From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A snap election is an election that is called earlier than the one that has been scheduled. Generally, a snap election in a parliamentary system (the dissolution of parliament) is called to capitalize on an unusual electoral opportunity or to decide a pressing issue, under circumstances when an election is not required by law or convention. A snap election differs from a recall election in that it is initiated by politicians (usually the head of government or ruling party) rather than voters, and from a by-election in that a completely new parliament is chosen as opposed to merely filling vacancies in an already established assembly. [1] [2] Early elections can also be called in certain jurisdictions after a ruling coalition is dissolved if a replacement coalition cannot be formed within a constitutionally set time limit.

Since the power to call snap elections (the dissolution of parliament) usually lies with the incumbent, they often result in increased majorities for the party already in power provided they have been called at an advantageous time. [3] However, snap elections can also backfire on the incumbent resulting in a decreased majority or in some cases the opposition winning or gaining power. As a result of the latter cases, there have been occasions in which the consequence has been the implementation of fixed-term elections.

Americas

Belize

According to Section 84 of the Constitution of Belize, the National Assembly must be dissolved "five years from the date when the two Houses of the former National Assembly first met" unless dissolved sooner by the governor-general upon the advice of the prime minister. [4]

Since Belize gained independence from the British Empire in September 1981, snap elections have been called twice, in 1993 and 2012. In March 2015, Belizean Prime Minister Dean Barrow ruled out the possibility of a snap election later in the year. [5] In the November 2015 general election, Prime Minister Barrow's United Democratic Party increased its majority by 9 percent as it made Belizean history, forming its third consecutive government. [6]

Canada

In Canada, snap elections at the federal level are very common. Section 50 of the Constitution Act, 1867 and section 4 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms limits the maximum life of a federal parliament to five years following the return of the last writs of election. [7] A law was passed to set the election date on the third Monday in October in the fourth calendar year after the previous poll, although courts found it effectively legally unenforceable and not binding on the prime minister. Any election that occurs before the schedule is a snap election.

During his 10 years as prime minister, Jean Chrétien recommended to the governor general to call two snap elections, in 1997 and 2000, winning both times. Wilfrid Laurier and John Turner, meanwhile, both lost their premierships in snap elections they themselves had called (in 1911 and 1984, respectively). The most notable federal snap election is that of 1958, where Prime Minister John Diefenbaker called an election just nine months after the previous one and transformed his minority government into the largest majority in the history of Canada up to that date.

A snap election was also called in the province of Ontario in 1990, three years into Premier David Peterson's term. Peterson was polling at 54%, lower than his peak popularity but still well above the opposition party leaders, and expected to be re-elected with comfortable majority. However, the 1990 Ontario general election backfired since it was interpreted as a sign of arrogance, with some cynically viewing it as an attempt to win another mandate before an anticipated economic recession. In the biggest upset in Ontario history, the Ontario New Democratic Party led by Bob Rae won an unprecedented majority government while Peterson lost his own seat to a rookie NDP candidate. A similar result occurred in Alberta in 2015 when Premier Jim Prentice of the governing Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta called a snap election. A few months before, 11 MLAs including their leader from the official opposition Wildrose Party had crossed the floor to sit with the government. However, the province was entering an economic recession due to the abrupt 2010s oil glut, and Prentice's budget was not well received by either the political left or right. The resulting Alberta New Democratic Party majority victory unseated 13 cabinet ministers and ended 44 years of Progressive Conservative government in Alberta.

In 2021, sitting Liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau called a snap election in an attempt to win a majority, up from his previous minority government. He justified the snap election as a way for Canadians to choose which government leads them through Canada's recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Trudeau was widely criticized for calling the snap election while the country was in the midst of a 4th wave of Covid. [8] Following the election Trudeau managed to remain Prime Minister, but the Liberal Party failed to win a majority government. [9]

Peru

The Constitution of Peru allows for the dissolution of Congress by the President if a vote of no-confidence is passed two times by the legislative body, who then has four months to call for new parliamentary elections or faces impeachment. The 2020 Peruvian parliamentary elections were declared after President Martín Vizcarra dissolved Congress.

Asia and Oceania

Australia

There are three procedures in which federal elections can be held early in Australia:

  • The maximum term of the Australian House of Representatives is 3 years. However, the chamber can wait several months after the election to make its first sitting, while a campaign period of at least 33 days is needed between the dates that the election is called and held. It is the norm for the chamber to be dissolved early by the Governor-General before its term expires, which is done on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • Half of the Australian Senate (excluding the seats representing territories) changes over every three years in July. An election for the half about to change over must take place up to a year before this is due, on a date determined by the government. By convention, the elections of both chambers have usually been held on the same day. If the previous Senate election was held close to the changeover, the next Senate election can be held significantly earlier.
  • A double dissolution may be called to resolve conflict between the two chambers, in which case the entire membership of both chambers comes up for election. This requires at least one bill that originated in the House of Representatives (often called a "trigger") to be rejected twice by the Senate under certain conditions. In this case, the next Senate changeover is due in the second month of July after the election, while the House of Representatives begins a new 3-year term.

Examples of early elections in Australia:

  • 1963 election: Liberal Prime Minister Robert Menzies called an early election for the House of Representatives because the government were struggling to govern with their narrow 2-seat majority in the chamber. The government succeeded in gaining 10 seats. The election left the House and Senate elections out of synchronization until 1974.
  • 1974 election: The double dissolution election focused on Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam's first 1+12 years in office and whether the Australian public was willing to continue with his reform agenda, and also to break a deadlock in the Senate after Opposition Leader Billy Snedden announced that the opposition would block the Government's supply bills in the Senate following the Gair Affair. The Whitlam government was subsequently returned with a reduced majority in the House of Representatives but increased presence (but no majority) in the Senate, allowing the government to pass six reform bills in a joint sitting of the two houses of the Australian parliament.
  • 1975 election: The election followed the controversial dismissal of the Whitlam government by Governor-General Sir John Kerr in the 1975 constitutional crisis and the installation of Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser as prime minister. Labor believed it had a chance of winning the elections, and that the dismissal would be an electoral asset for them but the Coalition attacked Labor for the economic conditions they presided over, resulting in the Coalition winning a record victory, with 91 seats in the House of Representatives to the ALP's 36 and a 35–27 majority in the expanded Senate.
  • 1983 election: While an election was not due for seven more months, Malcolm Fraser had been emboldened by the unexpected victory in a 1982 by election which his Liberal Party was expected to lose. Fraser also sought to exploit divisions in the opposition Labor Party, and was surprised to learn that the popular Bob Hawke had won the Labor Party leadership on the day he sought a dissolution. Ultimately, Labor won power and defeated the Fraser government on a 24-seat swing—the largest defeat of a sitting government since 1949, and the worst defeat a sitting non-Labor government has ever suffered.
  • 1984 election: This election was held 18 months ahead of time in order to bring the elections for the House of Representatives and Senate back into line. They had been thrown out of balance by the double dissolution of 1983. It was widely expected that the incumbent Hawke Labor government would be easily re-elected, but an exceptionally long 10-week campaign, confusion over the ballot papers and a strong campaign performance by Liberal leader, Andrew Peacock, saw the government's majority reduced (although this was disguised by the increase in the size of the House from 125 to 148).
  • 1998 election: The election on 3 October 1998 was held six months earlier than required by the Constitution. Prime Minister John Howard made the announcement following the launch of the coalition's Goods and Services Tax (GST) policy launch and a five-week advertising campaign. The ensuing election was almost entirely dominated by the proposed 10% GST and proposed income tax cuts.
  • 2010 election: A federal election was held on Saturday, 21 August 2010, which was called relatively early in order to give Prime Minister Julia Gillard – who had won the prime ministership outside of an election from Kevin Rudd – a greater mandate. The election ended in a hung parliament, and a resultant retaining of Labor's majority in the House of Representatives after negotiations with independents and the Greens.
  • 2021 Tasmanian state election: Liberal Premier Peter Gutwein called the election a year early after the Liberal majority government fell into a minority government. The Liberals won the 2021 state election with a majority of one seat, with Labor forming opposition and the crossbench being composed of Greens and independents.
  • 2024 Tasmanian state election: Liberal Premier Jeremy Rockliff called the election a year early for the same reason as Gutwein (his predecessor).

In the states and territories, all except Tasmania have fixed election dates legislated into their constitutions or electoral laws and snap elections can only be called in extraordinary circumstances when certain conditions are met ( loss of confidence, loss of supply or, in the bicameral legislatures, a deadlocked bill). In Western Australia, the Premier retains the ability to call a snap election at any time despite the fixed election dates. In the Australian Capital Territory, the federal government also has the ability to call a snap election in instances of incapacitation or gross misconduct of the Legislative Assembly. As federal territories constituted under federal legislation, the federal parliament also has the ultimate power to call a snap election in the ACT and the Northern Territory through the normal legislative process, although this has never occurred.

Bangladesh

After Khaleda Zia's Bangladesh Nationalist Party five-year term ended in January 1996, the country went to the polls on 15 February 1996, where elections were boycotted by all major opposition parties including BNP'S arch-rival Sheikh Hasina's Awami League. The opposition had demanded a neutral caretaker government to oversee the polls, but it was rejected by the incumbent government and the election went on as scheduled. The BNP won by default, grabbing all the 300 seats in the Jatiya Sangsad and assumed power. The Awami League and its allies did not accept the results and called a month-long general strike and blockades to overthrow the BNP government. The general strike was marred by bloody violence including a grenade attack on Awami League's headquarters which killed scores of people. On the other hand, the Supreme Court of Bangladesh annulled the election results which forced the BNP government to amend the constitution in a special parliamentary session by introducing the Caretaker government system as a part of the electoral reform. Eventually the BNP government was toppled and ousted when they resigned on 31 March 1996, and handed over power to the caretaker government. The caretaker government stayed in power for 90 days before new elections could be held. Finally a snap election was held on 12 June 1996, where Awami-League won a simple majority by beating its bitter rival BNP and stayed in power for the next five years.

India

On 17 April 1999, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) coalition government led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee failed a to win a confidence vote in the Lok Sabha (India's lower house), falling short a single vote due to the withdrawal of one of the government's coalition partners – the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). The leader of the AIADMK, J. Jayalalitha, had consistently threatened to withdraw support from the ruling coalition if certain demands were not met, in particular the sacking of the Tamil Nadu government, control of which she had lost three years prior. The BJP accused Jayalalitha of making the demands in order to avoid standing trial for a series of corruption charges, and no agreement between the parties could be reached leading to the government's defeat. [11]

Sonia Gandhi, as leader of the opposition and largest opposition party ( Indian National Congress) was unable to form a coalition of parties large enough to secure a working majority in the Lok Sabha. Thus shortly after the no confidence motion, President K. R. Narayanan dissolved the Parliament and called fresh elections. Atal Bihari Vajpayee remained caretaker prime minister till the elections were held later that year. [12]

Israel

After the legislative election in April 2019 resulted in a political stalemate after Yisrael Beiteinu refused to join a Likud-led governing coalition, on the day transitional prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu's mandate for coalition formation ended, the Knesset voted to dissolve itself (preventing president Reuven Rivlin from transferring the mandate for coalition formation to the second-largest party Blue and White's leader, Benny Gantz, with respect to the process defined by the law). Thus, a snap legislative election was called, which resulted in a similar stalemate. After both Likud and Blue and White failed to form a coalition, a third consecutive snap election resulted in yet another stalemate. Progress has been made due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and consequently the thirty-fifth government of Israel was formed. However, another snap election was held in 2021 after collapse of the coalition government.

Japan

In Japan, a snap election is called when a prime minister dissolves the lower house of the Diet of Japan. The act is based on Article 7 of the Constitution of Japan, which can be interpreted as saying that the prime minister has the power to dissolve the lower house after so advising the Emperor. Almost all general elections of the lower house have been snap elections since 1947, when the current constitution was enacted. The only exception was 1976 election, when the Prime Minister Takeo Miki was isolated within his own Liberal Democratic Party. The majority of LDP politicians opposed Miki's decision not to dissolve the lower house until the end of its 4-year term.

Kazakhstan

Nationally, elections for president and parliament in Kazakhstan are held every seven and five years, respectively. According to the Constitutional Law, the President may call a snap election for both and must held no later than two months respectively after which they are called. [13]

Virtually every presidential election in Kazakhstan since independence had been held ahead of schedule in 1999, 2005, 2011, 2015, 2019, and 2022. In which the reasoning behind for consecutive snap elections were due to economic and political factors with allegations for the Kazakh leadership to systemically maintain its grip on power while leaving the opposition consolidated and unprepared. [14] [15]

  • 2019 presidential election: Long-time president Nursultan Nazarbayev unexpectedly resigned from office on 19 March 2019, leading for Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev to briefly serve as the acting president until the scheduled 2020 election. [16] From there Tokayev was widely viewed to temporarily serve the remainder of Nazarbayev's presidential term as a way to ensure transition of power and hand over the office to Dariga Nazarbayeva, the eldest daughter of Nazarbayev. [17] [18] However, On 9 April 2019, Tokayev initiated a snap presidential election for 9 June 2019 citing the reason of avoiding "political uncertainty" and became Nazarbayev's endorsed frontrunner in the race, resulting in him being officially elected to succeed Nazarbayev. [19] [20] [21] [22]

Snap parliamentary elections have also become more frequent in Kazakhstan's politics. Originally the 1994 legislative election was held as a result of the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet which previously consisted of former Communist legislators and paved way for a multi-party system. However due to the nature of the newly Supreme Council opposing then-President Nursultan Nazarbayev, it was dissolved a year later and were followed by 1995 legislative elections which saw pro-Nazarbayev candidates being elected as deputies. [23] Snap elections took place in 2007, 2012, and 2016 under the pretext of economic issues. [24]

New Zealand

New Zealand elections must be held every three years, and the date is determined by the prime minister. There have been three snap elections, in 1951, 1984 and 2002.

  • The 1951 snap election occurred immediately after the 1951 waterfront dispute, in which the National Party government sided with shipping companies against a militant union, while the Labour opposition equivocated and thus annoyed both sides. The government was returned with an increased majority. [27]
  • The 1984 snap election occurred during a term in which the National Party government had a majority of only one seat. Prime Minister Robert Muldoon lost patience with his less obedient MPs and called an election, announcing it on television while visibly drunk. [28] Muldoon's government subsequently lost and the Labour Party took power. [29]
  • The 2002 election. On 12 June 2002 the Labour Party Prime Minister Helen Clark announced that the country would have a general election on 27 July 2002. Clark claimed that an early poll was necessary due to the collapse of her junior coalition partner, the Alliance, but denied it was a snap election. This early election caused considerable comment. Critics claimed that Clark could have continued to govern, and that the early election was called to take advantage of Labour's strong position in the polls. [30] The National Party was caught unprepared by the election and suffered its worst ever result (20.9% of the party vote), and the government was returned with an increased majority. [31]

Pakistan

Khan and Sharif then began to battle for control of Pakistan for the next two months. They both attempted to secure control over the regional assemblies and in particular, Punjab. In Punjab this saw a staged kidnapping and the moving of 130 members of the Punjab Assembly to the capital to ensure they stayed loyal to Sharif. Meanwhile, the leader of the main opposition party Benazir Bhutto threatened to lead a march on Islamabad unless new elections were called. [33]

Finally on 18 July, under pressure from the army to resolve the power struggle, Sharif and Khan resigned as prime minister and president respectively. Elections for the National Assembly were called for 6 October with elections for the regional assemblies set to follow shortly afterwards. [33] [36]

  • 1997 general election: The PPP won the largest number of seats in the 1993 election and Benazir Bhutto became prime minister at the head of a coalition government. [37] However, on 5 November 1996, President Leghari, a former ally of Bhutto, [38] dismissed the government 2 years early for alleged corruption and abuse of power. [39] The allegations included financial mismanagement, failing to stop police killings, destroying judicial independence and violating the constitution. [40] A number of PPP party members were detained including Bhutto's husband Asif Ali Zardari who was accused of taking commissions for arranging official deals. [40]

A former speaker and member of the PPP Miraj Khalid was appointed interim prime minister. The National Assembly and provincial assemblies were dissolved and elections called for 3 February 1997. [40] Bhutto denied all the charges against herself and petitioned the Supreme Court to reverse her dismissal. However, the court ruled in January that there was sufficient evidence for the dismissal to be justified legally. [41]

Philippines

The Philippines has used the presidential system with fixed terms imposed for more of its history than not. This means that Congress cannot be dissolved, and that "snap elections" as understood under the parliamentary system cannot be invoked. However, during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, the constitution starting from 1973, and first applied in 1978, placed the country under the semi-presidential system of government, where the Batasang Pambansa (parliament) can be dissolved. During the operation of that constitution, the parliament was not dissolved, but Marcos, who had earlier been elected in 1981 for a six-year term, asked Parliament to move the 1987 presidential election to 1986, in response to growing social unrest, political and economic crises, political instability, and deteriorating peace and public order.

In the Philippines, the term "snap election" often refers to the 1986 presidential election. Marcos declared himself the official winner of the election but was eventually ousted when allegations of fraud marred the election. A new constitution approved in 1987 reverted to the presidential system, which made future snap elections unlikely. Fixed presidential elections are held every six years, with legislative elections held every three years.

Sri Lanka

Previously, During the Dominion of Ceylon, House of Representatives, the Lower House of the Parliament of Ceylon, is elected to a 5 year term. Senate of Ceylon, which is the Upper House, cannot by dissolved. The Prime Minister shall request the Governor-General to dissolve the House of Representatives and call a General Election at a required time.

As the Senate of Ceylon was abolished in 1971, The Constitution of 1978, introduced the Executive Presidency and increased the term length of the now Unicameral Parliament to 6 years. The President had the authority to dissolve the Parliament and call a Snap election at a required time.

  • 1994 general election: Even though the elections were due in 1995, President D.B. Wijetunga dissolved the Parliament and called a General election in August 1994. Chandrika Kumaratunga of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party, became the Prime Minister ending the 17 years of UNP rule in Sri Lanka.
  • 2001 general election: 2000 general election lost the majority of the ruling People's Alliance but Ratnasiri Wickremanayake continued to be the Prime Minister. Since Several MPs crossed over to the opposition and the Government feared a Motion of No-Confidence, President Kumaratunga dissolved the Parliament and called a general election.
  • 2004 general election: 2001 general election resulted in a Cohabitation government where the President and the Prime Minister were from different parties. As the Government was unstable, President Kumaratunga dissolved the Parliament and called a general election 3 1/2 years ahead of schedule.

19th Amendment reduced the maximum term length of the Parliament to 5 years. And the President did not had the authority to dissolve the Parliament and call an Early General Election until the expiration of 4 years and 6 months from the date appointed for its first meeting. In 9 November 2018, As a result of the 2018 Constitutional crisis, President Maithripala Sirisena attempted to dissolve the Parliament and call a general election but the Supreme Court declared this move unconstitutional, which effectively set the election date back to 2020.

Under the 20th Amendment, The President has the authority to dissolve the Parliament and call an Early General Election after 2 years and 6 months from the date appointed for its first meeting.

Thailand

  • 2006 general election: In 2005, Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his Thai Rak Thai Party were re-elected for a second consecutive term in office when they won a landslide general election victory by securing 375 out of 500 seats in parliament. This result gave his party the power to amend the constitution since they won a two-thirds majority. However one year later, in 2006, Thaksin was suspected to have been indulging in corrupt business practices in his telecommunication firm 'Shincorp'. And after several protests orchestrated by the People's Alliance for Democracy pursuing for the PM's resignation, Thaksin called a snap election scheduled for 2 April 2006 where the opposition party supporters boycotted the polls, resulting in over 50% of voters chosen to not cast their ballots. Due to this political demonstration, Thaksin won the snap election and captured all the 500 seats in the house of parliament. Months later, the supreme court annulled the election results and ordered a fresh election to be held within 100 days from the date of the court's ruling. However, Thaksin was ousted in a 2006 Thai coup d'état, forcing him into exile in the Philippines and Dubai. The military stayed in power until 2007 when they stepped down and held a general election in December that year to restore democracy.
  • 2014 general election: Thaksin Shinawatra's sister Yingluck Shinawatra became Thailand's first female prime minister on 3 August 2011 when she won a landslide election victory on 3 July 2011. Later, the government faced a political crisis in November 2013 when her opponents wanted the prime minister and her Pheu Thai Party government to resign after she tried to pass a controversial amnesty bill in parliament which would permit the return of her brother Thaksin as a free man. However, the bill was not passed because the government succumbed to pressure from weeks of street protests and blockades that took place in Bangkok, which intensified before the King's birthday. On 9 December 2013, Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra decided to dissolve parliament and called a snap general election, which was held on 2 February 2014. This announcement came a day after the resignation of all MPs from the main opposition Democrat Party led by opposition leader Abhisit Vejjajiva, which boycotted the election afterwards.

Europe

Armenia

Snap parliamentary elections were held in Armenia on 9 December 2018, as none of the parties in the National Assembly were able to put forward and then elect a candidate for prime minister in the two-week period following the resignation of incumbent Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan. They were the first elections following the 2018 revolution and the country's first-ever snap elections. [42]

Bulgaria

Snap elections were held in 2014 when neither the Bulgarian Socialist Party nor GERB were able to form a coalition with a tied parliament.

After the 2020–2021 Bulgarian protests there has been a political stalemate which has led to snap elections in July 2021, November 2021, 2022 (after the Petkov Government fell) and 2023, with another snap election called for 2024, after the fall of the Denkov Government

Czech Republic

Snap general elections were held in the Czech Republic on 25 and 26 October 2013, seven months before the constitutional expiry of the elected parliament's four year legislative term.

The government elected in May 2010 led by Prime Minister Petr Nečas was forced to resign on 17 June 2013, after a corruption and bribery scandal. A caretaker government led by Prime Minister Jiří Rusnok was then appointed by the President, but narrowly lost a vote of confidence on 7 August, leading to its resignation six days later. [43] The Chamber of Deputies then passed a motion dissolving itself on 20 August, with a call for new elections within 60 days after presidential assent. [44] [45] The President gave his assent on 28 August, scheduling the elections for 25 and 26 October 2013. [46]

Denmark

In Denmark, Parliamentary elections take place every fourth year ( Danish Constitution art. 32, sec. 1); [47] however, the prime minister can choose to call an early election at any time, provided that any elected parliament has already been called into session at least once (Danish Constitution art. 32, sec. 2). [47] If a government loses its majority in the Folketing, this is not automatically a vote of confidence, but such a vote may be called, and – if lost – the government calls a new election. Denmark has a history of coalition minority governments, and due to this system, a party normally providing parliamentary support for the sitting government while not being part of it, can choose to deprive the government of a parliamentary majority regarding a specific vote, but at the same time avoid calling new elections since any vote of no confidence takes place as a separate procedure.

Notably, Denmark faced a number of very short parliaments in the 1970s and the 1980s. Prime Minister Poul Schlüter lead a series of coalition minority governments calling elections in both 1984, 1987, 1988 and 1990. Likewise, his predecessors called elections in 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979 and 1981. For more than 40 years, no Danish parliament has sat its full four-year term, in all cases, the prime minister has called elections at an earlier date.

  • 2007 general election: Prime minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen announced an election date for 24 October 2007. The election was held ahead of time in the sense that by law, the election needed to be held before 8 February 2009, four years after the previous election. Anders Fogh Rasmussen explained that the elections were called early in order to allow the parliament to work on important upcoming topics without being distracted by a future election. Referring specifically to welfare reform, he said rival parties would then try to outdo each other with expensive reforms which would damage the Danish economy.
  • 2022 general election: Prime minister Mette Frederiksen announced an election date for 1 November 2022. The elections were called on 5 October following an ultimatum to the government by the Social Liberals (which had been providing external support) due to the outcome of a report on the 2020 Danish mink cull by the Mink Commission, which was critical of the government.

Finland

The President of Finland can call for an early election. As per the version of the 2000 constitution currently in use, the president can do this only upon proposal by the prime minister and after consultations with the parliamentary groups, while the Parliament is in session. In prior versions of the constitution, the President had the power to do this unilaterally.

France

In France, under the Fifth Republic, while the National Assembly is elected for a five-year term, the President has the authority to dissolve the National Assembly and call an early election, provided the Assembly has not been dissolved in the preceding twelve months. When the presidential term of office was shortened from seven to five years in the 2000 French constitutional referendum, presidential terms became equal in length to legislative terms. Until a snap 2024 legislative election was called, presidential and parliamentary terms were synchronized, with the National Assembly elected a few weeks after the president, reducing the risk of a cohabitation. The Senate, which is the upper house, can never be dissolved prematurely.

Germany

In the Federal Republic of Germany, elections to the Bundestag must take place within 46–48 months (every four years) after the first sitting of the previous chamber. The Federal President may dissolve the chamber prematurely if the government loses a confidence motion (at the request of the Chancellor), or if no majority government can be formed.

  • 1972 federal election: Chancellor Willy Brandt's social-liberal coalition between the Social Democratic Party and the Free Democratic Party had been elected in 1969 with a relatively narrow 20-seat majority. The government then lost their majority after several MPs defected to the CDU/CSU opposition due to the government's Ostpolitik foreign policy, especially the recognition of the Oder-Neisse line. Benefitting from Brandt's personal popularity, the government was re-elected with a strengthened majority.
  • 1983 federal election: The government of Chancellor Helmut Schmidt had been ousted in October 1982 after the FDP had switched from being allied with the SPD to being allied with the CDU-CSU union. Although the majority of MPs now supported the government of the new Chancellor Helmut Kohl, he called an early election in order to gain an explicit mandate to govern. To do this, he deliberately lost a confidence motion by asking for his coalition MPs to abstain. There was some controversy over this move and the decision was challenged in the Constitutional Court, but given approval. Kohl's government won the election with a net loss of one seat.
  • 2005 federal election: Chancellor Gerhard Schröder deliberately lost a confidence motion to trigger new elections after a series of state election losses, culminating with North Rhine-Westphalia, caused the opposition to gain a wide majority in the Bundesrat. The red-green coalition government also feared that left-wing SPD MPs were threatening to block legislation. As with the 1983 dissolution, it was challenged and upheld in the Federal Constitutional Court. The election produced a hung parliament due to the gains made by The Left party, resulting in a grand coalition being formed between the CDU-CSU and SPD. Schröder lost his chancellorship to Angela Merkel due to his party narrowly coming second in the elections.

In most German states, the parliament is able to dissolve itself. This explains why there have been many more snap elections in German states compared to the federal level, for example:

  • Hamburg: The Bürgerschaft elections of December 1982, 1987, 1993, 2004, and 2011.
  • Berlin: The Abgeordnetenhaus elections of 1950, 1981, 1990, and 2001.
  • Hesse: The Landtag election of 2009.
  • Schleswig-Holstein: The Landtag elections of 1988, 2009, and 2012. 2012 was the second snap election in a row. Due to ambiguity and complications with the electoral law, the 2009 election result was the subject of a legal challenge by the Greens, SSW, and The Left. In August 2010, the state Constitutional Court ruled that the electoral law was unconstitutional. The court mandated that a new electoral law be legislated within six months and that new elections be held by September 2012, two years ahead of schedule.

Greece

In 2012, Greece held snap elections in two consecutive months. The government of George Papandreou, elected in the 2009 legislative election, had resigned in November 2011. Instead of triggering an immediate snap election, the government was replaced by a national unity government which had a remit to ratify and implement decisions taken with other Eurozone countries and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) a month earlier. [48] This government served for six months.

The May 2012 legislative election produced a deadlocked parliament and attempts to form a government were unsuccessful. The constitution directs the president to dissolve a newly elected parliament that is unable to form a government. Ten days after the election, the president announced that a second election would be held. [49] The June 2012 legislative election resulted in the formation of a coalition government.

In 2015, after the bailout referendum, in which the proposed bailout program was rejected with a 61.31% majority, the Syriza government accepted the program, relying on votes from the opposition parties New Democracy, PASOK and The River. [50] Since many Syriza MPs refused to support the government, new elections were called for 20 September of the same year, 8 months after the previous ones. [51]

Italy

In Italy, national snap elections have been quite frequent in modern history, both under the Monarchy and in the current republican phase. After the foundation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the first snap election occurred in 1972 and the latest one in 2022. After significant changes in the election system (in 1992–1993), the frequency of snap elections has been slightly reduced since new regulations granted completion of two of four parliamentary terms. Nonetheless, snap elections still play a role in the political debate as tools considered by political parties and the Executive branch to promote their agenda or to seize political momentum. No recall election is codified in electoral regulations. The Italian President is not required to call for a snap election, even if the prime minister asks for it, provided that the Parliament is able to form a new working majority (President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro denied snap election to Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi after the loss of confidence in 1994).

Luxembourg

Early general elections were held in Luxembourg on 20 October 2013. [52] The elections were called after Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker, at the time the longest serving head of government in the European Union, announced his resignation over a spy scandal involving the Service de Renseignement de l'Etat (SREL). [53] [54] The review found Juncker deficient in his control over the service. [54]

After a spy scandal involving the SREL illegally wiretapping politicians, the Grand Duke and his family, and allegations of paying for favours in exchange for access to government ministers and officials leaked through the press, Prime Minister Juncker submitted his resignation to the Grand Duke on 11 July 2013, upon knowledge of the withdrawal of the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party from the government and thereby losing its confidence and supply in the Chamber of Deputies. Juncker urged the Grand Duke for the immediate dissolution of parliament and the calling of a snap election. [53]

Romania

In Romania, under the 1993 constitution, according the article 89, the President of Romania can dissolve the Parliament of Romania if a government has not been formed in 60 days and two proposals for Prime Minister have been refused. [55]

Russia

In Russia, under the 1993 constitution, according the article 109, while the State Duma (lower house of the Federal Assembly) is elected for a five-year term, but the president has the authority to dissolve the State Duma and call a snap election. However, this possibility of the president is limited, and he can use it only in two cases: if the State Duma three times in a row refused to approve the prime minister, or twice in three months pass a motion of no confidence against the Government of Russia. [56]

  • 2016 legislative election de facto were snap, as they were held three months ahead of schedule. However, the early holding of election was not due to the dissolution of the State Duma, but to the postponement of the day of voting on the day on which the regional elections were held. The early elections were approved by the Constitutional Court. [57] [58]

Slovakia

A snap general election took place in Slovakia on 10 March 2012 to elect 150 members of the Národná rada. The election followed the fall of Prime Minister Iveta Radičová's Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party-led coalition in October 2011 over a no confidence vote her government had lost because of its support for the European Financial Stability Fund. Amidst a major corruption scandal involving local center-right politicians, former Prime Minister Robert Fico's Direction – Social Democracy won an absolute majority of seats.

Slovenia

A parliamentary election for the 90 deputies to the National Assembly of Slovenia was held on 4 December 2011. [59] This was the first early election in Slovenia's history. 65.60% of voters cast their vote. [60] The election was surprisingly won by the center-left Positive Slovenia party, led by Zoran Janković. However, he failed to be elected as the new prime minister in the National Assembly, [61] and the new government was formed by a right-leaning coalition of five parties, led by Janez Janša, the president of the second-placed Slovenian Democratic Party. [61] [62] [63] the National Assembly consists of 90 members, elected for a four-year term, 88 members elected by the party-list proportional representation system with D'Hondt method and 2 members elected by ethnic minorities ( Italians and Hungarians) using the Borda count. [64]

The election was previously scheduled to take place in 2012, four years after the 2008 election. However, on 20 September 2011, the government led by Borut Pahor fell after a vote of no confidence. [65]

As stated in the Constitution, the National Assembly has to elect a new prime minister within 30 days and a candidate has to be proposed by either members of the Assembly or the President of the country within seven days after the fall of a government. [66] If this does not happen, the president dissolves the Assembly and calls for a snap election. The leaders of most parliamentary political parties expressed opinion that they preferred an early election instead of forming a new government. [67]

As no candidates were proposed by the deadline, the President Danilo Türk announced that he would dissolve the Assembly on 21 October and that the election would take place on 4 December. [59] The question arose as to whether the President could dissolve the Assembly after the seven days, in the event that no candidate was proposed. However, since this situation is not covered in the constitution, the decision of the President to wait the full 30 days was welcomed by the political parties. [68] The dissolution of the Assembly, a first in independent Slovenia, took place on October 21, a minute after midnight. [69]

Spain

Sweden

The Instrument of Government (Regeringsformen) in the Constitution of Sweden allows an "extra election" ("extra val" in Swedish). The wording is used to make clear it does not change the period to the next ordinary election, and the Members of Parliament elected merely serve out what remains of the four-year parliamentary term. This has however not occurred since 1958.

Elections are called by the government. Elections are also to be held if the parliament fails four times to elect a prime minister. Elections may not otherwise be called during the first three months of the Riksdag's first session after a general election. Elections may not be called by a prime minister who has resigned or been discharged.

  • 2014 Swedish government crisis: On 3 December 2014, Prime Minister Stefan Löfven announced that the government was calling for a snap election on 22 March 2015, after the parliament elected on 14 September 2014 voted against the government's proposal for the 2015 state budget. [76] However, the final order of the snap election was never carried out as six out of the eight parliament parties reached an agreement on 27 December 2014 called Decemberöverenskommelsen (The December Agreement). [77] The agreement was dissolved in 2015.

Switzerland

Following a total revision of the Swiss Federal Constitution, both chambers of the Federal Assembly must be newly elected. Otherwise, early elections are not intended. This being the case because the Swiss political system does not rely on stable coalitions as its government, the Federal Council, acts independently from the Assembly and bills voted on by parliament are dealt on a case-by-case basis.

Ukraine

In Ukraine a snap poll must have a voter turnout higher than 50%. [78] A snap election was most recently held with the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election held after President Volodymyr Zelenskyy dissolved the Verkhovna Rada shortly after his inauguration to win a parliamentary majority for his Servant of the People party. [79]

United Kingdom

The prime minister of the United Kingdom has the de facto power to call an election at will by requesting a dissolution from the monarch; the limited circumstances where this would not be granted are set out in the Lascelles Principles. If this does not happen, parliament dissolves automatically after five years, but this never happens; so in effect, most elections since the length of parliament was first limited in 1694, except the one in 2015 (the date for which was fixed by law), have technically been snap elections. The term is thus normally reserved in the British context for elections called significantly earlier than required (after five years since 1911, or after seven years prior to that).

Fixed-term Parliaments Act

From 2011 to 2022, the conditions for when a snap election could be called were significantly restricted by the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (FTPA) to occasions when the government loses a confidence motion or when a two-thirds supermajority of MPs vote in favour. During autumn 2019 there were three attempts to trigger an election through the FTPA's provision for a two-thirds majority: all failed. Then the FTPA was bypassed entirely by Parliament enacting the Early Parliamentary General Election Act 2019 stipulating a set date for the next election: the 2019 general election. This required only a simple majority, because of the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy: Parliament cannot pass a law that cannot be changed or reversed by a future Parliament. [80] The Fixed-term Parliaments Act was repealed on March 24, 2022 by the Dissolution and Calling of Parliament Act 2022, which restored the Monarch's power to dissolve parliament on request by the Prime Minister. This is thought to have revived the Lascelles Principles as well. [81]

History

The following elections were called by a voluntary decision of the government less than four years after the previous election:

  • 1923 general election: Although the Conservative Party had won a working majority in the House of Commons after Bonar Law's victory in the 1922 general election, Stanley Baldwin called an election only a year later. Baldwin sought a mandate to raise tariffs, which Law had promised against in the previous election, as well as desiring to gain a personal mandate to govern and strengthen his position within the party. This backfired, as the election resulted in a hung parliament. Following losing a confidence motion in January 1924, Baldwin resigned and was replaced by Ramsay MacDonald, who formed the country's first ever Labour minority government with tacit support from the Liberal Party.
  • 1931 general election: Following his government split over how to deal with the Great Depression, Ramsay MacDonald offered his resignation to the King in August 1931. He was instead persuaded to form a National Government with the Conservatives and Liberals, which resulted in his expulsion from the Labour Party. The Cabinet then decided to call the election to obtain a Doctor's Mandate to fix the economy. The result was that the National Government won the biggest landslide in British history. Labour, which was blamed for running away from responsibility as a Government in the nation's hour of need, was reduced to just 52 seats and its leader, Arthur Henderson, lost his seat.
  • 1951 general election: Despite the fact the Conservatives were leading in the polls, Clement Attlee called the election to increase his government's majority, which had been reduced to just five seats in the previous general election. The Labour Party was defeated and Winston Churchill returned to power with a majority of 17.
  • 1955 general election: After Winston Churchill retired in April 1955, Anthony Eden took over and immediately called the election in order to gain a mandate for his government.
  • 1966 general election: Harold Wilson called the election seventeen months after Labour narrowly won the 1964 general election: The government had won a barely-workable majority of four seats, which had been reduced to two following the Leyton by-election in January 1965. Labour won a decisive victory, with a majority of 98 seats.
  • February 1974 general election: Prime Minister Edward Heath called the election in order to get a mandate to face down a miners' strike. The election unexpectedly produced a hung parliament in which Labour narrowly won more seats, despite winning fewer votes than the Conservatives. Unable to form a coalition with the Liberals, Heath resigned and was replaced by Wilson.
  • October 1974 general election: Six months following the February election, Wilson called another general election in an attempt to win a majority for his Labour minority government and resolve the deadlock. Wilson was successful, though Labour only held a narrow 3-seat majority.

Gordon Brown came very close to calling a snap election in the autumn of 2007; after he failed to do this, his popularity and authority greatly declined and he lost power in 2010.

The following elections were forced by a motion of no confidence against the will of the government:

The following two elections were called by the will of Parliament while the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 was in force:

  • 2017 general election: In April 2017, Prime Minister Theresa May tabled a motion in the House of Commons for an early general election in the form detailed in section 2(2) of the 2011 Act, which was approved in Parliament by a near-unanimous vote. This was shortly after the official commencement of the process of withdrawing from the European Union (Brexit), with May saying that she needed a clear mandate to lead the country through the ensuing negotiations, and hoping to increase her Conservative Party's majority. The election was a failure for May, with the Conservative Party losing seats, resulting in a hung parliament and a minority Conservative government with a confidence and supply agreement with the Democratic Unionist Party.
  • 2019 general election: In September and October 2019, Prime Minister Boris Johnson, seeking a mandate and a majority to break the parliamentary deadlock on his Brexit deal, failed on several occasions to pass a section 2(2) motion for an early general election due to its requirement for a two-thirds majority. After failing to force the deal through with minimal scrutiny via a long prorogation that was ruled unlawful, he introduced a bill to bypass the 2011 Act, requiring only a simple majority in both houses. The bill passed and the Conservatives gained an 80 seat majority in the subsequent election, allowing the United Kingdom to leave the European Union the following January.

Devolved governments

The devolved UK administrations (the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish Parliament, and the Senedd; established in 1998, 1999, and 1998 respectively) are also elected for fixed terms of government (four years prior to 2011, five years thereafter), but snap elections can still be called in the event of a motion of no confidence, or other special circumstances.

References

  1. ^ Ripley, Will; McKirdy, Euan; Wakatsuki, Yoko; Yan, Holly (14 December 2014). "In Japan snap elections, voters back Abe's economic reforms". Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  2. ^ "Japanese voters re-elect Abe in low poll turnout". Taipei Times. Agence France Presse. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. Abe, 60, was only halfway through his four-year term when he called the vote last month....His fresh four-year mandate...
  3. ^ "Our Labour landslide victory/mid-summer election story is just an April Fools' prank". Times of Malta. 1 April 2017. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017.
  4. ^ Belize / Belice: Constitution 1981, Political Database of the Americas. (accessed 9 October 2014)
  5. ^ 31798 "Hon. Barrow Pleased, Avoids Gloating". Tropical Vision Limited. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  6. ^ Chrisbert Garcia (5 November 2015). "Election results". Breaking Belize News.
  7. ^ Victoria (1867). "Constitution Act, 1867". IV.50. Westminster: Queen's Printer (published 29 March 1867). Retrieved 15 January 2009. {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= ( help)
  8. ^ "Trudeau criticized for calling Canadian election in 4th wave". Associated Press. 3 September 2021.
  9. ^ "Trudeau's Liberals win Canada election, but miss majority". Associated Press. 20 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Government Falls, Indian Premier Quits; Coalition Splits Amid Gandhi Assassination Debate", The Washington Post, November 29, 1997, by Kenneth J. Cooper
  11. ^ BBC World Service (19 April 1999). "Jayalalitha: Actress-turned-politician". BBC News. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
  12. ^ Oldenburg, Philip (September 1999). "The Thirteenth Election of India's Lok Sabha". The Asia Society. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
  13. ^ "Constitutional Act of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Elections in the Republic of Kazakhstan". www.election.gov.kz. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  14. ^ "Kazakh 'Rerun:' A Brief History Of Kazakhstan's Presidential Elections". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  15. ^ Nurumov, Dmitry; Vashchanka, Vasil (20 June 2019). Presidential Terms in Kazakhstan: Less is More?. doi: 10.1093/oso/9780198837404.003.0012.
  16. ^ Leonard, Peter (19 March 2019). "Kazakhstan's leader resigns after almost 30 years in power". Eurasianet. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  17. ^ Mallinson, Kate (22 March 2019). "Kazakhstan: Real Power Transition Still to Come". /www.chathamhouse.org. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  18. ^ Astrasheuskaya, Nastassia (20 March 2019). "Nazarbayev's daughter becomes Kazakh heir apparent". www.ft.com. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  19. ^ "Kazakhstan president calls snap elections for June". Al Jazeera. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  20. ^ Gotev, Georgi (9 April 2019). "Kazakhstan to hold early presidential elections on 9 June". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  21. ^ "Nazarbayev protégé wins Kazakhstan elections marred by protests". France 24. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  22. ^ Lillis, Joanna (10 June 2019). "Nazarbayev ally wins big in Kazakhstan election after hundreds arrested". The Guardian. ISSN  0261-3077. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  23. ^ "Kazakhstan The Election of 1994 and Its Aftermath". photius.com. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  24. ^ Putz, Catherine (26 January 2016). "Why Is Kazakhstan Holding Early Parliamentary Elections?". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  25. ^ Bulatkulova, Saniya (2 September 2022). "A Fair State. One Nation. Prosperous Society". The Astana Times. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  26. ^ Abishev, Gaziz (12 April 2023). "Has Kazakhstan Become More Democratic Following Recent Elections?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  27. ^ "Division and defeat". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  28. ^ "Drunk, defiant Muldoon snaps, calls election - 150 years of News". Stuff. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  29. ^ "Muldoon calls snap election". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  30. ^ James, Colin (14 June 2011). "John Key, modest constitutional innovator". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  31. ^ Church, Stephen; McLeay, Elizabeth (2002). "New Zealand's early general election of 2002" (PDF). Australasian Parliamentary Review. 16 (1): 5–21.
  32. ^ Crossette, Barbara (6 May 1990). "Crime Weakens Support for Bhutto, Even in Her Traditional Power Base". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  33. ^ a b c Gargan, Edward A. (19 July 1993). "Pakistan Government Collapses; Elections Are Called". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  34. ^ "Pakistan Seeks 2-Party Cabinet". The New York Times. 20 April 1993. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  35. ^ "The Verdict on Two Courts; Judicial Courage in Pakistan". The New York Times. 29 May 1993. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  36. ^ "Top Two Political Powers Resign In Pakistan – Benazir Bhutto Sees Opportunity To Regain Status". The Seattle Times. 19 July 1993. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  37. ^ "ELECTIONS HELD IN 1993". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  38. ^ "Sharif takes office as Pakistan's prime minister". CNN. 17 February 1997. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  39. ^ "ELECTIONS HELD IN 1997". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  40. ^ a b c "Pakistan president fires Bhutto, calls new election". CNN. 5 November 1996. Archived from the original on 9 September 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  41. ^ "Pakistani court upholds Bhutto's dismissal". CNN. 29 January 1997. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  42. ^ "Armenians head to polls in first ever snap parliamentary election (PHOTOS)". News.am. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  43. ^ "Czech government resigns". European Voice. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  44. ^ "Lawmakers dissolve parliament's lower house, Czech Republic to hold early election". Washington Post. 20 August 2013. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  45. ^ "59th Meeting, 6th voting (20th August 2013, 17:17) on: Draft resolution on the proposal of the President to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies". Poslanecká Snemovna Parlamentu Ceske Republiky. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  46. ^ "Zeman confirms dissolution of the lower house". Radio Praha. 28 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  47. ^ a b "Min grundlov" [My constitution] (in Danish). Parliament of Denmark. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  48. ^ "Κατ' αρχήν συμφωνία Παπανδρέου — Σαμαρά για την κυβέρνηση συνεργασίας" [Agreement between Papandreou and Samaras for coalition government] (in Greek). In.gr. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  49. ^ "Greece to hold new election on 17 June". BBC News. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  50. ^ Hope, Kerin (14 August 2015). "Greek Parliament Approves €85bn Bailout after Rancorous Debate". Financial Times. Athens. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  51. ^ Presidential Decree 66 of 28 August 2015* "Greece Vote Set for 20 September as Interim PM Takes Office". BBC News. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  52. ^ Luxembourg calls early elections after spy scandal France 24, 19 July 2013
  53. ^ a b "Luxembourg spying scandal breaks Juncker government". Reuters. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  54. ^ a b "Luxembourg PM Juncker offers government resignation". BBC News. 11 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  55. ^ Article 89, Constitution of Romania
  56. ^ Chapter 5. The Federal Assembly
  57. ^ КС РФ решит, можно ли в 2016 году проводить досрочные выборы в Госдуму
  58. ^ Constitutional Court Decision
  59. ^ a b "Kocka je padla – volitve bodo 4. decembra :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  60. ^ "Republic of Slovenia Early Elections for Deputies to the National Assembly 2011". National Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  61. ^ a b Slovenian Press Agency (7 February 2012). "Enter the Political Year of the Dragon". Slovenia Times.
  62. ^ "Janša Formally Takes Over from Pahor". Slovenian Press Agency. 10 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  63. ^ "Slovenia gets new cabinet, two months after elections". Europe Online ate=10 February 2012.
  64. ^ "Državna volilna komisija". Dvk.gov.si. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  65. ^ "Foto: Poslanci izrekli nezaupnico vladi Boruta Pahorja :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  66. ^ "Türk: Neizglasovanje zaupnice močno poglablja politično krizo :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  67. ^ "Janša: Še ena neuspešna leva koalicija je predčasno zaključila mandat :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  68. ^ "(Skoraj) v en glas: Pričakovano, dobrodošlo :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". Rtvslo.si. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  69. ^ "Predsednik Türk razpustil parlament in razpisal volitve". Delo.si. 21 October 2011. ISSN  1854-6544.
  70. ^ "Real Decreto 1329/2011, de 26 de septiembre, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones". Boletín Oficial del Estado. 26 September 2011.
  71. ^ "Zapatero convoca el 20-N para que "otro Gobierno dé certidumbre"". El País. 29 July 2011.
  72. ^ "Pedro Sánchez: "We are doomed to a new election"". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 26 April 2016.
  73. ^ "The King doesn't nominate any candidate heading to a new election in June". El País (in Spanish). 26 April 2016.
  74. ^ "Spain, forced to repeat elections for the first time". El País (in Spanish). 26 April 2016.
  75. ^ AP, Carlos E. Cué (29 May 2023). "Spain calls snap general election after right, far-right, inflict heavy local and regional defeat". EL PAÍS English. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  76. ^ Stefan Löfven utlyser extra val (in Swedish) Archived 17 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Sydsvenskan, 3 December 2014.
  77. ^ "Klart: Det blir inget extra val". Expressen. 27 December 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  78. ^ "Voters Committee Predicting 60% Snap Election Turnout". Ukrainian News Agency. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  79. ^ Nechepurenko, Ivan (21 July 2019). "In Ukraine Snap Elections, New President Aims to Consolidate Power". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  80. ^ Marshall, Joe (31 October 2019). "What happens when Parliament is dissolved?". www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk. Institute for Government. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  81. ^ "Dissolution and Calling of Parliament Bill 2021-22" (PDF). Researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  82. ^ "Stormont deal: Arlene Foster and Michelle O'Neill new top NI ministers". BBC. 11 January 2020.