Battle of Charleston. The Confederates won, but they could not hold the area for long. The Union soldiers returned in force just six weeks later and retook the city. They would occupy Charleston throughout the remainder of the war.
The Northern hold on Charleston and most of the western part of Virginia created a problem for Abraham Lincoln. Virginia had seceded from the Union, but now the western part was largely under Union control. Lincoln solved the problem by issuing a Presidential Proclamation declaring West Virginia a separate state. He then announced that West Virginia had returned to the Union, and on June 20, 1863, the U.S. Congress recognized West Virginia as the 35th state.
In addition to the dispute over slavery, the North wanted to separate West Virginia from the rest of the state for economic reasons. The heavy industries in the North, particularly the steel business of the upper Ohio River region, were dependent on coal from the western Virginia mines. Federal units from Ohio marched into western Virginia quite early in the war solely to capture the coal mines and control transportation in the area.
Although a state now existed, choosing a state capital location proved to be difficult. For several years, the West Virginia capital intermittently traveled between Wheeling and Charleston. In 1877, however, the citizens voted on a permanent location. Charleston received 41,243 votes, Clarksburg received 29,442 and Martinsburg received 8,046. Wheeling was not considered. Charleston won, and eight years later the first state capitol building was opened there.
After a fire in 1921, a hastily built structure was opened, but it, too, burned down in, 1927. However, a Capitol Building Commission, created by the legislature in 1921, authorized construction of the present capitol. Architect Cass Gilbert designed the buff-colored Indiana limestone structure in the Italian Renaissance style, with a final cost of just under $10 million. After the three stages of construction were completed, Governor William G. Conley dedicated the West Virginia State Capitol on June 20, 1932.
Charleston became the center for state government. Natural resources, such as coal and natural gas, along with railroad expansion, also contributed to growth. New industries such as chemical, glass, timber and steel migrated to the state, attracted by the area's natural resources. There was a huge amount of new construction in Charleston. A number of those buildings, including churches and office buildings, still stand in the heart of downtown along and bordering Capitol Street.
During World War II, the first and largest styrene-butadiene plant in the U.S. opened in nearby Institute, providing a replacement for rubber to the war effort.  After the war ended, Charleston was on the brink of some significant construction. One of the first during this period was Kanawha Airport (now Yeager Airport, named after General Chuck Yeager), which was perhaps one of the most phenomenal engineering accomplishments of its time. Built in 1947, the construction encompassed clearing 360 acres (1.5 km2) on three mountaintops and moving more than nine million cubic yards of earth. The Charleston Civic Center opened in 1959.
In 1983, the Charleston Town Center opened its doors downtown. It was the largest urban-based mall east of the Mississippi River, featuring three stories of shops and eateries. Downtown revitalization began in earnest in the late 1980s. Funds were set aside for streetscaping as Capitol and Quarrier streets saw new building facades, trees along the streets, and brick walkways installed. For a time, the opening of the Charleston Town Center Mall had a somewhat negative impact on the main streets of downtown Charleston, as many businesses closed and relocated into the mall. For a while, the downtown business district (outside of the mall) had a "ghost town" feel to it which took several years to turn around. Today, Capitol Street, Hale Street, and other bordering streets are an eclectic mixture of restaurants, shops, businesses and services that many call the centerpiece of downtown.
The new Robert C. Byrd Federal Building, Haddad Riverfront Park and Capitol Market are just a few new developments that have helped growth in the downtown area during the 1990s. Charleston also became known as one of the premiere healthcare spots in the state. Along with ambitious thinking, plans for even new entertainment and business venues kept Charleston moving along at a steady pace.
In 1983, West Virginia Public Radio launched a live-performance radio program statewide called Mountain Stage.  What began as a live, monthly statewide broadcast went on to national distribution in 1986. Now in its 34th season, Mountain Stage with Larry Groce records 26 two-hour programs each year, mostly at the Cultural Center Theater in Charleston, and is heard on over 100 radio stations through National Public Radio and around the world on the Voice of America satellite service.
2003 marked the opening of the Clay Center for the Arts & Sciences. The center includes the Maier Foundation Performance Hall, the Walker Theatre, the Avampato Discovery Museum and an art museum. Also on site is the ElectricSky Theater, a 175-seat combination planetarium and dome-screen cinema. Movies shown at the theatre include educational large format ( 70 mm) presentations, and are often seen in similar Omnimax theatres. Planetarium shows are staged as a combination of pre-recorded and live presentations.
Many festivals and events were also incorporated into the calendar, including Multifest, Vandalia Festival, a July 4 celebration with fireworks at Haddad Riverfront Park, and the already popular Sternwheel Regatta, which was founded in 1970, provided a festive atmosphere for residents to enjoy. In 2005 FestivALL Charleston was established and has grown into a ten-day festival offering a variety of performances, events and exhibits in music, dance, theatre, visual arts and other entertainments.
Charleston has one central agency for its economic development efforts, the Charleston Area Alliance. The Alliance works with local public officials and the private sector to build the economy of the region and revitalize its downtown. Charleston also has an economic and community development organization focused on the East End and West Side urban neighborhood business districts, Charleston Main Streets.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 32.66 square miles (84.59 km2), of which 31.52 square miles (81.64 km2) are land and 1.14 square miles (2.95 km2) are water. 
The city lies at the intersection of Interstates 79, 77, 64, and also where the Kanawha and Elk rivers meet. Charleston is about 117 miles (188 km) southeast of Chillicothe, Ohio, 315 miles (507 km) west of Richmond, Virginia, 228 miles (367 km) southwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 247 miles (398 km) east of Louisville, Kentucky, and 264 miles (425 km) north of Charlotte, North Carolina.
The following are neighborhoods and communities within the city limits:
The following communities are within the greater Charleston area:
Charleston has a four-season humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa) with continental climate (Dfa) elements.  Especially in winter, Charleston's average temperatures are warmer than the rest of the state, due to the city being west of the higher elevations. Spring is the most unpredictable season, and spring-like weather usually arrives in late March or early April. From the beginning of March through early May, temperatures can vary considerably and it is not unusual at this time for day-to-day temperature fluctuations to exceed 20 °F (11 °C). Temperatures warm up considerably in late May, with warm summer-like days. Summer is warm to hot, with 23 days of highs at or above 90 °F (32 °C),  sometimes reaching 95 °F (35 °C), often accompanied by high humidity. Autumn features crisp evenings that warm quickly to mild to warm afternoons. Winters are chilly, with a January daily average of 34.4 °F (1.3 °C), and with a mean of 16 days with maxima at or below the freezing mark.  Snowfall generally occurs from late November to early April, with the heaviest period being January and February. However, major snowstorms of more than 10 inches (25 cm) are rare. The area averages about 3.5 inches (89 mm) of precipitation each month. Thunderstorms are frequent during the late spring and throughout the summer, and occasionally they can be quite severe, producing the rare tornado.
Record temperatures have ranged from −17 °F (−27 °C) on December 30, 1917 to 108 °F (42 °C) on August 6, 1918 and July 4, 1931.  However, decades can pass between temperatures of 100 °F (37.8 °C) or hotter, and the last such instance was July 8, 2012.  The record cold maximum is 4 °F (−16 °C) on December 22, 1989, while, conversely the record warm minimum is 84 °F (29 °C) on July 29, 1924. 
|Climate data for Charleston, West Virginia ( Yeager Airport), 1981–2010 normals, [a] extremes 1892–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||81
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||67.5
|Average high °F (°C)||42.5
|Average low °F (°C)||26.3
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||3.4
|Record low °F (°C)||−16
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.00
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||11.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||15.0||13.4||14.4||13.6||14.1||12.7||12.1||10.3||9.3||9.7||11.7||14.4||150.7|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||8.4||6.7||3.7||0.8||0||0||0||0||0||0||1.6||5.4||26.6|
|Source: NOAA  |
Charleston functions under the Mayor-Council form of city government. The Mayor is the designated Chief Executive Officer of the city with the duty to see that all of the laws and ordinances of the city are enforced. The Mayor gives general supervision over all executive departments, offices and agencies of the city government and is the presiding officer of the Council and a voting member thereof. The mayor, Amy Goodwin, was sworn in Monday, January 7, 2019, and is the first female mayor in the history of Charleston.  Charleston also has a City Manager who is appointed by the Mayor and approved by the Council. The City Manager has supervision and control of the executive work and management of the heads of all departments under his or her control as directed by the Mayor, makes all contracts for labor and supplies, and generally has the responsibility for all of the business and administrative work of the city.
With twenty-six members, the Charleston City Council is somewhat larger than usual for a city with a population of less than 50,000. Twenty of the council members are elected from a specific ward within the city, and an additional six members are elected by the city at-large.
General Elections for Mayor, City Council and other city officers take place in May every four years (Primary Elections are held in March). The most recent election was in May 2019.
|U.S. Decennial Census |
As of the census  of 2010, there were 51,400 people, 23,453 households, and 12,587 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,630.7 inhabitants per square mile (629.6/km2). There were 26,205 housing units at an average density of 831.4 per square mile (321.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.4% White, 15.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population.
There were 23,453 households, of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.3% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.83.
The median age in the city was 41.7 years. 20.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.9% were from 25 to 44; 29.9% were from 45 to 64; and 16.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.6% male and 52.4% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 53,421 people, 24,505 households, and 13,624 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,690.4 people per square mile (652.7/km2). There were 27,131 housing units at an average density of 858.5 per square mile (331.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.63% White, 15.07% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 1.83% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 1.91% from two or more races. 0.81% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. The five most common ancestries were German (12.4%), English (11.6%), American (11.4%), Irish (10.6%), and Italian (3.9%). 
There were 24,505 households, out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.9% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.4% were non-families. 38.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.82.
The age distribution was 20.7% under 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.6% who were 65 or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 87.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $34,009, and the median income for a family was $47,975. Males had a median income of $38,257 versus $26,671 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,017. About 12.7% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over.
The city of Charleston has numerous schools that are part of Kanawha County Schools. The three high schools are:
- Capital High School, a public school in the community of Meadowbrook. It was established by the consolidation of Charleston High School and Stonewall Jackson High School. It opened in 1989.
- George Washington High School, a public school in the South Hills neighborhood. It opened in 1964.
- Charleston Catholic High School, a Catholic school at the eastern edge of the city's downtown. It opened in 1923.
- Charleston High School, across the street from CAMC General Hospital. It was founded in 1916 and closed in 1989.
- Stonewall Jackson High School, on the West Side. It was founded in 1940 and closed in 1989 to become a middle school.
- Stonewall Jackson Middle School on the West Side
- John Adams Middle School in South Hills
- Horace Mann Middle School in Kanawha City
- Chamberlain Elementary School
- Edgewood Elementary School
- Elk Elementary School
- Grandview Elementary School
- Holz Elementary School
- Kanawha City Elementary School
- Kenna Elementary School
- Piedmont Elementary School
- Overbrook Elementary School
- Ruffner Elementary School
- Shoals Elementary School
- Weberwood Elementary School
- Bible Center School (Private – Christian/Non-Denominational)
- Charleston Montessori School (Private – Non-Sectarian)
- Mountaineer Montessori School (Private – Non-Sectarian)
- Sacred Heart School (Private – Catholic)
- St. Agnes School (Private – Catholic)
- Montrose Elementary School
- Mary C. Snow West Side Elementary School
Charleston hosts a branch campus of West Virginia University that serves as a clinical campus for the university's medical and dental schools. Students at either school must complete their class work at the main campus in Morgantown but can complete their clinical rotations at hospitals in Morgantown, the Eastern Panhandle, or Charleston. Students from West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine may also complete their clinical rotations at the branch campus, after completing their first two academic years at the main campus in Lewisburg.
The city is also home to a 1,000-student private college, the University of Charleston, formerly Morris Harvey College. The college is on MacCorkle Avenue along the banks of the Kanawha River (directly across from the capitol) in the community of South Ruffner.
Within the immediate area are West Virginia State University in Institute; and the South Charleston campus of both the BridgeValley Community and Technical College and of Marshall University. The region is also home to the Charleston Branch of the Robert C. Byrd Institute for Advanced Flexible Manufacturing, an independent program administered by Marshall University providing access to computer numerical control (CNC) equipment for businesses.
Approximately 30 miles (50 km) from Charleston, is the Montgomery campus of the West Virginia University Institute of Technology. The largest regional campus of the University, it focuses mainly on engineering programs. BridgeValley Community and Technical College also has a campus in Montgomery.
Charleston is also home to West Virginia Junior College's Charleston campus. In downtown Charleston at 1000 Virginia Street, WV Junior College is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools to award diplomas and associate degrees. Part of the Kanawha Valley for almost 115 years, WV Junior College was originally established as Capitol City Commercial College on September 1, 1892. The College was originally established to train students in secretarial and business skills and has undergone changes in location and curriculum through the years.
CAMC (Charleston Area Medical Center) a complex of hospitals throughout the city.
- CAMC Memorial Hospital (in the Kanawha City neighborhood)
- CAMC General Hospital (in eastern downtown)
- CAMC Women and Children's Hospital (on the banks of the Elk River in downtown)
Saint Francis Hospital (downtown)
- Appalachian Power, owned by American Electric Power  of Columbus, Ohio
- Charleston Newspapers
- Gestamp Automoción
- MATRIC (Mid-Atlantic Technology, Research and Innovation Center) (South Charleston)
- Tudor's Biscuit World (Nitro)
The City of Charleston recognizes the Charleston Area Alliance  as its economic development organization.
Charleston is home to numerous annual events and fairs that take place throughout the city, from the banks of the Kanawha River to the capitol grounds.
The West Virginia Dance Festival, held between April 25 and 30, features dance students from across the state that attend classes and workshops in ballet, jazz and modern dance. At the finale, the students perform in the West Virginia State Theatre; these are free to the public.
Beginning in 1982, Symphony Sunday, held annually usually the first weekend in June, is a full day of music, food, and family fun, culminating in a free performance by the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra and a fireworks display following. Throughout the day, local performing community dance and music ensembles present a series of their own selected pieces with the final performance being by the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra. The local performing community dance and music ensembles that perform for Symphony Sunday include the Kanawha Valley Ringers, the West Virginia Kickers, the Charleston Metro Band, the West Virginia Youth Symphony, the Mountain State Brass Band, and the Kanawha Valley Community Band. The now defunct Charleston Neophonic Orchestra has also performed at the event. 
The NPR program Mountain Stage was founded in Charleston in 1983. The live performance music program, produced by West Virginia Public Broadcasting, and heard on the Voice of America and via NPR Music, records episodes regularly at the Culture Center Theater on the West Virginia State Capitol grounds.
Twice a year, in late April and again in early November, the West Virginia International Film Festival,  where many domestic and international films are shown that range from full-length feature films, shorts, documentaries, animation and student films.
Charleston hosts the annual Gazette-Mail Kanawha County Majorette and Band Festival for the eight public high schools in Kanawha County. The festival began in 1947 and has continued on as an annual tradition. The festival is held at the University of Charleston Stadium at Laidley Field in downtown Charleston. It is the state's oldest music festival.
On Memorial Day weekend, the Vandalia Gathering  is held on the grounds of the state capitol. Thousands of visitors each year enjoy traditional music, art, dance, stories, crafts and food that stems from the "uniqueness of West Virginia's mountain culture."
Since 2005 FestivALL  has provided the Charleston area with cultural and artistic events beginning on June 20 ( West Virginia Day) and including dance, theater, and music. FestivALL provides local artists a valuable chance to display their works and help get others interested in, and involved with, the local artistic community. Highlights include an art fair on Capitol Street and local bands playing live music at stages set up throughout downtown, as well as a wine and jazz festival on the campus of the University of Charleston featuring local and nationally known jazz artists and showcasing the products of West Virginia vineyards.
The Charleston Sternwheel Regatta founded in 1970, is a former annual event that was held on Labor Day weekend of each year. The event had carnival style rides and attractions and live music from local and nationally known bands. It was held on the Kanawha Boulevard by Haddad Riverfront Park on the Kanawha River. The event started the Wednesday before Labor Day Weekend and ended the Sunday of Labor Day Weekend with a fireworks show on Sunday evening. Due to political differences between local sternwheel owners and factions of city government, sternwheel attendance declined in recent years. Once a promising regatta, rivaling Tall Stacks in Cincinnati, it was discontinued after the 2008 festival season. Charleston, home to the largest population of privately owned sternwheel vessels in the United States is the only city in the region not home to an annual river festival.
Charleston possesses a number of older buildings which represent a variety of historical architectural styles. About fifty places in Charleston are included on the National Register of Historic Places.  A segment of the East End consisting of several blocks of both Virginia and Quarrier Streets, encompassing an area of nearly a full square mile, has been officially designated as a historical neighborhood. This residential neighborhood has many houses dating from the late 19th and early 20th century as well as a few art deco style apartment buildings dating from the 1920s and early 30s.
Downtown Charleston is home to several commercial buildings that are between 80 and 115 years old, including such notable structures as the Security Building (corner of Virginia and Capitol Street), 405 Capitol Street (the former Daniel Boone Hotel), the Union Building (at the southern end of Capitol Street), the Kanawha County Courthouse, the Public Library (corner of Capitol and Quarrier Streets) and the Masonic Temple (corner of Virginia and Dickenson Street).
Also of note are several historic churches grouped closely together in a neighborhood just to the east of downtown; Basilica of the Co-Cathedral of the Sacred Heart (one of the two cathedrals of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Wheeling-Charleston), First Presbyterian Church, Kanawha United Presbyterian Church, St. John's Episcopal Church, Charleston Baptist Temple, St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, and Christ Church United Methodist.
Additional historic buildings can be found throughout the city, particularly in the broader East End, the West Side and Kanawha City. Some of these buildings include:
- Avampato Discovery Museum — (Part of the Clay Center for the Arts & Sciences.)
- Sunrise Museum — (Now part of the Clay Center for the Arts & Sciences.)
- West Virginia State Museum
- South Charleston Museum — ( South Charleston.)
- St. George Orthodox Cathedral, founded in 1892.
- St. Marks United Methodist Church
- The Capitol Theater
- Woman's Club of Charleston
- University of Charleston Stadium at Laidley Field — Used for football, soccer, track, and festivals
- Appalachian Power Park — Stadium of the West Virginia Power
- Cato Park — Charleston's largest municipal park, including a golf course, Olympic-size swimming pool and picnic areas
- Coonskin Park — Includes swimming pool, boathouse, clubhouse with dining facilities, tennis courts, putt putt golf, an 18-hole par 3 golf course, driving range, and fishing lake. Schoenbaum Soccer Field and Amphitheatre inside the park is the home of the West Virginia Chaos soccer team
- Daniel Boone Park — A 4-acre (16,000 m2) park with a boat ramp, fishing and picnic facilities
- Danner Meadow Park
- Kanawha State Forest — (A 9,300-acre (38 km2) forest, including 46 campsites (in the community of Loudendale))
- Magic Island — An area at the junction of the Elk River and the Kanawha River, near Kanawha Boulevard.
- Davis Park
- Haddad Riverfront Park
- Ruffner Park
|West Virginia Power||Baseball||2005||South Atlantic League (Class-A)||Appalachian Power Park|
|West Virginia Alliance FC||Soccer||2003||USL League Two||Schoenbaum Stadium|
|West Virginia Wildfire||Women's American football||2008||Women's Spring Football League||TBA|
The West Virginia Alliance FC is a soccer team that plays its home games at Schoenbaum Stadium in Charleston. The team plays in the USL League Two (USL2) — the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid — in the South Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference
The Charleston Town Center opened in 1983, the Town Center Mall is a three-story shopping and dining facility, with 130 specialty stores. Macy's and J.C. Penney are the mall's anchor stores. The fourth anchor pad is occupied by the headquarters for BrickStreet Mutual Insurance Co.,  private West Virginia–based workers' compensation insurance carrier. There are also six major restaurants on street level and 12 fast food restaurants representing the food court, on the mall's third floor.
There are five major shopping plazas in Charleston, two in the Kanawha City neighborhood – The Shops at Kanawha and Kanawha Landing along with three in the Southridge area, divided between Charleston and South Charleston — Southridge Centre, Dudley Farms Plaza, and The Shops at Trace Fork.
Major stores include The Shops at Kanawha plaza, Southridge Centre plaza, Dudley Farms Plaza, and The Shops at Trace Fork plaza.
- Diplomat and attorney Harriet C. Babbitt, born in Charleston
- Olympic shot put gold and silver medalist Randy Barnes
- MMA fighter Brian Bowles, bantamweight champion
- Extreme metal band Byzantine formed and based in Charleston
- Professional wrestler Kevin Canady, founder of IWA East Coast
- Actress Jean Carson
- Cisco Systems CEO John Chambers
- H. Rodgin Cohen, banker
- Newspaper publisher and U.S. Senator William E. Chilton
- Chemist Basudeb DasSarma
- Actor Douglas Dick
- Photographer Barbara DuMetz was born in Charleston
- Classical composer George Crumb was born in Charleston
- Sarah Feinberg, interim president of the New York City Transit Authority and former head of the Federal Railroad Administration
- Actress Conchata Ferrell
- Paul Frame, chiropractor and former ballet dancer
- Peter Frame, ballet dancer
- William Frischkorn, cyclist
- Actress and Alias star Jennifer Garner was born in Houston, moved with her family to Princeton, West Virginia, then Charleston as a child and grew up there, graduating from city's George Washington High School
- Elizabeth Harden Gilmore, civil rights activist
- Alexis Hornbuckle, professional basketball player, NCAA champion at Tennessee
- Professional baseball player and coach J. R. House
- Basketball player and broadcaster Hot Rod Hundley
- John G. Hutchinson, mayor 1971–80
- Soap opera actress Lesli Kay who has appeared on As the World Turns, General Hospital and The Bold and the Beautiful
- George King, NBA player and head coach of West Virginia and Purdue
- Former Major League Baseball player and current sportscaster John Kruk was born in Charleston, but grew up in Keyser
- Special effects artist Robert "RJ" Haddy was born and resides in Charleston
- Actress Allison Hayes
- Actress Ann Magnuson
- NASA astronaut Jon McBride was born in Charleston 
- George Armitage Miller, one of the founders of the field of cognitive psychology, was born here.
- Would-be presidential assassin Sara Jane Moore was born in Charleston
- Actor Nick Nolte lived in the South Hills neighborhood of Charleston during the 1980s
- National Football League player Rick Nuzum was born in Charleston
- Pop singer Caroline Peyton
- Phil Pfister, winner of strongest man competition, is a firefighter for CFD
- American author Eugenia Price
- Creator of Droodles and television personality Roger Price
- Actress Kristen Ruhlin
- Country singer Red Sovine was born in Charleston
- Civil rights activist Rev. Leon Sullivan was born in Charleston
- NFL player Russ Thomas, general manager of Detroit Lions 1967–89, attended high school in Charleston
- Actor and True Blood star Sam Trammell was born in New Orleans, but grew up in Charleston, graduating from city's George Washington High School
- Tennis player Anne White attended John Adams Junior High School and graduated from George Washington High School. 
- Miami Heat point guard Jason Williams, who grew up in Belle in the same vicinity, was a high school teammate of Moss
- Daniel Webster, longest-serving Florida legislator, was born in Charleston 
- Athlete and coach Harry Young, member of College Football Hall of Fame
- Former NFL player Dennis Harrah
Charleston's only major newspaper is the Charleston Gazette-Mail. It was formerly two separate newspapers - the morning Charleston Gazette and afternoon Daily Mail.
|Call sign||Frequency||Format||Description / Notes|
|WCHS*||580 AM||News / Talk ||58 WCHS|
|WKAZ*||680 AM||Oldies||The Oldies format was formerly on 107.3.|
|WSWW*||1490 AM||Sports||ESPN 1490|
|WVPB*||88.5 FM||Public Radio ||NPR News, Classical Music, Mountain Stage, and other local and national programs.|
|WKVW||93.3 FM||KLOVE Contemporary Christian|
|WZAC-FM||92.5 FM||Classic Country|
|WYNL||94.5 FM||Contemporary Christian ||New Life Ninety Four Five|
|WKWS*||96.1 FM||Classic Country||96.1 KWS|
|WQBE-FM*||97.5 FM||Country ||97.5 WQBE. The Charleston MSA's #1 rated radio station, according to Arbitron.|
|WRVZ||98.7 FM||Rhythmic Top 40 ||98.7 The Beat. Despite the station's low ERP, it still competes well with Electric 102.7.|
|WVAF*||99.9 FM||Adult Contemporary ||V-100|
|WMXE||100.9 FM||Classic Hits ||100.9 The Mix|
|WVSR-FM*||102.7 FM||Top 40 ||Electric 102.7|
|WKLC-FM||105.1 FM||Rock ||Rock 105|
|WAMX||106.3 FM||Rock ||X 106.3|
|WKAZ-FM||107.3 FM||Country||107.3 KAZ Todays New Country|
* represents radio stations that are licensed to the city of Charleston.
The Charleston–Huntington TV market, is the second largest television market (in terms of area) east of the Mississippi River and 64th largest in terms of households in the US serving counties in central West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern Ohio. There are four VHF and ten UHF television stations in the market.
|WSAZ-TV||3||( NBC) / ( MyNetworkTV on DT2)|
|WQCW||30||( The CW)|
|WTSF||61||Ashland, Kentucky ( Daystar)|
Yeager Airport is West Virginia's largest airport serving more than twice as many passengers as all other WV airports combined. It is 2-mile (3 km) north of Interstate 64 and Interstate 77, accessible via WV 114.
Amtrak, the national passenger rail service, provides tri-weekly service to Charleston via the Cardinal routes. The Amtrak station is on the south side of the Kanawha River, at 350 MacCorkle Avenue near downtown.
Historically, until the 1960s, several daily Chesapeake and Ohio Railway trains traversed central West Virginia, making stops in Charleston. Destinations in the Mid-West included St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit and Louisville. To the east the trains terminated in either Washington, D.C. or Newport News, Virginia. These featured the Fast Flying Virginian, George Washington, and the Sportsman. Into the late 1940s, the New York Central Railroad operated passenger trains between Columbus, Ohio and Charleston. 
Interstate 64 crosses the Kanawha River four times as it passes through the Charleston metropolitan area. The Elk River flows into the Kanawha River in downtown Charleston.
Charleston is served by Interstate 64, Interstate 77, and Interstate 79. The West Virginia Turnpike's northern terminus is at the southeastern end of the city. Two U.S. routes, US 60, and US 119, cut through the city center. US 21 and US 35 formerly ran through Charleston.
Charleston is served by Kanawha Valley Regional Transportation Authority.
C&H Taxi services the Kanawha valley.
- Electricity in Charleston is provided by Appalachian Power, a division of American Electric Power of Columbus, Ohio. Appalachian Power is headquartered in Charleston.
- Suddenlink Communications provides the Charleston area's Cable TV.
- Landline phone service in Charleston is provided by Frontier Communications.
- The city's water supply is provided by Charleston-based West Virginia American Water, a subsidiary of American Water  of Voorhees, NJ. The water that supplies Charleston is pumped from the Elk River and treated at the Kanawha Valley Water Treatment Plant.
- Charleston's natural gas is supplied by Mountaineer Gas, a division of Allegheny Energy of Greensburg, Pennsylvania.
- USAT General Frank M. Coxe was built in Charleston in 1922 by the Charles Ward Engineering Works. She served as an Army transport and later a cruise ship on San Francisco Bay. She is now preserved as a floating restaurant in Burlingame, California, just south of San Francisco.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- "I'm Charlie West". Charleston Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001), Charleston city, West Virginia". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 - United States -- Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area (GCT-PEPANNRES)". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- "Nielsen US Media Market rankings" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 18, 2015.
- "First Natural Gas Well – West Virginia (WV) Cyclopedia". Wvexp.com. December 10, 2005. Archived from the original on March 15, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Richard A. Andre. "Charleston". West Virginia Encyclopedia. Charleston, WV: West Virginia Humanities Council. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017. (Includes timeline)
- Federal Writers' Project 1941.
- "U.S. Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Hellmann 2006.
- Davies Project. "American Libraries before 1876". Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Britannica 1910.
- "West Virginia State Archives". West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Appleton Prentiss Clark Griffin (1907), Bibliography of American Historical Societies, Annual Report of the American Historical Association (2nd ed.), Washington DC: Government Printing Office, pp. 942+,
- Chamber of Commerce 1901.
- History of West Virginia, Old and New. Chicago: American Historical Society, Inc. 1923. OCLC 42346040. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017.
- "About Us: History". Charleston: Kanawha County Public Library. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- "West Virginia Encyclopedia". Charleston, WV: West Virginia Humanities Council. Archived from the original on March 19, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- "Movie Theaters in Charleston, WV". CinemaTreasures.org. Los Angeles: Cinema Treasures LLC. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Jack Alicoate, ed. (1939), "Standard Broadcasting Stations of the United States: West Virginia", Radio Annual, New York: Radio Daily, OCLC 2459636
- "Our History". University of Charleston. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017. (Timeline)
- Charles A. Alicoate, ed. (1960), "Television Stations: West Virginia", Radio Annual and Television Year Book, New York: Radio Daily Corp., OCLC 10512206
- "City of Charleston, West Virginia". Archived from the original on December 5, 1998 – via Internet Archive, Wayback Machine.
- Kevin Hyde; Tamie Hyde (eds.). "United States of America: West Virginia". Official City Sites. Utah. OCLC 40169021. Archived from the original on September 25, 2000.
- "Charleston city, West Virginia". QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- "Charleston: History". City-Data.com. Advameg, Inc. Archived from the original on December 28, 2008. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- Kanawha County was named in honor of the Great Kanawha River that runs through the county. The river was named for the Indian tribe that once lived in the area. The spelling of the Indian tribe varied at the time from Conoys to Conois to Kanawha. The latter spelling was used and has gained acceptance over time. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link) (12-29-08)
- Nelson, Clarence M. (December 28, 2005). "Institute and WWII: Creation of Synthetic Rubber Plant Was Exciting". redOrbit. Archived from the original on September 20, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- "Home". www.mountainstage.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "Level III Ecoregions of West Virginia". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- https://www.maptechnica.com/us-city-boundary-map/city/Charleston/state/WV/cityid/5414600[ permanent dead link]
- "Charleston-Huntington Climate Summary – Eyewitness News Storm Team Weather". Wchstv.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
- "Station Name: WV CHARLESTON YEAGER AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
- Shinkle, Leanne. "Amy Goodwin sworn in as first female mayor in Charleston". WSAZ. WSAZ. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
- W. S. Laidley (1911),
History of Charleston and Kanawha County, West Virginia, and Representative Citizens, Chicago: Richmond-Arnold Publishing Co., pp. 166–169,
archived from the original on March 7, 2017, retrieved August 25, 2017 – via
List of mayors
- Charleston Chamber of Commerce (1901). Century Chronicle, Devoted to the Capital City. p. 31. hdl: 2027/hvd.hx4tu5.
- "West Virginia Encyclopedia". Charleston, WV: West Virginia Humanities Council. Archived from the original on March 19, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- * Thomas Condit Miller; Hu Maxwell (1913). West Virginia and Its People. 3. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014.
- "Mayor's Office". Cityofcharleston.org. Archived from the original on December 16, 2000 – via Internet Archive, Wayback Machine.
- "Office of the Mayor". Cityofcharleston.org. Archived from the original on August 10, 2003.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- "Charleston, West Virginia (WV) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news". City-data.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "AEP.com". aep.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "Home - Charleston Area Alliance, WV". charlestonareaalliance.org. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "Symphony Sunday". West Virginia Symphony League. Archived from the original on June 8, 2009.
- http://www.wviff.org Archived April 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine occurs
- "Vandalia Gathering". www.wvculture.org. Archived from the original on September 17, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "Home | FestivAll". festivallcharleston.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
- http://www.brickstreet.com/ Archived December 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine a
- "Astronaut Biography: Jon McBride". Spacefacts.de. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Simms, J.T. (July 6, 1999). "Women have long sports history". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- Hollis, Mark (August 14, 1996). "Webster is Poised to Become House Speaker". The Ledger. Lakeland, Florida. The New York Times Company. p. D4. Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "58WCHS.COM". www.58wchs.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "West Virginia Public Broadcasting". www.wvpublic.org. Archived from the original on June 5, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "Charleston's Supertalk 950 WVTS – Home". Wvtsam950.com. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "97.5 WQBE | Twenty-Four Carrot Country". 97.5 WQBE. Archived from the original on January 8, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "98.7 The Beat | Charleston's Hit Music Channel | Charleston, WV". 98.7 The Beat | Charleston's Hit Music Channel | Charleston, WV. Archived from the original on September 12, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- "V100 | Better Music For A Better Workday | Charleston, WV". V100 | Better Music For A Better Workday | Charleston, WV. Archived from the original on October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- Homepage – Classic Hits 100.9 The Mix Archived December 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- "Electric 102.7". Electric 102.7. Archived from the original on October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- Homepage – ROCK 105 Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "1063 The Brew - Huntington's Only Classic Rock Station". 1063 The Brew. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
- Table 35, New York Central RR Timetable, April, 1948 http://streamlinermemories.info/NYC/NYC48-4TT.pdf Archived September 11, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- "American Water". February 27, 2007. Archived from the original on February 27, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
-  Archived September 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- "Banská Bystrica EN Sister cities". March 3, 2012. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
- J. A. Gibbons (1872). Kanawha Valley: Its Resources and Developments; Also, Special Business Directory of Charleston and Other Cities. Charleston: Gibbens, Atkinson & Co., Printers.
- D.H. Strother (1872). Capital of West Virginia and the Great Kanawha Valley. Charleston: Journal Office.
- J.H. Chataigne, ed. (1882). "Charleston". Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Directory. Richmond, VA. pp. 349–356. OCLC 23244118.
- "Charleston". West Virginia State Gazetteer and Business Directory. Detroit: R.L. Polk & Co. 1882.
- History of Kanawha County, and Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men. Charleston: Miller & Graham. 1885.
- Charleston Chamber of Commerce (1901). Century Chronicle, Devoted to the Capital City.
- Chisholm, Hugh (1910), "Charleston", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York, OCLC 14782424
- W. S. Laidley (1911), History of Charleston and Kanawha County, West Virginia, and Representative Citizens, Chicago: Richmond-Arnold Publishing Co., OCLC 3645365, OL 25173948M
- Thomas Condit Miller; Hu Maxwell (1913). "Kanawha County". West Virginia and Its People. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company.
- Code of Ordinances of the City of Charleston, West Virginia. 1921.
- Federal Writers' Project (1941). "Charleston". West Virginia: A Guide to the Mountain State. American Guide Series. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 177+. ISBN 9781603540476 – via Google Books. + chronology
- Jean Callahan (August 1978). "Cancer Valley". Mother Jones. San Francisco.
- George Thomas Kurian (1994), "Charleston, West Virginia", World Encyclopedia of Cities, 1: North America, Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO – via Internet Archive (fulltext)
- Stan Bumgardner (2006). Charleston. Postcard History Series. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. ISBN 978-0-7385-4265-2.
- Paul T. Hellmann (2006). "West Virginia: Charleston". Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-135-94859-3.
Media related to Charleston, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Charleston (West Virginia).|
- City of Charleston, WV
Items related to Charleston, various dates (via
Digital Public Library of America).
- " Charleston, a city, the capital of West Virginia". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- " Charleston. The capital of West Virginia". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- " Charleston, the capital of West Virginia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- " Charleston, capital of West Virginia". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
- " Charleston, a city, capital of the State of West Virginia". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- FestivALL Charleston