This list provides examples of known textual variants, and contains the following parameters: Hebrew texts written right to left, the Hebrew text
romanised left to right, an approximate English translation, and which Hebrew manuscripts or critical editions of the Hebrew Bible this textual variant can be found in. Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Vulgate) texts are written left to right, and not romanised. Sometimes additional translation or interpretation notes are added, with references to similar verses elsewhere, or in-depth articles on the topic in question.
This contradiction has puzzled scholars, as not only does the Greek text add
Ashdod (Azotus) to the list of cities, but it specifically denies that the Judahites conquered (literally "inherited") these cities, while the Hebrew text asserts that they did. Although English Bible translations have generally followed the Masoretic Text in saying the Judahites took the three cities, some scholars claim that the Greek version should be regarded as superior if the inhabitants of these four coastal cities are to be equated with "the people of the plains" in the next verse, who repelled the Judahites thanks to their iron chariots. The Septuagint may therefore 'correct' the Hebrew text, as other textual evidence also seems to indicate the towns did not fall to the Israelites until much later.Charles Ellicott noted that
Josephus had a different solution, claiming in Antiquities of the Jews (volume 2, paragraph 4) that 'Askelon and Ashdod were taken in the war, but that Gaza and Ekron escaped, because their situation in the plains enabled them to use their chariots; yet in 3, § 1, he says that the Canaanites re-conquered Askelon and Ekron.'
וִ֠יהֹונָתָן בֶּן־ גֵּרְשֹׁ֨ם בֶּן־ מְשֶּׁ֜ה, wî-hō-w-nā-ṯān ben-gê-rə-šōm ben-mō-šeh, 'and Jonathan the son of Gershom the son of Moses' – 'many Hebrew manuscripts, some Septuagint manuscripts and Vulgate'.
וִ֠יהֹונָתָן בֶּן־ גֵּרְשֹׁ֨ם בֶּן־ מְנַשֶּׁ֜ה, wî-hō-w-nā-ṯān ben-gê-rə-šōm ben-mə-naš-šeh, 'and Jonathan the son of Gershom the son of Manasseh' – 'many other Hebrew manuscripts and some other Septuagint manuscripts'
καὶ Ἰωναθὰμ υἱὸς Γηρσὸμ υἱὸς Μανασσή, 'and Jonatham, son Gersom, son Manasse' – LXXSwete
και Ιωνάθαν υιός Γηρσών υιόυ Μανασσή, 'and Jonathan, son of the Gersoms of the son Manasse' – APB
Moses" (משה) is thought to be the original reading, which was later changed to "Manasseh" in some manuscripts (but not all) by adding a
superscript (מנשה), in order 'to avoid saying that the grandson of Moses became a priest of false gods'.
וַתִּזְנֶ֤ה עָלָיו֙ פִּֽילַגְשֹׁ֔ו wat-tiz-neh ‘ā-lāw pî-laḡ-šōw, (But his concubine was unfaithful to him, or But his concubine played the harlot against him, or But his concubine was angry at him,) – WLC
It is disputed whether the first word is derived from זנה zaná (H2181 "to commit fornication/adultery/harlotry, to be a harlot, to play the harlot, to prostitute"), or זנח zanákh (H2186 "to reject, spurn, be angry with/at, cast away (off), remove far away (off), desert"). Traditionally, translators and interpreters have followed the former verb, but some modern scholars prefer the latter verb because this meaning aligns much better with the Greek texts.
καὶ ἐπορεύθη ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἡ παλλακὴ αὐτοῦ (And his concubine departed from him) – LXXSwete Brenton
και ωργίσθη αυτώ η παλλακή αυτού (And his concubine provoked him to anger) – ABP
quæ reliquit eum, 'who left him' – VgClement VgColunga&Turrado
אֹוצִֽיאָה־נָּ֤א אֹותָם֙ וְעַנּ֣וּ אֹותָ֔ם ’ō-w-ṣî-’āh- nā wə-‘an-nū ’ō-w-ṯām, (Let me bring them out now, and you rape/force [sexually]/defile/violate/ravish/mistreat/humble/humiliate them) – WLC
ἐξάξω αὐτάς, καὶ ταπεινώσατε αὐτὰς (And I will bring them out, and you humble/humiliate them,) – LXXSwete Brenton ABP
educam eas ad vos, ut humilietis eas, 'I will lead them out to you, so that you humiliate them' – VgClement VgColunga&Turrado
וְלָאִ֤ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ דְּבַ֖ר הַנְּבָלָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת׃ wə-lā-’îš haz-zeh lō ṯa-‘ă-śū, də-ḇar han-nə-ḇā-lāh haz-zōṯ. (but unto this man do not so vile a thing (KJV) or but to this man do not commit this rape/folly/villainy/foolishness or vile/disgraceful act/thing/outrage) WLC
καὶ τῷ ἀνδρὶ τούτῳ οὐ ποιήσετε τὸ ῥῆμα τῆς ἀφροσύνης ταύτης. (but to this man you do not do this folly) – LXXSwete
και τω ανδρί τούτω μη ποιήσητε το ρήμα της αφροσύνης ταύτης. (but to this man you should not do the thing of this folly or but to this man do not this folly) – Brenton ABP
ne scelus hoc contra naturam operemini in virum., 'do not work this crime against nature on a man.' – VgClement VgColunga&Turrado
וַיֵּדְע֣וּ אֹ֠ותָהּ וַיִּֽתְעַלְּלוּ־בָ֤הּ כָּל־הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר way-yê-ḏə-‘ū ’ō-w-ṯāh way-yiṯ-‘al-lə-lū- ḇāh kāl- hal-lay-lāh ‘aḏ- hab-bō-qer, (And they knew / had sexual relations with / raped her, and they mocked//abused/dealt severely with her the entire night until morning) – WLC
καὶ ἔγνωσαν αὐτήν, καὶ ἐνέπαιζον ἐν αὐτῇ ὅλην τὴν νύκτα ἕως πρωί (And they knew / had sex with / raped her, and they mocked/ridiculed/abused her the entire night until morning) – LXXSwete
καὶ ἔγνωσαν αὐτήν, καὶ ἐνέπαιζον ἐν αὐτῇ ὅλην τὴν νύκτα ἕως τοπρωί (And they knew / had sex with / raped her, and they mocked/ridiculed/abused her the entire night until the morning) – Brenton
και έγνωσαν αυτήν και ενέπαιξαν αυτή όλην την νύκτα έως τοπρωϊ (And they knew / had sex with / raped her and mocked/ridiculed/abused her the entire night until the morning) – ABP
qua cum tota nocte abusi essent,, 'and when she had been abused all night,' – VgClement VgColunga&Turrado
וְאֶת־פִּילַגְשִׁ֥י עִנּ֖וּ וַתָּמֹֽת׃, wə-’eṯ- pî-laḡ-šî ‘in-nū wat-tā-mōṯ., 'and / but instead they raped/[sexually] forced/defiled/violated/ravished/mistreated/humbled/humiliated my concubine, and she died' – WLC
καὶ τὴν παλλακήν μου ἐταπείνωσαν, καὶ ἀπέθανεν., 'and they humiliated my concubine, and she died.' – LXXSwete
καὶ τὴν παλλακήν μου ἐταπείνωσαν, καὶ ἀπέθανε., 'and they humiliated my concubine, and she died.' – Brenton
και την παλλακήν μου εταπείνωσαν και ενέπαιξαν αυτή και απέθανεν., 'and they humiliated my concubine, and they mocked/ridiculed/abused her, and she died.' – ABP
et uxorem meam incredibili furore libidinis vexantes, denique mortua est., 'and tormenting my wife with an incredible fury of lust, she (has) finally died.' – VgClement VgColunga&Turrado
כָּל־זָכָ֗ר וְכָל־אִשָּׁ֛ה יֹדַ֥עַת מִשְׁכַּב־זָכָ֖ר תַּחֲרִֽימוּ׃, kāl- zā-ḵār, wə-ḵāl ’iš-šāh yō-ḏa-‘aṯ miš-kaḇ- zā-ḵār ta-ḥă-rî-mū., 'any male and any woman who has known the bed of a male you shall destroy/devote.' – WLC
πᾶν ἄρσεν καὶ πᾶσαν γυναῖκα εἰδυῖαν κοίτην ἄρσενος ἀναθεματιεῖτε,, 'Every male and every female having known the marriage-bed of a man you shall devote [to destruction],' – LXXSwete Brenton
παν αρσενικόν και πάσαν γυναίκα γινώσκουσαν κοίτην άρσενος αναθεματιείτε, 'Every male and every woman knowning the marriage-bed of a man you shall devote to consumption.' – ABP
omne generis masculini, et mulieres quae cognoverunt viros, interficite;, 'every kind of male, and women who have known men, kill;' – VgColunga&Turrado
נַעֲרָ֣ה בְתוּלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יָדְעָ֛ה אִ֖ישׁ לְמִשְׁכַּ֣ב זָכָ֑ר, na-‘ă-rāh ḇə-ṯū-lāh, ’ă-šer lō- yā-ḏə-‘āh ’îš lə-miš-kaḇ zā-ḵār;, 'virgin young woman, who has not known a man on/in the bed of a male;' – WLC
νεάνιδας παρθένους, αἵτινες οὐκ ἔγνωσαν ἄνδρα εἰς κοίτην ἄρσενος,, 'virgin young women, whoever knew not a man, into the marriage-bed of a male.' – LXXSwete Brenton
νεάνιδας παρθένους αι οὐκ έγνωσαν άνδρα εις κοίτην άρσενος, 'virgin young women, the ones [that] knew not a man, in the marriage-bed of a male.' – ABP
virgines, quae nescierunt viri thorum:, 'virgins, who did not know the marriage-bed of a man:' – VgColunga&Turrado
חָנּ֣וּנוּ אֹותָ֔ם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א לָקַ֛חְנוּ אִ֥ישׁ אִשְׁתֹּ֖ו בַּמִּלְחָמָ֑ה, ḥān-nū-nū ’ō-w-ṯām, kî lō lā-qaḥ-nū ’îš ’iš-tōw bam-mil-ḥā-māh;, 'Be kind to them, because we did not take a woman/wife for [each] man in the war' – WLC
Ἔλεος ποιήσατε ἡμῖν αὐτάς, ὅτι οὐκ ἐλάβομεν ἀνὴρ γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ παρατάξει, 'Grant them to us out of mercy, for we have not taken every man a woman/wife for himself in the lines of battle' – LXXSwete Brenton
ελεήσατε αυτούς ότι ουκ έλαβεν ανήρ εαυτώ γυναίκα εν τω πολέμω, 'Show mercy on them! For a man did not take a woman/wife to himself in the war' – ABP
Miseremini eorum: non enim rapuerunt eas jure bellantium atque victorum:, 'Have mercy on them: for [they] did not seize/abduct/rape them by (the) right of warriors and conquerors.' – VgColunga&Turrado
^Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Volumes 22-24. American Research Center in Egypt. 1985. p. 212. Retrieved 24 May 2021. Judges 1: 18-19 may be an indication, especially if the Septuagint version of Judges 1:18 is taken as superior to the Masoretic text, i.e., that the Israelites were unable to take the valleys and towns, specifically Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron, because the Canaanites had chariots of iron.