PhotosLocation


River_Tyne Latitude and Longitude:

55°0′37″N 1°25′8″W / 55.01028°N 1.41889°W / 55.01028; -1.41889
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

River Tyne
River Tyne Gateshead Quayside
Location
Country United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Physical characteristics
Source South Tyne
 • location Alston Moor, Cumbria, England
2nd source North Tyne
 • locationDeadwater Fell, Kielder, Northumberland, England
Mouth Tynemouth
 • location
Tynemouth, North Tyneside, England
 • coordinates
55°0′37″N 1°25′8″W / 55.01028°N 1.41889°W / 55.01028; -1.41889
Length118 km (73 miles) [1]
Basin size2,933 km2 (1,132 square miles) [2]
Discharge 
 • location Bywell [2]
 • average44.6 m3/s (1,580 cu ft/s) [2]
Basin features
Tributaries 
 • left River Derwent
The Gateshead Millennium Bridge for pedestrians and cyclists and the Tyne Bridge for vehicles in the background in Newcastle upon Tyne
Confluence of North (right) and South Tyne (left) near Warden

The River Tyne /ˈtn/ is a river in North East England. Its length (excluding tributaries) is 73 miles (118 km). [1] It is formed by the North Tyne and the South Tyne, which converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'.

The Tyne Rivers Trust measure the whole Tyne catchment as 2,936 km2 (1,134 square miles), containing 4,399 km (2,733 miles) of waterways. [3]

Course

North Tyne

The North Tyne rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water. It flows through Kielder Forest, and in and out of the border. It then passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham.

A stone marker shows the source of the River North Tyne

South Tyne

The South Tyne rises on Alston Moor, Cumbria and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle and Haydon Bridge, in a valley often called the Tyne Gap. Hadrian's Wall lies to the north of the Tyne Gap. Coincidentally, the source of the South Tyne is very close to those of the Tees and the Wear. The South Tyne Valley falls within the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) – the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England and Wales.

Tyne

From the confluence of the North and South Tyne at Warden Rock just to the north west of Hexham, the river enters the county of Tyne and Wear between Clara Vale (in the Borough of Gateshead on the south bank) and Tyne Riverside Country Park (in Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank) and continues to divide Newcastle and Gateshead for 13 miles (21 km), in the course of which it flows under ten bridges. To the east of Gateshead and Newcastle, the Tyne divides Hebburn and Jarrow on the south bank from Walker and Wallsend on the north bank. The Tyne Tunnel runs under the river to link Jarrow and Wallsend. Finally the river flows between South Shields and Tynemouth into the North Sea. [2]

Geography

Thomas John Taylor (1810–1861) [4] theorised that the main course of the river anciently flowed through what is now Team Valley, its outlet into the tidal river being by a waterfall at Bill Point (in the area of Bill Quay). [5] His theory was not far from the truth, as there is evidence that prior to the last ice age, the River Wear once followed the current route of the lower River Team and merged with the Tyne at Dunston. Ice diverted the course of the Wear to its current location, flowing east the course of the Tyne) and joining the North Sea at Sunderland. [6]

The River Tyne is estimated to be around 30 million years old. [7]

Conservation

The conservation of the Tyne has been handled by various bodies over the past 500 years. Conservation bodies have included: Newcastle Trinity House, [8] and the Tyne Improvement Commission. [8] The Tyne Improvement Commission conservation lasted from 1850 until 1968. [8] The 1850–1950 era was the worst period for pollution of the river. [8] The Tyne Improvement Commission laid the foundations for what has become the modern day Port of Tyne. [9] Under the management of the Tyne Improvement Commissioners, over a period of the first 70 years the Tyne was deepened from 1.83 to 9.14 m (6 feet 0 inches to 30 feet 0 inches) and had 150 million tonnes dredged from it. [9] Inside these 70 years, the two Tyne piers were built; [9] Northumbrian, Tyne and Albert Docks were built, [9] as well as the staithes at Whitehill and Dunston. [9] This infrastructure enabled millions of tonnes of cargo to be handled by the Port by 1910. [9] The tidal river has been managed by the Port of Tyne Authority since 1968. [8] [9]

The River Tyne has a charity dedicated to protecting and enhancing its waters and surrounding areas. The Tyne Rivers Trust, established in 2004, is a community-based organisation that works to improve habitat, promote better understanding of the Tyne catchment area and build the reputation of the Tyne catchment as a place of environmental excellence. [10]

Port of Tyne

The River Tyne at Bill Quay

With its proximity to surrounding coalfields, the Tyne was a major route for the export of coal from the 13th century until the decline of the coal mining industry in North East England in the second half of the 20th century. The largest coal staithes (a structure for loading coal onto ships) were located at Dunston in Gateshead, Hebburn and Tyne Dock, South Shields. The wooden staithes at Dunston, built in 1890, have been preserved, although they were partially destroyed by fire in 2006 and then a further fire in May 2020 means that the Staithes is becoming more vulnerable to vandalism and would need extensive financing to preserve it and make it secure. [11] In 2016, Tyne Dock, South Shields was still involved with coal, importing 2 million tonnes of shipments a year. The lower reaches of the Tyne were, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, one of the world's most important centres of shipbuilding, and there are still shipyards in South Shields and Hebburn to the south of the river. To support the shipbuilding and export industries of Tyneside, the lower reaches of the river were extensively remodelled during the second half of the 19th century, with islands (including Kings Meadow, the largest) removed and meanders in the river straightened.

Name and etymology

Nothing definite is known of the origin of the designation Tyne, nor is the river known by that name until the Saxon period: Tynemouth is recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Tinanmuðe (probably dative case). The Vedra on the Roman map of Britain may be the Tyne, or may be the River Wear. Ptolemy's Tína could be a "misplaced reference" to either this river or the Tyne in East Lothian. [12] There is a theory that *tīn was a word that meant "river" in the local Celtic language or in a language spoken in England before the Celts came: compare Tardebigge.

A supposed pre-Celtic root *tei, meaning 'to melt, to flow' has also been proposed as an etymological explanation of the Tyne and similarly named rivers, [13] as has a Brittonic derivative of Indo-European *teihx, meaning 'to be dirty' ( Welsh tail, 'manure'). [13]

River crossings

River Tyne

The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead. Taken from the deck of the Gateshead Millennium Bridge, looking west and upstream.
The River Tyne flowing through Newcastle upon Tyne
Name Carries Opened
Shields Ferry  Edit this on WikidataPedestrians and bicycles1377 [14]
Second Tyne vehicle tunnel  Edit this on Wikidata A19 road25 Feb 2011
First Tyne vehicle tunnel  Edit this on Wikidata A19 road19 Oct 1967
Tyne pedestrian and cyclist tunnel  Edit this on Wikidata Walkway, bike lane24 Jul 1951
Gateshead Millennium Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Walkway2000
Tyne Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A167 road10 Oct 1928
Swing Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road15 Jun 1876
High Level Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Durham Coast Line, East Coast Main Line, B1307 road27 Sep 1849
Queen Elizabeth II Metro Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Tyne and Wear Metro1981
King Edward VII Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata East Coast Main Line10 Jul 1906
Redheugh Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A189 road18 May 1983
Scotswood Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A695 road1964
Scotswood Railway Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Tyne Valley line, piping1871
Blaydon Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A1 road3 Dec 1990
Newburn Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1893
Wylam Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1836
Wylam Railway Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Scotswood, Newburn and Wylam Railway, National Cycle Route 726 Oct 1876
Ovingham footbridge  Edit this on Wikidata Walkway, National Cycle Route 721974 [15]
Ovingham road bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road20 Dec 1883 [15]
Bywell Bridge  Edit this on WikidataB6309 road1838
Styford Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A68 road1979
Corbridge Bridge  Edit this on WikidataB6321 road1674 [16]
Hexham Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A6079 road, National Cycle Route 721793 [16]
Hexham Old Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Road1770 [16]
Border Counties Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Border Counties Railway1856
Constantius Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A69 road1976

River North Tyne

Name Carries Opened
Chesters Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Military Way122
Chollerford Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Military Road1785
Wark Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1878
Bellingham Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata B6320 road1834
Tarset Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1974
Greystead Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1862
Falstone Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1843
Kielder Viaduct  Edit this on Wikidata Border Counties Railway, Lakeside Way1862
Butteryhaugh Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1962
Kerseycleugh Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1853

River South Tyne

Name Carries Opened
Warden Railway Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Tyne Valley line1904
Warden Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified roadNov 1903
New Haydon Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A686 road1970
Old Haydon Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1776
Haydon Bridge Viaduct  Edit this on Wikidata A69 road25 Mar 2009
Lipwood Railway Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Tyne Valley line1866
Ridley Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1792
Ridley Railway Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Tyne Valley line1907
Millhouse Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1883
Haltwhistle A69 Bridge (East)  Edit this on Wikidata A69 road1994
Alston Arches Viaduct  Edit this on Wikidata Alston line, footpath17 Nov 1852
Blue Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Pennine Cycleway, footpath1875
Bellister Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1967
Haltwhistle A69 Bridge (West)  Edit this on Wikidata A69 road1997
Featherstone Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1775
Featherstone Castle Footbridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1990
Diamond Oak Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1975
Lambley Footbridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1992
Lambley Viaduct  Edit this on Wikidata Alston line, footpath1852
Eals footbridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath1961 [15]
Eals Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road1733
Parson Shields bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Farm road1972 [15]
Williamston Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road
Kirkhaugh footbridge  Edit this on Wikidata Footpath
Alston railway bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Alston line, South Tyne Trail, South Tynedale Railway [17]1852
Alston bridge  Edit this on Wikidata A686 road1836
Garrigill Bridge  Edit this on Wikidata Unclassified road

Tyne bridges in popular literature

LJ Ross' thriller Seven Bridges from the DCI Ryan series evolves around the Tyne bridges. [18]

Artworks and sculpture

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

River God Tyne by David Wynne at Newcastle Civic Centre

The river is represented, and personified, in a sculpture unveiled in 1968 as part of the new Civic Centre (seat of Newcastle City Council). Sculpted by David Wynne, the massive bronze figure River God Tyne incorporates flowing water into its design. [19]

Salmon Trail

The Environment Agency is currently working with architects and cultural consultancy xsite, in collaboration with Commissions North, to create a travelling sculpture trail along the River Tyne.

The Tyne Salmon Trail will serve as a celebration of the river, [20] its heritage and its increasingly diverse ecosystem. Historically a major symbol in the regional identity of the North East of England, the river plays host to a plethora of different species, the number of which is growing year on year in line with the rivers improving health. The trail looks to capture the imagination of residents and tourists visiting the area – providing them with the ultimate 'fact finding' design experience, which celebrates the salmon's migratory journey in the Northeast of England.

FINS, REFLECTION and JOURNEY were the first three cubes to be launched in December 2007 from a family of ten. Each cube is inspired by the textures, changing colours, movement and journey of the salmon. With each offering a 'modern day keepsake' to take away, in the form of a designed Bluetooth message.

The other cubes will be moving along the River Tyne over one year visiting different locations from Kielder to the Mouth of the Tyne in the summer 2008 before starting their long journey back to their birthplace.

Conversation Piece

Created by acclaimed Spanish sculptor, Juan Muñoz in 1999. Celebrating the Tyne Salmon; [20] here with the 2008 River Tyne Bluetooth Salmon Trail Cubes, [21] are the 22 bronze life size figures that command and celebrate a superb view of South Shields Harbour and the Tyne Piers.

Bamboo Bridge

For three days, from 18 to 20 July 2008, a temporary bamboo artwork was installed over the Tyne close to the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The Bambuco Bridge was created as part of that year's 'SummerTyne' festival.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Owen, Susan; et al. (2005). Rivers and the British Landscape. Carnegie. ISBN  978-1-85936-120-7.
  2. ^ a b c d "Environment Agency – River Tyne Salmon Action Plan Review" (PDF). Environment Agency – APEM REF EA 410230. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  3. ^ "The River: Fascinating Facts about the River Tyne". Tyne Rivers Trust. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  4. ^ "Thomas John Taylor". Grace's Guide to British Industrial History. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  5. ^ James Guthrie (1880). The river Tyne: its history and resources. Andrew Reid and Company Limited. p.  2.
  6. ^ Land Use Consultants (2003). "Urban Landscape Study of the Tyne Gorge" (PDF). Gateshead Council. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  7. ^ Tyne river trust staff. "The Tyne's origins". Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e Henderson, Tony (16 January 2015), "River Tyne's story revealed in study by environmental historian", The Journal, North East England, archived from the original on 20 January 2015, retrieved 30 July 2017
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Port of Tyne staff (30 July 2017). "Tyne Improvement Commission". portoftyne.co.uk. Port of Tyne. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Tyne Rivers Trust". Charity. Tynerivertrust.org. 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008. The Tyne Rivers Trust is an independent charity established to assist in management and improvement of the environment in the Tyne Catchment. The Trust aims to achieve this through Actions to: Improve Habitat; Get Better Information and Promote Better Understanding; Grow the Reputation of the Tyne Catchment and the Tyne Rivers Trust nationally and internationally
  11. ^ "Coal heritage goes up in flames". BBC. 20 November 2003. Retrieved 25 August 2008. "The staithes is a lot more than just a lump of wood in the Tyne, it is a magnificent structure and very important to the area's industrial heritage.
  12. ^ Watson, W J (1926). The History of the Celtic Placenames of Scotland. Chippenham: Irish Academic Press. p. 51.
  13. ^ a b "The Brittonic Language in the Old North" (PDF). Scottish Place Name Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  14. ^ https://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/ferry-gets-first-woman-boss-in-700-years-1-1295528
  15. ^ a b c d Bridges On The Tyne, 2006, Wikidata  Q105064675
  16. ^ a b c Frank Graham (1992). Hexham and Corbridge: A Short History and Guide. Thropton: Butler Publishing. ISBN  0-946928-19-3. OL  11572832M. Wikidata  Q105036820.
  17. ^ https://www.south-tynedale-railway.org.uk/preservation-2/
  18. ^ See the author's website, retrieved 21 January 2023.
  19. ^ Usherwood, Beach & Morris (2000). Public Sculpture of North-East England. Liverpool University Press.
  20. ^ a b "Tyne Salmon Trail". 2008. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008. Ten cubes inspired by the textures, changing colours, movement and journey of the salmon will migrate along the River Tyne, following the amazing journey of the salmon.
  21. ^ Strug, Leah (21 July 2008). "Attraction's sending art lovers fishy messages". South Shields Gazette.

Sources

  • Leona J. Skelton. Tyne after Tyne: An Environmental History of a River's Battle for Protection, 1529–2015. Winwick White Horse Press, 2017. ISBN  978-1-874267-95-9.

External links