From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TIMSS 8th grade average Mathematics scores (2019)
TIMSS 8th grade average Science scores (2019)
TIMSS 4th grade average Mathematics scores (2019)
TIMSS 4th grade average Science scores (2019)

The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)'s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) [1] is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world. The participating students come from a diverse set of educational systems (countries or regional jurisdictions of countries) in terms of economic development, geographical location, and population size. In each of the participating educational systems, a minimum of 4,000 to 5,000 students is evaluated. Contextual data about the conditions in which participating students learn mathematics and science are collected from the students and their teachers, their principals, and their parents via questionnaires. [2]

TIMSS is one of the studies established by IEA aimed at allowing educational systems worldwide to compare students' educational achievement and learn from the experiences of others in designing effective education policy. This assessment was first conducted in 1995, and has been administered every four years thereafter. Therefore, some of the participating educational systems have trend data across assessments from 1995 to 2019. [3] TIMSS assesses 4th and 8th grade students, while TIMSS Advanced assesses students in the final year of secondary school in advanced mathematics and physics.

Definition of terms

"Eighth grade" in the United States is approximately 13–14 years of age and equivalent to:

  • Year 9 (Y9) in England and Wales
  • 2nd Year (S2) in Scotland
  • 2nd Year in the Republic of Ireland
  • 1st Year in South Africa
  • Form 2 in Hong Kong
  • 4ème in France
  • Year 9 in New Zealand
  • Form 2 in Malaysia

"Fourth grade" in the United States is approximately equivalent to 9–10 years of age and equivalent to:

  • Year 5 (Y5) in England and Wales
  • Primary 6 (P6) in Scotland
  • Group 6 in the Netherlands
  • CM1 in France
  • Fourth Class in the Republic of Ireland
  • Standard 3 or Year 5 in New Zealand

History

A precursor to TIMSS was the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS) performed in 1964 in 11 countries for students aged 13 and in the final year of secondary education (FS) under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). This was followed in 1970–1971 by the First International Science Study (FISS) for students aged 10, 14, and FS. Fourteen countries tested 10-year-olds; 16 countries tested the older two groups. These were replicated between 1980 and 1984. [4]

These early studies were revised and combined by the IEA to create TIMSS, which was first administered in 1995. It was the largest international student assessment study of its time and evaluated students in five grades. In the second cycle (1999) only eighth-grade students were tested. In the next cycles (2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015) both 4th and 8th grade students were assessed. The 2011 cycle was performed in the same year as the IEA's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), offering a comprehensive assessment of mathematics, science and reading for the countries participating in both studies. The sixth cycle was conducted in 2015, and the results were released in 2016; [5] the data set was published in February 2017. TIMSS 2015 included data collected from parents for the first time. [6] TIMSS Advanced, previously conducted in 1995 and 2008, was also conducted in 2015, and assessed final-year secondary students' achievement in advanced mathematics and physics. Policy-relevant data about curriculum emphasis, technology use, and teacher preparation and training accompanies the TIMSS Advanced results.

The seventh cycle of TIMSS was conducted in 2019 and marked the beginning of the transition to a digital assessment format, with the digital assessment administered to half of participating countries, and the paper assessment administered to the remaining half. 64 countries and 8 benchmarking systems participating in TIMSS 2019. Results were released in December 2020. [7]

Preparations are underway for TIMSS 2023.

Method, data and documentation

Along with the overall students' achievement data, TIMSS comprehensive assessments include data on student performance in various mathematics and science domains (algebra, geometry, biology, chemistry, etc.) and on performance in the problem solving challenges in each of these contexts. In addition, TIMSS provides contextual data on crucial curricular, instructional, and resource-related factors that can impact the teaching and learning process. These data are gathered using student, teacher, school, and curriculum (national) questionnaires filled out by students, teachers, school principals and National Research Coordinators, respectively.

According to the TIMSS 2019 Assessment Frameworks, "The TIMSS mathematics and science achievement scales were created with the first TIMSS assessment in 1995, separately for each subject and each grade. The scale units were established so that 100 points on the scale was equivalent to one standard deviation of the distribution of achievement across all of the countries that participated in TIMSS 1995, and the scale midpoint of 500 was located at the mean of this international achievement distribution. The TIMSS achievement scales were first used for reporting TIMSS results with TIMSS 1995, and all results from subsequent TIMSS assessments have been reported on the same scale metrics, making it possible to measure growth or decline in countries' achievement distributions from assessment to assessment." [8]

Because TIMSS is administered in four-year cycles, it enables participating counties to use the results between the fourth and eighth grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 can be compared with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS 1999, as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study. [9]

The collected information is presented in different formats. For example, for TIMSS 2019 the results are presented as TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science. [10] The TIMSS 2019 Encyclopedia [11] provides an overview of how mathematics and science are taught in each participating country. Methods and Procedures: TIMSS 2019 Technical Report [12] documents the development of the TIMSS assessments and questionnaires, and describes the methods used. The TIMSS 2019 User Guide for the International Database describes the content and format of the data in the TIMSS 2019 International Database [13]

The IEA has developed an application for working with data from TIMSS and other IEA large-scale assessments called the IEA International Database (IDB) Analyzer. [14] This application allows researchers to combine data files and facilitates some types of statistical analysis (such as computing means, percentages, percentiles, correlations, and estimating single level multiple linear regression). The application takes into account the complex sample structure of the databases when calculating the statistics and their standard errors. It also allows researchers to estimate achievement scores and their standard errors.

For an overview of the IEA study results and interpretation of information, see IEA's Data Visualizer. [15]

Cycles

TIMSS 2019

TIMSS 2019 was the seventh cycle of TIMSS and reported overall achievement as well as results according to international benchmarks, by major content domains (number, algebra, and geometry in mathematics, and earth science, biology, and chemistry in science) and by cognitive domains (knowing, applying, reasoning). [16] TIMSS 2019 collected detailed information about curriculum and curriculum implementation of participating countries and published this information the TIMSS 2019 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science. [17]

TIMSS 2019 marked the transition to a digital assessment format, allowing for new and innovative item types. In the digital assessment, students solved problems by interacting with shapes and patterns, arranging items on the screen, dragging and dropping items, and drawing. The digital version of TIMSS 2019 also introduced Problem Solving and Inquiry tasks that simulated real-world and laboratory situations and called for students to integrate and apply process skills and content knowledge. Half of the participating countries took the paper version of TIMSS and half of the participating countries took the digital version of TIMSS.

TIMSS 2019 results are summarized in TIMSS 2019 International Results in Mathematics and Science. [7] This detailed report presents achievement and contextual data from participating countries and benchmarking entities. The TIMSS 2019 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science describes various features of the education systems in each participating country, including the mathematics and science curriculum, professional development requirements for teachers, and methods of monitoring student progress in mathematics and science. Each country's "chapter" in the encyclopedia was authored by that country's TIMSS representative. [17]

Eighth grade

Mathematics [18]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 616 Decrease 5 points
2   Chinese Taipei 612 Increase 13 points
3   South Korea 607 Increase 1 point
4   Japan 594 Increase 8 points
5   Hong Kong 578 Decrease 16 points
6   Russia 543 Increase 5 points
7   Ireland 524 Increase 1 point
8   Lithuania 520 Increase 9 points
9   Israel 519 Increase 8 points
10   Australia 517 Increase 12 points
10   Hungary 517 Increase 3 points
12   United States 515 Decrease 3 points
12   England 515 Decrease 3 points
14   Finland 509 N/A
15   Norway [a] 503 Decrease 9 points
15   Sweden 503 Increase 2 points
17   Cyprus 501 N/A
18   Portugal 500 N/A
International average 500 Steady
19   Italy 497 Increase 3 points
20   Turkey 496 Increase 38 points
21   Kazakhstan 488 Decrease 40 points
22   France 483 N/A
23   New Zealand 482 Decrease 11 points
24   Bahrain 481 Increase 27 points
25   Romania 479 N/A
26   United Arab Emirates 473 Increase 8 points
27   Georgia 461 Increase 8 points
27   Malaysia 461 Decrease 4 points
29   Iran 446 Increase 8 points
30   Qatar 443 Increase 6 points
31   Chile 441 Increase 14 points
32   Lebanon 429 Decrease 13 points
33   Jordan 420 Increase 34 points
34   Egypt 413 Increase 21 points
35   Oman 411 Increase 8 points
36   Kuwait 403 Increase 11 points
37   Saudi Arabia 394 Increase 26 points
38   South Africa [a] 389 Increase 17 points
39   Morocco 388 Increase 4 points
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow ( Russia) 575 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 543 Steady
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 537 Increase 25 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 530 Decrease 8 points
Western Cape Western Cape ( South Africa) [a] 441 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 436 Decrease 6 points
Gauteng Gauteng ( South Africa) [a] 421 N/A
Science [19]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 608 Increase 11 points
2   Chinese Taipei 574 Increase 5 points
3   Japan 570 Decrease 1 point
4   South Korea 561 Increase 5 points
5   Russia 543 Decrease 1 point
5   Finland 543 N/A
7   Lithuania 534 Increase 15 points
8   Hungary 530 Increase 3 points
9   Australia 528 Increase 16 points
10   Ireland 523 Decrease 7 points
11   United States 522 Increase 8 points
12   Sweden 521 Decrease 1 point
13   Portugal 519 N/A
14   England 517 Decrease 20 points
15   Turkey 515 Increase 22 points
16   Israel 513 Increase 6 points
17   Hong Kong 504 Decrease 42 points
18   Italy 500 Increase 1 point
International average 500 Steady
19   New Zealand 499 Decrease 14 points
20   Norway [a] 495 Decrease 14 points
21   France 489 N/A
22   Bahrain 486 Increase 20 points
23   Cyprus 484 N/A
24   Kazakhstan 478 Decrease 55 points
25   Qatar 475 Increase 18 points
26   United Arab Emirates 473 Decrease 4 points
27   Romania 470 N/A
28   Chile 462 Increase 8 points
29   Malaysia 460 Decrease 11 points
30   Oman 457 Increase 2 points
31   Jordan 452 Increase 26 points
32   Iran 449 Decrease 7 points
33   Georgia 447 Increase 4 points
34   Kuwait 444 Increase 33 points
35   Saudi Arabia 431 Increase 35 points
36   Morocco 394 Increase 1 point
37   Egypt 389 Increase 18 points
38   Lebanon 377 Decrease 21 points
39   South Africa [a] 370 Increase 12 points
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow ( Russia) 567 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 548 Increase 18 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 537 Increase 12 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 522 Decrease 2 points
Western Cape Western Cape ( South Africa) [a] 439 N/A
Gauteng Gauteng ( South Africa) [a] 422 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 420 Decrease 34 points
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Ninth grade students

Fourth grade

Mathematics [20]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 625 Increase 7 points
2   Hong Kong 602 Decrease 13 points
3   South Korea 600 Decrease 8 points
4   Chinese Taipei 599 Increase 2 points
5   Japan 593 Steady
6   Russia 567 Increase 3 points
7 Northern Ireland 566 Decrease 4 points
8   England 556 Increase 10 points
9   Ireland 548 Increase 1 point
10   Latvia 546 N/A
11   Norway [a] 543 Decrease 6 points
12   Lithuania 542 Increase 7 points
13   Austria 539 N/A
14   Netherlands 538 Increase 8 points
15   United States 535 Decrease 4 points
16   Czech Republic 533 Increase 5 points
17   Belgium ( Flemish) 532 Decrease 14 points
17   Cyprus 532 Increase 9 points
17   Finland 532 Decrease 3 points
20   Portugal 525 Decrease 16 points
20   Denmark 525 Decrease 14 points
22   Hungary 523 Decrease 6 points
22   Turkey [a] 523 N/A
24   Sweden 521 Increase 2 points
24   Germany 521 Decrease 1 point
26   Poland 520 Decrease 15 points
27   Australia 516 Decrease 1 point
28   Azerbaijan 515 N/A
28   Bulgaria 515 Decrease 9 points
28   Italy 515 Increase 8 points
31   Kazakhstan 512 Decrease 32 points
31   Canada 512 Increase 1 point
33   Slovakia 510 Increase 12 points
34   Croatia 509 Increase 7 points
34   Malta 509 N/A
36   Serbia 508 Decrease 10 points
37   Spain 502 Decrease 3 points
International average 500 Steady
38   Armenia 498 N/A
39   Albania 494 N/A
40   New Zealand 487 Decrease 4 points
41   France 485 Decrease 3 points
42   Georgia 482 Increase 19 points
43   United Arab Emirates 481 Increase 29 points
44   Bahrain 480 Increase 29 points
45   North Macedonia 472 N/A
46   Montenegro 453 N/A
47   Bosnia and Herzegovina 452 N/A
48   Qatar 449 Increase 10 points
49   Kosovo 444 N/A
50   Iran 443 Increase 12 points
51   Chile 441 Decrease 18 points
52   Oman 431 Increase 6 points
53   Saudi Arabia 398 Increase 15 points
54   Morocco 383 Increase 6 points
54   Kuwait 383 Increase 30 points
56   South Africa [a] 374 Decrease 2 points
57   Pakistan 328 N/A
58   Philippines 297 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow ( Russia) 593 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 544 Increase 33 points
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 532 Decrease 4 points
Community of Madrid Madrid ( Spain) 518 N/A
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 512 Steady
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 441 Increase 22 points
Science [21]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 595 Increase 5 points
2   South Korea 588 Decrease 1 point
3   Russia 567 Steady
4   Japan 562 Decrease 7 points
5   Chinese Taipei 558 Increase 3 points
6   Finland 555 Increase 1 point
7   Latvia 542 N/A
8   Norway [a] 539 Increase 1 point
8   United States 539 Decrease 7 points
10   Lithuania 538 Increase 10 points
11   Sweden 537 Decrease 3 points
11   England 537 Increase 1 point
13   Czech Republic 534 Steady
14   Australia 533 Increase 9 points
15   Hong Kong 531 Decrease 26 points
15   Poland 531 Decrease 16 points
17   Hungary 529 Decrease 13 points
18   Ireland 528 Decrease 1 point
19   Turkey [a] 526 N/A
20   Croatia 524 Decrease 9 points
21   Canada 523 Decrease 2 points
22   Denmark 522 Decrease 5 points
22   Austria 522 N/A
24   Bulgaria 521 Decrease 15 points
24   Slovakia 521 Increase 1 point
26 Northern Ireland 518 Decrease 2 points
26   Netherlands 518 Increase 1 point
26   Germany 518 Decrease 10 points
29   Serbia 517 Decrease 8 points
30   Cyprus 511 Increase 30 points
30   Spain 511 Decrease 7 points
32   Italy 510 Decrease 6 points
33   Portugal 504 Decrease 4 points
34   New Zealand 503 Decrease 3 points
35   Belgium ( Flemish) 501 Decrease 11 points
International average 500 Steady
36   Malta 496 N/A
37   Kazakhstan 494 Decrease 56 points
38   Bahrain 493 Increase 34 points
39   Albania 489 N/A
40   France 488 Increase 1 point
41   United Arab Emirates 473 Increase 22 points
42   Chile 469 Decrease 9 points
43   Armenia 466 N/A
44   Bosnia and Herzegovina 459 N/A
45   Georgia 454 Increase 3 points
46   Montenegro 453 N/A
47   Qatar 449 Increase 13 points
48   Iran 441 Increase 20 points
49   Oman 435 Increase 4 points
50   Azerbaijan 427 N/A
51   North Macedonia 426 N/A
52   Kosovo 413 N/A
53   Saudi Arabia 402 Increase 12 points
54   Kuwait 392 Increase 55 points
54   Morocco 374 Increase 17 points
56   South Africa [a] 324 N/A
57   Pakistan 290 N/A
58   Philippines 249 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Moscow Moscow ( Russia) 595 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 545 Increase 27 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 524 Decrease 6 points
Community of Madrid Madrid ( Spain) 523 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 522 Decrease 3 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 418 Increase 3 points
  1. ^ a b c d e f Fifth grade students

TIMSS 2015

In TIMSS 2015, [22] nationally representative samples of students in 57 countries and 7 benchmarking entities participated in the fourth grade assessment, the eighth grade assessment, or both. [23]

Eighth grade

Mathematics [24]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 621 Increase 10 points
2   South Korea 606 Decrease 7 points
3   Chinese Taipei 599 Decrease 10 points
4   Hong Kong 594 Increase 8 points
5   Japan 586 Increase 16 points
6   Russia 538 Decrease 1 point
7   Kazakhstan 528 Increase 41 points
8   Canada 527 N/A
9   Ireland 523 N/A
10   United States 518 Increase 9 points
10   England 518 Increase 11 points
12   Slovenia 516 Increase 11 points
13   Hungary 514 Increase 9 points
14   Norway [a] 512 N/A
15   Lithuania 511 Increase 9 points
15   Israel 511 Decrease 5 points
17   Australia 505 Steady
18   Sweden 501 Increase 17 points
International average 500 Steady
19   Italy 494 Decrease 4 points
19   Malta 494 N/A
21   New Zealand 493 Increase 5 points
22   Malaysia 465 Increase 25 points
23   United Arab Emirates 465 Increase 9 points
24   Turkey 458 Increase 6 points
25   Bahrain 454 Increase 45 points
26   Georgia 453 Increase 22 points
27   Lebanon 442 Decrease 7 points
28   Qatar 437 Increase 27 points
29   Iran 436 Increase 21 points
30   Thailand 431 Increase 4 points
31   Chile 427 Increase 11 points
32   Oman 403 Increase 37 points
33   Kuwait 392 N/A
33   Egypt 392 N/A
35   Botswana [a] 391 Decrease 6 points
36   Jordan 386 Decrease 20 points
37   Morocco 384 Increase 13 points
38   South Africa [a] 372 Increase 20 points
39   Saudi Arabia 368 Decrease 26 points
Benchmarking participants
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 543 Increase 11 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 522 Increase 10 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 512 Increase 34 points
Florida Florida ( United States) 493 Decrease 20 points
  Norway [b] 487 Increase 12 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 442 Decrease 7 points
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( Argentina) 396 N/A
Science [25]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 597 Increase 7 points
2   Japan 571 Increase 13 points
3   Chinese Taipei 569 Increase 5 points
4   South Korea 556 Decrease 4 points
5   Slovenia 551 Increase 8 points
6   Hong Kong 546 Increase 11 points
7   Russia 544 Increase 2 points
8   England 537 Increase 4 points
9   Kazakhstan 533 Increase 43 points
10   Ireland 530 N/A
10   United States 530 Increase 5 points
12   Hungary 527 Increase 5 points
13   Canada 526 N/A
14   Sweden 522 Increase 13 points
15   Lithuania 519 Increase 5 points
16   New Zealand 513 Increase 1 point
17   Australia 512 Decrease 7 points
18   Norway [a] 509 N/A
19   Israel 507 Decrease 9 points
International average 500 Steady
20   Italy 499 Decrease 2 points
21   Turkey 493 Increase 10 points
22   Malta 481 N/A
23   United Arab Emirates 477 Increase 12 points
24   Malaysia 471 Increase 45 points
25   Bahrain 466 Increase 14 points
26   Qatar 457 Increase 38 points
27   Iran 456 Decrease 18 points
27   Thailand 456 Increase 5 points
29   Oman 455 Increase 35 points
30   Chile 454 Decrease 7 points
31   Georgia 443 Increase 23 points
32   Jordan 426 Decrease 23 points
33   Kuwait 411 N/A
34   Lebanon 398 Decrease 8 points
35   Saudi Arabia 396 Decrease 40 points
36   Morocco 393 Increase 17 points
37   Botswana [a] 392 Decrease 12 points
38   Egypt 371 N/A
39   South Africa [a] 358 Increase 26 points
Benchmarking participants
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 530 Increase 10 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 525 Increase 40 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 524 Increase 3 points
Florida Florida ( United States) 508 Decrease 22 points
  Norway [b] 489 Decrease 5 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 454 Decrease 7 points
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( Argentina) 386 N/A
  1. ^ a b c d e f Ninth grade students
  2. ^ a b Eighth grade students

Fourth grade

Mathematics [24]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 618 Increase 12 points
2   Hong Kong 615 Increase 13 points
3   South Korea 608 Increase 3 points
4   Chinese Taipei 597 Increase 6 points
5   Japan 593 Increase 8 points
6 Northern Ireland 570 Increase 8 points
7   Russia 564 Increase 22 points
8   Norway [a] 549 N/A
9   Ireland 547 Increase 20 points
10   England 546 Increase 4 points
10   Belgium ( Flemish) 546 Decrease 3 points
12   Kazakhstan 544 Increase 43 points
13   Portugal 541 Increase 9 points
14   United States 539 Decrease 2 points
14   Denmark 539 Increase 2 points
16   Lithuania 535 Increase 1 point
16   Finland 535 Decrease 10 points
16   Poland 535 Increase 54 points
19   Netherlands 530 Decrease 10 points
20   Hungary 529 Increase 14 points
21   Czech Republic 528 Increase 17 points
22   Bulgaria 524 N/A
23   Cyprus 523 N/A
24   Germany 522 Decrease 6 points
25   Slovenia 520 Increase 7 points
26   Sweden 519 Increase 15 points
27   Serbia 518 Increase 2 points
28   Australia 517 Increase 1 point
29   Canada 511 N/A
30   Italy 507 Decrease 1 point
31   Spain 505 Increase 23 points
32   Croatia 502 Increase 12 points
International average 500 Steady
33   Slovakia 498 Decrease 9 points
34   New Zealand 491 Increase 5 points
35   France 488 N/A
36   Turkey 483 Increase 14 points
37   Georgia 463 Increase 13 points
38   Chile 459 Decrease 3 points
39   United Arab Emirates 452 Increase 18 points
40   Bahrain 451 Increase 15 points
41   Qatar 439 Increase 26 points
42   Iran 431 Steady
43   Oman 425 Increase 40 points
44   Indonesia 397 N/A
45   Jordan 388 N/A
46   Saudi Arabia 383 Decrease 27 points
47   Morocco 377 Increase 42 points
48   South Africa [a] 376 N/A
49   Kuwait 353 Increase 11 points
Benchmarking participants
Florida Florida ( United States) 546 Increase 1 point
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 536 Increase 3 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 512 Decrease 6 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 511 Increase 43 points
  Norway [b] 493 Decrease 2 points
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( Argentina) 432 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 419 Increase 2 points
Science [25]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 590 Increase 7 points
2   South Korea 589 Increase 2 points
3   Japan 569 Increase 10 points
4   Russia 567 Increase 15 points
5   Hong Kong 557 Increase 22 points
6   Chinese Taipei 555 Increase 3 points
7   Finland 554 Decrease 16 points
8   Kazakhstan 550 Increase 55 points
9   Poland 547 Increase 42 points
10   United States 546 Increase 2 points
11   Slovenia 543 Increase 23 points
12   Hungary 542 Increase 8 points
13   Sweden 540 Increase 7 points
14   Norway [a] 538 N/A
15   England 536 Increase 7 points
15   Bulgaria 536 N/A
17   Czech Republic 534 Decrease 2 points
18   Croatia 533 Increase 17 points
19   Ireland 529 Increase 13 points
20   Germany 528 Steady
20   Lithuania 528 Increase 13 points
22   Denmark 527 Decrease 1 point
23   Canada 525 N/A
23   Serbia 525 Increase 9 points
25   Australia 524 Increase 8 points
26   Slovakia 520 Decrease 12 points
26 Northern Ireland 520 Increase 3 points
28   Spain 518 Increase 13 points
29   Netherlands 517 Decrease 14 points
30   Italy 516 Decrease 8 points
31   Belgium ( Flemish) 512 Increase 3 points
32   Portugal 508 Decrease 14 points
33   New Zealand 506 Increase 9 points
International average 500 Steady
34   France 487 N/A
35   Turkey 483 Increase 20 points
36   Cyprus 481 N/A
37   Chile 478 Decrease 2 points
38   Bahrain 459 Increase 10 points
39   Georgia 451 Decrease 4 points
39   United Arab Emirates 451 Increase 23 points
41   Qatar 436 Increase 42 points
42   Oman 431 Increase 54 points
43   Iran 421 Decrease 32 points
44   Indonesia 397 N/A
45   Saudi Arabia 390 Decrease 39 points
46   Morocco 357 Increase 93 points
47   Kuwait 337 Decrease 10 points
Benchmarking participants
Florida Florida ( United States) 549 Increase 4 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 530 Increase 2 points
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 525 Increase 9 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 518 Increase 57 points
  Norway [b] 493 Decrease 1 point
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( Argentina) 418 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 415 Increase 4 points
  1. ^ a b c Fifth grade students
  2. ^ a b Fourth grade students

TIMSS 2011

TIMSS 2011 [26] had 52 participating educational systems for the fourth grade and 45 for the eighth grade. [6]

Eighth grade

Mathematics [27]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   South Korea 613 Increase 16 points
2   Singapore 611 Increase 18 points
3   Chinese Taipei 609 Increase 11 points
4   Hong Kong 586 Increase 14 points
5   Japan 570 Steady
6   Russia 539 Increase 27 points
7   Israel 516 Increase 53 points
8   Finland 514 N/A
9   United States 509 Increase 1 point
10   England 507 Decrease 6 points
11   Hungary 505 Decrease 12 points
11   Australia 505 Increase 9 points
11   Slovenia 505 Increase 4 points
14   Lithuania 502 Decrease 4 points
International average 500 Steady
15   Italy 498 Increase 18 points
16   New Zealand 488 N/A
17   Kazakhstan 487 N/A
18   Sweden 484 Decrease 7 points
19   Ukraine 479 Increase 17 points
20   Norway 475 Increase 6 points
21   Armenia 467 Decrease 32 points
22   Romania 458 Decrease 3 points
23   United Arab Emirates 456 N/A
24   Turkey 452 Increase 20 points
25   Lebanon 449 Steady
26   Malaysia 440 Decrease 34 points
27   Georgia 431 Increase 21 points
28   Thailand 427 Decrease 14 points
29   Republic of Macedonia 426 N/A
30   Tunisia 425 Increase 5 points
31   Chile 416 N/A
32   Iran 415 Increase 12 points
33   Qatar 410 Increase 103 points
34   Bahrain 409 N/A
35   Jordan 406 Decrease 21 points
36   Palestine 404 Increase 37 points
37   Saudi Arabia 394 Increase 65 points
38   Indonesia 386 Decrease 11 points
39   Syria 380 Decrease 15 points
40   Morocco 371 Decrease 10 points
41   Oman 366 Decrease 6 points
42   Ghana 331 Increase 22 points
Ninth grade participants
  Botswana [a] 397 N/A
  South Africa [a] 352 N/A
  Honduras [a] 338 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts ( United States) 561 Increase 14 points
Minnesota Minnesota ( United States) 545 Increase 13 points
North Carolina North Carolina ( United States) 537 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 532 Increase 4 points
Indiana Indiana ( United States) 522 N/A
Colorado Colorado ( United States) 518 N/A
Connecticut Connecticut ( United States) 518 N/A
Florida Florida ( United States) 513 N/A
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 512 Decrease 5 points
Alberta Alberta ( Canada) 505 N/A
California California ( United States) 493 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 478 Increase 17 points
Alabama Alabama ( United States) 466 N/A
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 449 N/A
Science [28]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 590 Increase 23 points
2   Chinese Taipei 564 Increase 3 points
3   South Korea 560 Increase 7 points
4   Japan 558 Increase 4 points
5   Finland 552 N/A
6   Slovenia 543 Increase 5 points
7   Russia 542 Increase 12 points
8   Hong Kong 535 Increase 5 points
9   England 533 Decrease 9 points
10   United States 525 Increase 5 points
11   Hungary 522 Decrease 17 points
12   Australia 519 Increase 4 points
13   Israel 516 Increase 48 points
14   Lithuania 514 Decrease 5 points
15   New Zealand 512 N/A
16   Sweden 509 Decrease 2 points
17   Italy 501 Increase 6 points
17   Ukraine 501 Increase 16 points
International average 500 Steady
19   Norway 494 Increase 7 points
20   Kazakhstan 490 N/A
21   Turkey 483 Increase 29 points
22   Iran 474 Increase 15 points
23   Romania 465 Increase 3 points
23   United Arab Emirates 465 N/A
25   Chile 461 N/A
26   Bahrain 452 N/A
27   Thailand 451 Decrease 20 points
28   Jordan 449 Decrease 33 points
29   Tunisia 439 Decrease 6 points
30   Armenia 437 Decrease 51 points
31   Saudi Arabia 436 Increase 33 points
32   Malaysia 426 Decrease 45 points
32   Syria 426 Decrease 26 points
34   Palestine 420 Increase 16 points
34   Georgia 420 Decrease 1 point
34   Oman 420 Decrease 3 points
37   Qatar 419 Increase 100 points
38   Republic of Macedonia 407 N/A
39   Lebanon 406 Decrease 8 points
39   Indonesia 406 Decrease 21 points
41   Morocco 376 Decrease 26 points
42   Ghana 306 Increase 3 points
Ninth grade participants
  Botswana [a] 404 N/A
  Honduras [a] 369 N/A
  South Africa [a] 332 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts ( United States) 567 Increase 11 points
Minnesota Minnesota ( United States) 553 Increase 14 points
Alberta Alberta ( Canada) 546 N/A
Colorado Colorado ( United States) 542 N/A
Indiana Indiana ( United States) 533 N/A
Connecticut Connecticut ( United States) 532 N/A
North Carolina North Carolina ( United States) 532 N/A
Florida Florida ( United States) 530 N/A
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 521 Decrease 5 points
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 520 Decrease 6 points
California California ( United States) 499 N/A
Alabama Alabama ( United States) 485 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 485 Decrease 4 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 461 N/A
  1. ^ a b c d e f Ninth grade students

Fourth grade

Mathematics [27]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 606 Increase 7 points
2   South Korea 605 N/A
3   Hong Kong 602 Decrease 5 points
4   Chinese Taipei 591 Increase 15 points
5   Japan 585 Increase 17 points
6 Northern Ireland 562 N/A
7   Belgium ( Flemish) 549 N/A
8   Finland 545 N/A
9   England 542 Increase 1 point
9   Russia 542 Decrease 2 points
11   United States 541 Increase 12 points
12   Netherlands 540 Increase 5 points
13   Denmark 537 Increase 14 points
14   Lithuania 534 Increase 4 points
15   Portugal 532 N/A
16   Germany 528 Increase 3 points
17   Ireland 527 N/A
18   Serbia 516 N/A
18   Australia 516 Steady
20   Hungary 515 Increase 5 points
21   Slovenia 513 Increase 11 points
22   Czech Republic 511 Increase 25 points
23   Austria 508 Increase 3 points
23   Italy 508 Increase 1 point
25   Slovakia 507 Increase 11 points
26   Sweden 504 Increase 1 point
27   Kazakhstan 501 Decrease 48 points
International average 500 Steady
28   Malta 496 N/A
29   Norway 495 Increase 22 points
30   Croatia 490 N/A
31   New Zealand 486 Decrease 6 points
32   Spain 482 N/A
32   Romania 482 N/A
34   Poland 481 N/A
35   Turkey 469 N/A
36   Azerbaijan 463 N/A
37   Chile 462 N/A
38   Thailand 458 N/A
39   Armenia 452 Decrease 48 points
40   Georgia 450 Increase 12 points
41   Bahrain 436 N/A
42   United Arab Emirates 434 N/A
43   Iran 431 Increase 29 points
44   Qatar 413 Increase 117 points
45   Saudi Arabia 410 N/A
46   Oman 385 N/A
47   Tunisia 359 Increase 32 points
48   Kuwait 342 Increase 26 points
49   Morocco 335 Decrease 6 points
50   Yemen 248 Increase 24 points
Sixth grade participants
  Botswana [a] 419 N/A
  Honduras [a] 396 N/A
  Yemen [a] 348 N/A
Benchmarking participants
North Carolina North Carolina ( United States) 554 N/A
Florida Florida ( United States) 545 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 533 Increase 14 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 518 Increase 6 points
Alberta Alberta ( Canada) 507 Increase 2 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 468 Increase 24 points
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 417 N/A
Science [28]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   South Korea 587 N/A
2   Singapore 583 Decrease 4 points
3   Finland 570 N/A
4   Japan 559 Increase 11 points
5   Russia 552 Increase 6 points
5   Chinese Taipei 552 Decrease 5 points
7   United States 544 Increase 5 points
8   Czech Republic 536 Increase 21 points
9   Hong Kong 535 Decrease 19 points
10   Hungary 534 Decrease 2 points
11   Sweden 533 Increase 8 points
12   Slovakia 532 Increase 6 points
12   Austria 532 Increase 6 points
14   Netherlands 531 Increase 8 points
15   England 529 Decrease 13 points
16   Denmark 528 Increase 11 points
16   Germany 528 Steady
18   Italy 524 Decrease 11 points
19   Portugal 522 N/A
20   Slovenia 520 Increase 2 points
21 Northern Ireland 517 N/A
22   Ireland 516 N/A
22   Croatia 516 N/A
22   Australia 516 Decrease 11 points
22   Serbia 516 N/A
26   Lithuania 515 Increase 1 point
27   Belgium ( Flemish) 509 N/A
28   Romania 505 N/A
28   Spain 505 N/A
28   Poland 505 N/A
International average 500 Steady
31   New Zealand 497 Decrease 7 points
32   Kazakhstan 495 Decrease 38 points
33   Norway 494 Increase 17 points
34   Chile 480 N/A
35   Thailand 472 N/A
36   Turkey 463 N/A
37   Georgia 455 Increase 37 points
38   Iran 453 Increase 17 points
39   Bahrain 449 N/A
40   Malta 446 N/A
41   Azerbaijan 438 N/A
42   Saudi Arabia 429 N/A
43   United Arab Emirates 428 N/A
44   Armenia 416 Decrease 68 points
45   Qatar 394 Increase 100 points
46   Oman 377 N/A
47   Kuwait 347 Decrease 1 point
48   Tunisia 346 Increase 28 points
49   Morocco 264 Decrease 33 points
50   Yemen 209 Increase 12 points
Sixth grade participants
  Honduras [a] 432 N/A
  Botswana [a] 367 N/A
  Yemen [a] 345 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Florida Florida ( United States) 545 N/A
Alberta Alberta ( Canada) 541 Decrease 2 points
North Carolina North Carolina ( United States) 538 N/A
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 528 Decrease 8 points
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 516 Decrease 1 point
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 461 Increase 1 point
Emirate of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( United Arab Emirates) 411 N/A
  1. ^ a b c d e f Sixth grade students

TIMSS 2007

In TIMSS 2007, [29] 43 educational systems participated in the fourth grade and 56 educational systems in the eighth grade.

Eighth grade

Mathematics [30]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Chinese Taipei 598 Increase 13 points
2   South Korea 597 Increase 8 points
3   Singapore 593 Increase 12 points
4   Hong Kong 572 Decrease 14 points
5   Japan 570 Steady
6   Hungary 517 Decrease 12 points
7   England 513 N/A
8   Russia 512 Increase 4 points
9   United States 508 Increase 4 points
10   Lithuania 506 Increase 4 points
11   Czech Republic 504 N/A
12   Slovenia 501 Increase 8 points
International average 500 Increase 33 points
13   Armenia 499 Increase 21 points
14   Australia 496 Decrease 9 points
15   Sweden 491 Decrease 8 points
16   Malta 488 N/A
17   Scotland 487 Decrease 11 points
18   Serbia 486 Increase 9 points
19   Italy 480 Decrease 4 points
20   Malaysia 474 Decrease 34 points
21   Norway 469 Increase 8 points
22   Cyprus 465 Increase 6 points
23   Bulgaria 464 Decrease 12 points
24   Israel 463 Decrease 33 points
25   Ukraine 462 N/A
26   Romania 461 Decrease 14 points
27   Bosnia and Herzegovina 456 N/A
28   Lebanon 449 Increase 16 points
29   Thailand 441 N/A
30   Turkey 432 N/A
31   Jordan 427 Increase 3 points
32   Tunisia 420 Increase 10 points
33   Georgia 410 N/A
34   Iran 403 Decrease 8 points
35   Bahrain 398 Decrease 3 points
36   Indonesia 397 Decrease 14 points
37   Syria 395 N/A
38   Egypt 391 N/A
39   Algeria 387 N/A
40   Morocco 381 Decrease 6 points
41   Colombia 380 N/A
42   Oman 372 N/A
43   Palestine 367 Decrease 23 points
44   Botswana 364 Decrease 2 points
45   Kuwait 354 N/A
46   El Salvador 340 N/A
47   Saudi Arabia 329 Decrease 3 points
48   Ghana 309 Increase 33 points
49   Qatar 307 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts ( United States) 547 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota ( United States) 532 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 528 Decrease 15 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 517 Decrease 4 points
British Columbia British Columbia ( Canada) 509 N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country ( Spain) 499 Increase 12 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 461 N/A
Science [31]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 567 Decrease 11 points
2   Chinese Taipei 561 Decrease 10 points
3   Japan 554 Increase 2 points
4   South Korea 553 Decrease 5 points
5   England 542 N/A
6   Hungary 539 Decrease 4 points
6   Czech Republic 539 N/A
8   Slovenia 538 Increase 18 points
9   Hong Kong 530 Decrease 26 points
9   Russia 530 Increase 16 points
11   United States 520 Decrease 7 points
12   Lithuania 519 Steady
13   Australia 515 Decrease 12 points
14   Sweden 511 Decrease 13 points
International average 500 Increase 26 points
15   Scotland 496 Decrease 16 points
16   Italy 495 Increase 4 points
17   Armenia 488 Increase 27 points
18   Norway 487 Decrease 7 points
19   Ukraine 485 N/A
20   Jordan 482 Increase 7 points
21   Malaysia 471 Decrease 39 points
21   Thailand 471 N/A
23   Serbia 470 Increase 2 points
23   Bulgaria 470 Decrease 9 points
25   Israel 468 Decrease 20 points
26   Bahrain 467 Increase 29 points
27   Bosnia and Herzegovina 466 N/A
28   Romania 462 Decrease 8 points
29   Iran 459 Increase 6 points
30   Malta 457 N/A
31   Turkey 454 N/A
32   Syria 452 N/A
32   Cyprus 452 Increase 11 points
34   Tunisia 445 Increase 41 points
35   Indonesia 427 Increase 7 points
36   Oman 423 N/A
37   Georgia 421 N/A
38   Kuwait 418 N/A
39   Colombia 417 N/A
40   Lebanon 414 Increase 21 points
41   Egypt 408 N/A
41   Algeria 408 N/A
43   Palestine 404 Decrease 31 points
44   Saudi Arabia 403 Increase 5 points
45   Morocco 402 Increase 6 points
46   El Salvador 387 N/A
47   Botswana 355 Decrease 10 points
48   Qatar 319 N/A
49   Ghana 303 Increase 48 points
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts ( United States) 556 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota ( United States) 539 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 526 Decrease 5 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 526 Decrease 7 points
British Columbia British Columbia ( Canada) 507 N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country ( Spain) 498 Increase 9 points
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 489 N/A

Fourth grade

Mathematics [30]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Hong Kong 607 Increase 32 points
2   Singapore 599 Increase 5 points
3   Chinese Taipei 576 Increase 12 points
4   Japan 568 Increase 3 points
5   Kazakhstan 549 N/A
6   Russia 544 Increase 12 points
7   England 541 Increase 10 points
8   Latvia 537 Increase 1 point
9   Netherlands 535 Decrease 5 points
10   Lithuania 530 Decrease 4 points
11   United States 529 Increase 11 points
12   Germany 525 N/A
13   Denmark 523 N/A
14   Australia 516 Increase 17 points
15   Hungary 510 Decrease 19 points
16   Italy 507 Increase 4 points
17   Austria 505 N/A
18   Sweden 503 N/A
19   Slovenia 502 Increase 23 points
International average 500 Increase 5 points
20   Armenia 500 Decrease 44 points
21   Slovakia 496 N/A
22   Scotland 494 Increase 4 points
23   New Zealand 492 Decrease 1 point
24   Czech Republic 486 N/A
25   Norway 473 Increase 22 points
26   Ukraine 469 N/A
27   Georgia 438 N/A
28   Iran 402 Increase 13 points
29   Algeria 378 N/A
30   Colombia 355 N/A
31   Morocco 341 Decrease 6 points
32   El Salvador 330 N/A
33   Tunisia 327 Decrease 12 points
34   Kuwait 316 N/A
35   Qatar 296 N/A
36   Yemen 224 N/A
Benchmarking participants
Massachusetts Massachusetts ( United States) 572 N/A
Minnesota Minnesota ( United States) 554 N/A
Quebec Quebec ( Canada) 519 Increase 13 points
Ontario Ontario ( Canada) 512 Increase 1 point
Alberta Alberta ( Canada) 505 N/A
British Columbia British Columbia ( Canada) 505 N/A
Emirate of Dubai Dubai ( United Arab Emirates) 444 N/A
Science [31]
Rank Country Average
scale score
Change
over 4 years
1   Singapore 587 Increase 22 points
2   Chinese Taipei 557 Increase 6 points
3   Hong Kong 554 Increase 12 points
4   Japan 548 Increase 5 points
5   Russia 546 Increase 20 points
6   Latvia 542 Increase 10 points
6   England 542 Increase 2 points
8   United States 539 Increase 3 points
9   Hungary 536 Increase 6 points
10   Italy 535 Increase 19 points
11   Kazakhstan 533 N/A
12   Germany 528 N/A
13   Australia 527 Increase 6 points
14   Slovakia 526 N/A
14   Austria 526 N/A
16   Sweden 525 N/A
17   Netherlands 523 Decrease 2 points
18   Slovenia 518 Increase 28 points
19   Denmark 517 N/A
20   Czech Republic 515 N/A
21   Lithuania 514 Increase 2 points
22   New Zealand 504 Decrease 16 points
23   Scotland 500 Decrease 2 points
International average 500 Increase 11 points
24   Armenia 484 Increase 47 points
25