Science and technology in Switzerland play an important role in the Swiss economy, which has very few
natural resources that are available in the country. The
Swiss National Science Foundation, mandated by the Federal government, is the most important institute for promoting scientific research.
Switzerland Space Agency, the Swiss Space Office, has been involved in various space technologies and programs. In addition it was one of the 10 founders of the
European Space Agency in 1975 and is the seventh largest contributor to the ESA budget. In the private sector, several companies are implicated in the space industry such as
RUAG Space (payload fairings) or Maxon Motors (mars rovers).
Leonhard Euler is considered to be the preeminent mathematician of the 18th century and one of the greatest of all time. A statement attributed to
Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."
Euler made important discoveries in fields as diverse as calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a
According to one
EPFL source, globally, 4 out of the 20 top labs in the field of
AI are located in Switzerland.
Biological and earth sciences
Friedrich Miescher was a Swiss physician who was the first researcher to isolate and characterize
Nucleic acid (DNA). Today, a research institute in Basel (the Friedrich Miescher Institute, FMI) is named after him.Emil Theodor Kocher (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909) was known for his work in the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid. The neurologist
Walter Rudolf Hess (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949) mapped the areas of the brain that were responsible for the control of several vital bodily functions. The biochemist
Werner Arber (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978) is known for his discovery of
restriction endonucleases which are essential for all modern biotechnology. The Swiss born
Edmond H. Fischer (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992) discovered how reversible
phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins.
Rolf M. Zinkernagel (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996) is famous for his work on the