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Île-de-France tramway
Tram on Line T3a on green track in front of the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris
Native nameTramways d'Île-de-France
Locale Île-de-France, France
Transit type Light rail/ tram
Number of lines14
Number of stations278 (April 2024)
Daily ridership1,098,000 per day 2019 [1]
340 million per year 2019 [2]
Began operation1992
Operator(s) RATP / SNCF / Transkeo
System length186.6 km (115.9 mi) (April 2024)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge for conventional lines
System map

The Île-de-France tramways ( French: Tramways d'Île-de-France) is a network of modern tram lines in the Île-de-France region of France. Fourteen lines are currently operational (counting Lines T3a and T3b as separate lines), with extensions and additional lines in both construction and planning stages. Although the system mainly runs in the suburban regions of Paris, lines T3a and T3b run entirely within Paris city limits, while lines T2 and T9 start their routes within Paris' borders. While lines operate independently of each other and are generally unconnected, some connections do exist: between lines T2 and T3a (at the Porte de Versailles station, since 2009), T3a and T3b (at the Porte de Vincennes station, since 2012), T1 and T5 (at the Marché de Saint-Denis station, since 2013), T1 and T8 (at the Saint-Denis train station, since 2014), T8 and T11 Express (at two stations: Villetaneuse-Université and Épinay-sur-Seine, since 2017), T3a and T9 (at the Porte de Choisy station, since 2021) and T6 and T10 (at Hôpital Béclère, since 2023). However, the final design of the entire planned tram network is fairly integrated. (The prefix "T" in tram line numbers avoids confusion with the numbering of Paris Métro lines.)

Most lines (with the exceptions of lines T4, T9, T11 Express, and T13 Express) are operated by the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), which also operates the Paris Métro and most bus services in the Paris immediate area. Furthermore, while most lines use conventional steel-wheel rolling stock, two lines (T5 and T6) use rubber-tired trams. Lines T4, T11 Express, and T13 Express are tram-trains, sharing tracks with main-line railways, and are operated by the French national rail operator SNCF as part of its Transilien regional rail network (except Line T11 Express which is operated by SNCF's subsubsidiary Transkeo).


Trams of the former network, seen near the Pont au Change in central Paris

From 1855 to 1938, Paris was served by an extensive tramway network, predating the Paris Métro by nearly a half-century. [3] In 1925 the network had a 1,111 km (690 mi) length, with 122 lines.[ citation needed] In the 1930s, the oil and automobile industry lobbies put pressure on the Paris Police Prefecture to remove tram tracks and make room for cars. [4] The last of these first generation tram lines inside of Paris, connecting Porte de Saint-Cloud to Porte de Vincennes, was closed in 1937, [5] and the last line in the entire Paris agglomeration, running between Le Raincy and Montfermeil, ended its service on 14 August 1938. [4]

Originally horse-powered, Paris trams used steam, as well as later pneumatic engines, then electricity. The funicular that operated in Belleville from 1891 to 1924 is sometimes erroneously thought of as a tramway, but was actually a cable car system. The first of the new generation of trams in Paris, the current Line T1, opened in 1992, with Line T2 opening in 1997 and Lines T3 and T4 in 2006. Lines T5 and T7, opened in 2013 while T6 and T8 opened in 2014. T11 Express opened in 2017, and T9 opened in 2021. T13 Express opened in 2022 and Line T10 opened in 2023. Lines T12 Express is currently under construction, the last part of the former Grande Ceinture Line that is not covered by Lines T11 Express and T13 Express.


Line T1
Line T2
Line T3a
Line T3b
Line T4
Line T5
Line T6
Line T7
Line T8
Line T9
Line T10
Line T11 Express
Line T12 Express
Line T13 Express
Line Opening [6] Length Stations Operator Track system Technology
Île-de-France tramway Line 1 1992 [7] 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 37 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 2 1997 [7] 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 24 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 3a 2006 [7] 12.4 km (7.7 mi) 25 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 3b 2012 [7] 17.5 km (10.9 mi) 33 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 4 2006 [8] 13.3 km (8.3 mi) [8] 20 SNCF Conventional Tram-train
Île-de-France tramway Line 5 2013 [7] 6.6 km (4.1 mi) [7] 16 RATP Translohr Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 6 2014 [9] 14 km (8.7 mi) [9] 21 RATP Translohr Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 7 2013 [7] 11.2 km (7.0 mi) [7] 18 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 8 2014 [9] 8.5 km (5.3 mi) [9] [10] 17 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 9 2021 [11] 10.3 km (6.4 mi) 19 Keolis Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 10 2023 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 13 RATP Conventional Tram
Île-de-France tramway Line 11 2017 11 km (6.8 mi) 7 Transkeo Conventional Tram-train
Île-de-France tramway Line 12 2023 20.4 km (12.7 mi) 16 Transkeo Conventional Tram-train
Île-de-France tramway Line 13 2022 18.8 km (11.7 mi) 12 Transkeo Conventional Tram-train
Total 186.6 km (115.9 mi) 278


Line T1 currently connects Asnières-sur-Seine and Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, running almost parallel to the Paris city's northern limit. It opened in 1992 from Saint Denis's RER station to the Bobigny–Pablo Picasso Paris Métro station, where the prefecture offices of the Seine-Saint-Denis department [12] are located. The eastern extension from Bobigny to Noisy-le-Sec was completed in 2003, while the western extension to Asnières-sur-Seine and Gennevilliers, connecting to western branch of Paris Métro Line 13, opened in 2012. A continuation towards Nanterre is planned on the western side, while another one towards Montreuil, then to the Val de Fontenay RER station is also planned on the eastern side of the line.


Line T2 (Trans Val-de-Seine) connects the bridge of Bezons (Pont de Bezons) to the Porte de Versailles Paris Métro station (near Paris's main exhibit grounds) via La Défense and Issy-les-Moulineaux business districts. It opened in 1997 between La Défense and Issy–Val de Seine stations, exploiting a former SNCF line, the Moulineaux Line, which closed to regular train traffic in 1993. Tram line T2 was first extended south in 2009, from Issy–Val de Seine station to the Porte de Versailles, then north in 2012 from La Défense to the Pont de Bezons.

T3a and T3b

Line T3 (Tramway des Maréchaux) is the first modern tramway line to actually enter Paris city itself. It is divided into two sections, called T3a and T3b, separated at the Porte de Vincennes stop in order not to cut the road traffic there, despite rail and electrical infrastructure being present and operational. The line bears its name as it follows the Boulevards of the Marshals, a series of boulevards that encircle Paris along the route of the former Thiers Wall, built from 1841 to 1844. The boulevards are, with three exceptions, all named from Napoleon's First Empire marshals (maréchaux).

T3a connects the Pont du Garigliano–Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou RER station in the southwestern part of the 15th arrondissement, with the Porte de Vincennes in the northeastern corner of the 12th arrondissement. T3b connects Porte de Vincennes with the Porte de la Chapelle Métro station in the 18th arrondissement, then to the Porte d'Asnières ( 17th arrondissement) since 24 November 2018. [13] An extension westward towards the Porte Dauphine ( 16th arrondissement) is planned, but currently halted by western extension of the RER E line.


Line T4 is an 8-kilometre (5.0 mi), 11-stop [8] forked tram-train line, connecting the Bondy and Aulnay-sous-Bois RER stations on top of a former train track similar to Line 2. It opened on 18 November 2006. Unlike the other tramways in Île-de-France, Line T4 is operated by the SNCF. A new branch of this tram-train line, heading east towards Montfermeil, opened in 2020.


Tramway T5 [14] is a Translohr tram-on-tyres [15] running along a mainly segregated "track" on the busy Route Nationale 1 (similar to the systems in Nancy or Caen) where it replaces the former bus lines 168 and 268. The 6.6-kilometre (4.1 mi) route [15] serves 16 stops [15] between Saint-Denis, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Sarcelles and Garges-lès-Gonesse. It has an interchange with T1 at its southernmost terminus, Marché de Saint-Denis, and with RER D at its northernmost terminus, the Garges-Sarcelles RER station. [16] Line T5 opened in July 2013. [17]


Tramway Line 6 is a 14-kilometre (8.7 mi) Translohr tram-on-tyres line serving 21 stations, from the Châtillon–Montrouge Métro station (the southern terminus of Paris Métro Line 13) to the Viroflay-Rive-Droite Transilien station through Vélizy-Villacoublay. The 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) westernmost part of the line (through Viroflay), is underground, in a single tunnel grossing the town from south to north and including the two final stops, each under the two train stations the city has, Rive-Gauche (Lines C and N) and Rive-Droite (Line L). The majority of the current line opened in 2014, with said tunnel section opening in 2016. It replaced bus line 295, that became overcrowded and too slow for proper use, as well as multiple of the former Kéolis lines operating across Vélizy.


Tramway Line 7 is an 11.2-kilometre (7.0 mi) route serving 18 stations [7] between Villejuif–Louis Aragon (southwestern terminus of Paris Métro Line 7) and Athis-Mons, via Rungis International Market and Orly Airport. It opened in 2013 [18] in order to both allow a supplemental rail service from Paris to Orly Airport and replace bus line 285, which had also become overcrowded on its now supplemented part. The remaining part of said bus line is also planned to be replaced by the upcoming southern extension of Tram Line 7 towards the Juvisy-sur-Orge train station.


Formerly known as Tram'y due to its opening-day Y-shape (while T4 got its Y-shape after its initial opening), this 8.46-kilometre (5.26 mi) tram line goes from the Saint-Denis–Porte de Paris Métro station to Épinay-sur-Seine — Orgemont, with a branch to the university campus of Villetaneuse, where it connects to the more recent T11 Express Line. An extension is also planned south, to Paris itself, at the Rosa Parks RER station. Construction of the line began in 2010; service began in 2014. The southern extension's opening date has not yet been set. [18]


T9 is a tram line that runs between the Porte de Choisy Paris Métro station and the centre of Orly with a length of 10.3 km (6.4 mi) and 19 stops. Despite what its indice digit suggests, it opened after Tram Line 11 express. An extension south towards Orly is planned.


T10 is a tram line from La Croix de Berny station in Antony to Clamart in the southwestern suburbs of Paris. It opened in 2023 with a length of 6.8 km (4.2 mi) and thirteen stops.

T11 Express

First "Express" tram line of the Parisian network — due to reusing the long-closed Grande Ceinture train line with only a handful of stations — Line T11 Express serves as the first of three lines to cover the former Grande Ceinture rail line and offers eventually a second circular railroad service around Paris, something the Paris public transport system sorely lacked for decades.

Line T11 Express opened in 2017 between the Épinay-sur-Seine and Le Bourget RER stations, the middle part of its expected full route between Sartrouville and Noisy-le-Sec RER stations. This full route project would make T11 the first tram line to connect every RER line currently in service.

T12 Express

T12 Express is a tram-train line between Évry-Courcouronnes station ( RER D) and Massy-Palaiseau station ( RER B and C) via Épinay-sur-Orge station ( RER C), with a length of 20 km (12 mi) and 16 stops. This line uses the stretch of railway between Épinay and Massy formerly served by RER C. An extension of T12 further northwest, towards Versailles-Chantiers, is planned and would take over Transilien line V between Massy and Versailles as well if entered. [19]

T13 Express

T13 Express is a tram-train line between Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Saint-Cyr-l'École train stations ( RER C and Transilien lines N and U) via the westernmost point of the gardens of Versailles with a length of 18.8 km (11.7 mi) and 11 stops. It opened on 6 July 2022. No extensions are planned.


The Trans-Val-de-Marne bus line, which runs in a designated BRT corridor (bus rapid transit) and is intended to provide high-capacity, rapid bus transit southeast of Paris in the department of Val-de-Marne, is operated by RATP unlike most suburban bus lines. Despite beginning with a T, it is not a tramway. The RATP however considers it to be part of the T network, and is currently drawing plans for more BRT lines. The Tvm has been certified to be BRT with Silver Excellence in 2014. [20]

Network Map

See also


  1. ^ "Trafic version en ligne journalier". omnil.fe (in French). Retrieved 5 September 2023.
  2. ^ "Trafic version en ligne annuel". omnil.fe (in French). Retrieved 5 September 2023.
  3. ^ LE CHEVAL A PARIS DE 1850 a 1914 (in French). Librairie Droz. pp. 84ff. ISBN  978-2-600-04536-0.
  4. ^ a b Dominique Larroque; Michel Margairaz; Pierre Zembri; Association pour l'histoire des chemins de fer en France (2002). Paris et ses transports: XIXe-XXe siècles, deux siècles de décisions pour la ville et sa région. Recherches. p. 131. ISBN  978-2-86222-042-0.
  5. ^ Ralf Roth; Colin Divall (28 March 2015). From Rail to Road and Back Again?: A Century of Transport Competition and Interdependency. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 351ff. ISBN  978-1-4094-7115-8.
  6. ^ "RATP's tram network in Île-de-France". RATP. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "2013, another year of the tram". RATP. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "BIENVENUE SUR LA LIGNE T4" [WELCOME TO THE T4 LINE]. (in French). SNCF Transilien. 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d "2014, the next year of the tram". RATP. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  10. ^ "Paris opens tram Route T8". Railway Gazette International. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  11. ^ "T9 : ouverture le 10 avril - transportparis - Le webmagazine des transports parisiens". (in French). 11 March 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  12. ^ Trams return to Paris Trolley Wire issue 250 August 1992 pages 27/28
  13. ^ "Paris : Le tramway jusqu'à porte d'Asnières, c'est parti !". 23 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Tramway 5 - le T5 en ligne" [Tramway 5 - The T5 line] (in French). RATP. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  15. ^ a b c "le T5 en ligne - Le projet - L'essentiel" [The T5 line - the project - essentials] (in French). RATP. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  16. ^ Un nouveau tram en banlieue (in French) [ dead link]
  17. ^ "Home - In Ile-de-France - Extending the network - Tramway - Créations : T5". Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
  18. ^ a b "Citadis remains popular in Paris". Railway Gazette International. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  19. ^ Valérie, Pécresse (24 February 2017). "Protocole cadre du T12" (PDF). Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  20. ^ "BRT Rankings - Institute for Transportation and Development Policy". 24 July 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2022.

External links