Sculpins are benthic fish, dwelling on the bottoms of water bodies. Their pectoral fins are smooth on the upper edge and webbed with sharp rays along the lower edge, a modification that makes them specialized for gripping the substrate. This adaptation helps the fish anchor in fast-flowing water.  The sculpin normally grows to about four inches long. 
Families include: 
- Abyssocottidae: deep-water sculpins (24 species)
- Agonidae (47 species)
- Bathylutichthyidae (two species)
- Comephoridae: Baikal oilfishes (two species)
- Cottidae: common sculpins (258 species, including Icelidae, sometimes regarded as separate)
- Cottocomephoridae: bighead sculpins, Baikal sculpins (9 species)
- Ereuniidae: deepwater bullhead sculpins (three species)
- Hemitripteridae: sea ravens, sailfin sculpins (eight species)
- Psychrolutidae: fatheads (40 species)
- Rhamphocottidae: the grunt sculpin (one species)
- Kane, E. A. and T. E. Higham. (2012). Life in the flow lane: differences in pectoral fin morphology suggest transitions in station-holding demand across species of marine sculpin. Zoology (Jena) 115(4), 223-32.
- Nelson, J. S. (2006) Fishes of the World. 4th Ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
- Madgic, Bob (1999). A guide to California's freshwater fishes. William L. Crary. Happy Camp, Calif. p. 140. ISBN 9780879612542. OCLC 874011528.
- Froese, R. and D. Pauly. (Eds.) Order Summary for Scorpaeniformes. FishBase. 2011.
- How to tie Sculpin for fly fishing video tutorial by Barry Ord Clarke
- Step by step how to tie Sculpin for fly fishing by Barry Ord Clarke