United States congressional delegations from Hawaii
Since Hawaii became a U.S. state in 1959, it has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two senators to serve for six years. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from both of Hawaii's congressional districts. Before becoming a state, the Territory of Hawaii elected a non-voting delegate at-large to Congress from 1888 to 1958.
The longest-serving senator was Daniel Inouye, from 1963 to 2012–he served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate from 2010 to 2012 as the longest-serving senator.  Patsy Mink was the first woman of color to serve in the House, and the first woman to represent Hawaii in Congress.
The current dean of the Hawaii delegation is Mazie Hirono, having served in the Senate since 2013 and in Congress since 2007.
Each state elects two senators by statewide popular vote every six years.  The terms of the two senators are staggered so that they are not elected in the same year, meaning that each seat also has a class determining the years in which the seat will be up for election. Hawaii's senators are elected in the years from classes 1 and 3.
There have been seven senators elected from Hawaii, of whom six have been Democrats and only one was a Republican. Hawaii's current senators, both Democrats, are Mazie Hirono, in office since 2013, and Brian Schatz, in office since 2012.
|Class 1 senators||Congress||Class 3 senators|
|Hiram Fong (R)||86th (1959–1961)||Oren E. Long (D)|
|88th (1963–1965)||Daniel Inouye (D) [note 1]|
|Spark Matsunaga (D) [note 2]||95th (1977–1979)|
|Daniel Akaka (D)|
|Brian Schatz (D)|
|Mazie Hirono (D)||113th (2013–2015)|
The Territory of Hawaii was an organized incorporated territory of the United States formed by the Hawaiian Organic Act on April 30, 1900, following the annexation of Hawaii.  The territory initially consisted of the Hawaiian Islands, with the exception of Baker Island, Kanton Island, Enderbury Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, and Midway Atoll. The territory included the Palmyra Atoll, which was separated from Hawaii when it was admitted into the Union. 
The territorial delegates were elected to two-year terms from the at-large congressional district in the Hawaii Territory. Delegates were allowed to serve on committees, debate, and submit legislation, but were not permitted to vote on bills.  The first delegate, Robert William Wilcox, took office on December 15, 1900, and the last delegate, John A. Burns, left office on August 21, 1959, to be succeeded on the same day by representative Daniel Inouye. Delegates only served in the House of Representatives, as there was no representation in the Senate until Hawaii became a state.
|56th (1899–1901)||Robert William Wilcox (HR)|
|58th (1903–1905)||Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole (R)|
|67th (1921–1923)||Henry Alexander Baldwin (R)|
|68th (1923–1925)||William Paul Jarrett (D)|
|70th (1927–1929)||Victor Stewart Kaleoaloha Houston (R)|
|73rd (1933–1935)||Lincoln Loy McCandless (D)|
|74th (1935–1937)||Samuel Wilder King (R)|
|78th (1943–1945)||Joseph Rider Farrington (R) [note 3]|
|Mary Elizabeth Pruett Farrington (R)|
|85th (1957–1959)||John Anthony Burns (D)|
Members of the House of Representatives are elected every two years by popular vote within a congressional district.  Every ten years, the number of congressional districts is reapportioned based on the state's population as determined by the United States Census;  From in the 86th Congress through the 91st Congress, both of Hawaii's representatives to the United States were elected from Hawaii's at-large congressional district, but in 1969, the Hawaii legislature passed a law creating Hawaii's first and second congressional district, which elected representatives to the 92nd Congress.  The representatives from the two new districts, Patsy Mink and Spark Matsunaga, were also the last two representatives of the seats in the at-large district. Hawaii had one seat until the 1960 United States census allotted Hawaii a second seat, who was elected in the 1962 House elections. 
Seat A (1959–1971)
1st district (1971–present)
Seat B (1963–1971)
2nd district (1971–present)
|86th (1959–1961)||Daniel Inouye (D)||Vacant [note 4]|
|88th (1963–1965)||Spark Matsunaga (D)||Thomas Ponce Gill (D)|
|89th (1965–1967)||Patsy Mink (D)|
|95th (1977–1979)||Cecil Heftel (D) [note 5]||Daniel Akaka (D) [note 6]|
|Neil Abercrombie (D) [note 7]|
|100th (1987–1989)||Patricia F. Saiki (R)|
|Patsy Mink (D) [note 8]|
|102nd (1991–1993)||Neil Abercrombie (D) [note 9]|
|Ed Case (D)|
|110th (2007–2009)||Mazie Hirono (D)|
|Charles Djou (R)|
|112th (2011–2013)||Colleen Hanabusa (D)|
|113th (2013–2015)||Tulsi Gabbard (D)|
|114th (2015–2017)||Mark Takai (D) [note 10]|
|Colleen Hanabusa (D)|
|116th (2019–2021)||Ed Case (D)|
|117th (2021–2023)||Kai Kahele (D)|
- Senator Inouye died while in office.  He requested that Representative Colleen Hanabusa be appointed to the seat by Governor Neil Abercrombie, but Abercrombie appointed Brian Schatz to fill the seat. 
- Senator Matsunaga died while in office. 
- Delegate Farrington died while in office. 
- Hawaii only had one seat in Congress until the 1960 United States census allotted another seat to the state.
- Representative Heftel resigned on July 11, 1986 to unsuccessfully run for Governor of Hawaii. 
- Representative Akaka resigned on May 16, 1990, to be appointed to the Senate seat vacated upon the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga. 
- Because of the timing of Rep. Heftel's resignation, the special election to fill Heftel's seat and the primary for the seat's next election were held on the same day. Abercrombie won the special election to fill the seat, but lost the primary, rendering him unable to run again in 1992. 
- Representative Mink died in office. 
- Representative Abercrombie resigned on February 28, 2010, to run for Governor of Hawaii. 
- Representative Takai died while in office. 
- Hulse, Carl (June 28, 2010). "Inouye Sworn In as President Pro Tem". The New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- U.S. Constitution, Amendment XVII
- "Hawaii Sen. Daniel Inouye dies at age 88". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-06-13.
- DePledge, Derrick (December 17, 2012). "Inouye wanted Hanabusa to succeed him in U.S. Senate". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
- Flint, Peter B. (1990-04-16). "Spark M. Matsunaga Dies at 73; Senator Led Fight for Reparations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-13.
- "Hawaii Organic Act" (PDF). April 30, 1900.
- "Guide to State and Local Census Geography - Hawaii" (PDF). hawaii.gov. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Hawaii Delegate to Congress dies of Heart Attack". The Ada Evening News. June 20, 1954.
- U.S. Const. Art. I, § 2
- "Decennial Census". American FactFinder. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
- "ACT209". www.capitol.hawaii.gov. Retrieved 2021-06-13.
- "Apportionment of 435 Seats By The Methods of Equal Proportions and Smallest Divisors: April 1, 1960" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. April 1, 1960. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
- "Patsy Takemoto Mink (1927–2002)". Democrats.org. Washington, D. C.: Democratic National Committee. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007.
- Lerer, Lisa; Astor, Maggie (2020-03-19). "Tulsi Gabbard Drops Out of Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-15.
- "Hawaii Congressman Quits". The New York Times. July 13, 1986. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
- Ap (1990-04-30). "Hawaii Congressman Named To Matsunaga's Senate Seat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-15.
- Rudin, Ken (2006-09-27). "Democrats Poised to Make Gubernatorial Gains". NPR. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- Gootman, Elissa (2002-09-30). "Patsy Mink, Veteran Hawaii Congresswoman, Dies at 74". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-15.
- "Hawaii's Abercrombie To Resign House Seat Next Month To Focus On Gov Race". NPR.org. Retrieved 2021-06-15.
- "U.S. Congressman Mark Takai of Hawaii Dies". NBC News. Retrieved 2021-06-15.