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Rail transport in Thailand
Clockwise from top: KiHa 183 at Thung Song Hong station, MRT Blue Line, SRT Red Lines, Alstom AD24C at Kanchanaburi
National railway State Railway of Thailand
Major operators BTSC
  Silom    Sukhumvit    Gold 
  Blue    Purple    Orange 
  Light Red    Dark Red 
Eastern Bangkok Monorail Company Limited and Northern Bangkok Monorail Company Limited
  MRT    MRT 
Ridership488.74 million a year (2023) [1]
System length
Total4,845.1 km (3,010.6 mi) (2023) [2]
Electrified211.94 km (131.69 mi) (2022) [3]
Track gauge
Main1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)
Longest tunnelDong Phaya Yen Tunnel
5.850 km (3.635 mi) [4]

Rail transport plays a crucial role in connecting various regions of Thailand, transporting both goods and passengers through a range of transportation options that include inter-city and commuter rail, mass rapid transit, monorails, and airport rail links. The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) operates a network of intercity railways spanning 4,845.1 kilometers, [2] covering 47 provinces across the country. [5] SRT is committed to developing railway lands through its subsidiary, SRT Asset (SRTA), which focuses on transit-oriented development (TOD) initiatives. The Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal in Bangkok serves as the primary transportation hub for rail transport in Thailand, connecting various types of rail transportation throughout the country. It covers an area of 274,192 square meters, making it the largest railway station in Southeast Asia, and is situated in a new central business district (CBD) that is currently being developed.

To further expand and improve its railway network, particularly through the construction of double-track railways, Thailand has invested in several expansion projects. The first phase of this expansion project covers seven routes, two of which have been completed, while the remaining five are under construction. The second phase of the expansion project is expected to begin construction in 2023. There are also plans for 12 new railway routes with a total distance of 2,419 kilometers, which will increase the number of provinces with railways passing through them to 61. [6]

The mass rapid transit system in Bangkok and its surrounding areas has been operational since 1999. It comprises elevated, ground level, underground, and under-river electric trains, spanning 211.94 kilometers with 11 routes and 141 stations. The network is expanding with five new lines and six extensions currently under construction, bidding, or preparation. [3]

Thailand is also investing in high-speed rails to enhance its rail transport system. Currently, the Bangkok–Nong Khai route and the Bangkok–U-tapao route are under construction, covering 608 kilometers and 220 kilometers, respectively. There are also plans to construct two more high-speed rail lines, the Bangkok-Chiangmai route and the Bangkok-Padang Besar route, in the near future.


Rail transport in Thailand has a long and varied history. Its earliest recorded railway-related event dates back to 1855, when King Rama IV received a model railway as a gift from Queen Victoria. [7] [8] The country's first railway line, the Paknam Railway, was built under a 50-year concession with a Danish company and opened to the public in 1894, after being constructed in 1891. [9] Alongside the Paknam Railway, Bangkok also had an early form of rail transport in the form of a tram system. It was initially a horse tram system that started operating on 22 September 1888, and was later electrified in 1892, becoming the first electrified tram system in Asia. [10] The tram system, however, ceased operations on 11 October 1968, after nearly 80 years of service. On the other hand, the Paknam Railway was electrified in 1925 and operated for almost 68 years until its closure on 1 January 1959.[ citation needed]

In 1890, King Rama V established the Department of Railways under the Ministry of Public Works to oversee the construction of a railway network in the country. [11] The construction of the Bangkok- Ayutthaya railway began in 1891 and was completed on 26 March 1896, which marked the establishment of the railway business in Thailand. [12] [13] Subsequently, the railway service was extended to Nakhon Ratchasima in 1900, forming the original section of what is now known as the Northeastern Line. [12] [14] The Northern Line, which extended to Chiang Mai, was constructed from Ayutthaya, and the Lopburi segment was the first part of this railway route to become operational, opening for service in 1901. The line to Phetchaburi, later known as the Southern Line, was inaugurated on 19 June 1903, [15] while the Eastern Line connecting Bangkok and Chachoengsao began operations in 1907.[ citation needed]

Initially, the Northern, Northeastern, and Eastern Lines were constructed to standard gauge (1,435 mm.) while the Southern Line was built to meter gauge (1,000 mm.). However, in September 1919, a decision was made to regauged all lines to meter gauge, which took 10 years to complete. [16] On 5 June 1917, King Rama VI issued a royal command to change the name of the Department of Railways to Royal State Railways of Siam (RSR) by merging the Northern Railway Department and the Southern Railway Department together. [14] [17] The RSR was later renamed the State Railway of Thailand (SRT) on 1 July 1951, under Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram. [16]

In 1916, the construction of Bangkok railway station, also known as Hua Lampong railway station, was finished and it was inaugurated during the reign of King Rama VI. Initially erected under the reign of King Rama V, the station served as a crucial railway transportation center in Thailand until Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal was constructed. [18]

In the late 1990s, Thailand's rail transport underwent a modernization with the introduction of rapid transit systems. To organize mass transportation systems in Bangkok and its surrounding areas by electric train, the Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand (MRTA) was established in 1992. The BTS Skytrain, which was the first rapid transit system in Bangkok, is owned by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), began operations in 1999 and is operated under a concession from the BMA granted to Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTSC). The Bangkok Metro, with its first line being the Blue Line, is the first underground railway that opened in 2004. It is owned by the MRTA and operated by the Bangkok Expressway and Metro (BEM) under a concession granted by the MRTA. The Airport Rail Link, which opened in 2010 and has transformed commuting in the capital city, is owned by the State Railway of Thailand and operated by its subsidiary, the SRT Electric Train (SRTET). Since then, the government has embarked on several high-speed rail projects to connect different parts of the country. The Bangkok–Nong Khai route, a 606-kilometer line, was initiated in 2014 with an MOU between Thailand and China for co-financing. However, in 2016, the Thai government decided to finance the entire project, and it is 100% Thai invested and operated for construction. China is assisting in the civil works, including the design, supervision, and installation of electrical and mechanical systems. [19] [20] The first section, from Bangkok to Nakhon Ratchasima, is already under construction and expected to be completed in 2026, with the second section, from Nakhon Ratchasima to Nong Khai, scheduled to begin construction in 2023. The Don Mueang–Suvarnabhumi–U-Tapao route, a 220-kilometer line connecting three major airports, was signed in 2019 with construction scheduled to start in 2023. [21] [22] The Bangkok–Chiang Mai route, which covers a distance of 688 kilometers, has been the focus of joint efforts by Thailand and Japan since the signing of a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) in 2015. As of 8 March 2023, the project's economic and financial feasibility study has now been completed, and the results show that it is worth the investment. The section of the project will connect Bangkok to Phitsanulok, while the second section will connect Phitsanulok to Chiang Mai. [23]

Since 2017, Thailand has been upgrading its railway signaling systems with the implementation of the European Train Control System (ETCS), starting with the Eastern Line and followed by the Red Line. [24] This upgrade has gradually been extended to mainlines throughout the country, with Automatic Train Protection (ATP) being put in place to ensure the highest safety standards for railway transportation. [25] On 15 April 2019, the Department of Rail Transport (DRT) was established as a government agency under the Ministry of Transport to oversee the national rail transport system in Thailand. The DRT is responsible for regulating and standardizing policies, strategies, and plans for supervising rail transport businesses throughout the country, with the goal of improving safety, efficiency, and reliability. [26] [27]

As of 2020, the State Railway of Thailand (SRT) operates a total of 4,814.862 kilometers of intercity railways across the country, [28] and is working on upgrading its lines to double-track railways. Double-track railways have several advantages over single-track railways, such as higher capacity, safety, and speed. Passenger trains on double-track railways can travel at an average speed of 100-120 kilometers per hour, while freight trains can travel at an average speed of 60 kilometers per hour. Double-track railways also eliminate level crossings and install fences along the line, which help to reduce accidents and improve safety. [29] The SRT has embarked on several expansion projects to further extend and enhance its railway network. The first phase of the expansion project covers seven routes, two of which have been completed, while the remaining five are under construction. The second phase of the expansion project, which is expected to begin construction in 2023. Furthermore, there are plans for 12 new railway routes with a total distance of 2,419 kilometers. As a result, the number of provinces with railways passing through them will increase to 61. [6]

On 30 April 2021, SRT Asset was established, following the approval of the Cabinet on 29 September 2020, with the main objectives of managing and developing the assets of State Railway of Thailand, [30] and developing transit-oriented development (TOD) projects to increase connectivity and accessibility within the country. The company is currently focusing on the areas around Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal, Thonburi, and Mae Nam with plans to develop them into major mixed-use projects. [31] In the same year, the first phase of the Red Lines, a commuter rail line in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, opened for service after several years of construction. And in 2022, the newly constructed Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal replaced Bangkok railway station as the country's central railway transportation hub. The terminal is the largest station in Southeast Asia, [32] with a total floor space of over 274,000 square meters, and it has 24 platforms: 12 for inter-city and commuter rail, 12 for future high-speed rail and airport rail link. It also has an underground connection to the MRT Blue Line. [33]


State Railway of Thailand

State Railway of Thailand (SRT) is responsible for overseeing the operation of intercity railways in Thailand, offering diesel-hauled and electric-powered passenger trains, as well as freight services across the nation. However, the SRT has gained a reputation for inefficiency and poor maintenance, resulting in delayed trains and outdated equipment. In 2010, the SRT reported a preliminary loss of 7.58 billion baht. [34] Despite multiple attempts at restructuring and privatization in the 2000s, strong union opposition has prevented significant changes. [35] [36] As of a 2022 report, the SRT has taken measures to improve safety by closing 122 level crossings and illegal crossings throughout Thailand and constructing overpasses and underpasses in double-track railway project to address level crossing issues. [37]

Bangkok Mass Transit System

Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTSC) operates the Skytrain system in Bangkok under a concession granted by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). The investment for the structure and system were fully supported by BTSC. The Gold Line is also operated by BTSC under a 30-year contract.

Bangkok Expressway and Metro

Bangkok Expressway and Metro (BEM) operates two metro lines in Bangkok, the MRT Blue Line and MRT Purple Line, under 25-year concession agreements with the Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand (MRTA). BEM was formed in 2015 by the merger of Bangkok Expressway Public Company Limited (BECL) and Bangkok Metro Public Company Limited (BMCL).

Asia Era One

Asia Era One (AERA1) currently operates the Airport Rail Link, which was previously operated by the SRT Electrified Train (SRTET), a subsidiary of the State Railway of Thailand (SRT). However, in October 2021, the operation of the line was transferred to a new entity led by a consortium including Charoen Pokphand (CP) and partners such as Ch. Karnchang (CK), Bangkok Expressway and Metro (BEM), Italian-Thai Development (ITD), and China Railway Construction Corporation (CRCC). This new entity rebranded the service as AERA1 and will also operate the upcoming Don Mueang–Suvarnabhumi–U-Tapao high-speed railway.

SRT Electrified Train

SRT Electrified Train (SRTET) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the State Railway of Thailand (SRT) and operates the Red Lines, a commuter rail service in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. The company also formerly operated the Airport Rail Link until the operation of the line was transferred to Asia Era One (AERA1) in October 2021.

Northern Bangkok Monorail and Eastern Bangkok Monorail

Eastern Bangkok Monorail (EBM) and Northern Bangkok Monorail (NBM) operate the Yellow and future Pink monorail lines respectively. The companies were established by the BSR consortium consisting of BTS Group Holdings (BTSG) with Sino-Thai Engineering and Construction (STEC), and Ratchaburi Electricity Generation Holding (RATCH), who won the bid to construct and operate both monorail systems in early December 2016, and signed contracts with the Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand in June 2017.


Inter-city rail

Second-class carriage of the State Railway of Thailand at Bangkok railway station

Thailand's inter-city rail network covers a distance of 4,814.862 kilometers, serving 47 provinces, and is managed by the State Railway of Thailand (SRT). The network is divided into four main routes: Northern Line, Northeastern Line, Eastern Line, and Southern Line, with single tracks covering 3,391.513 kilometers, [a] double tracks covering 1,103.192 kilometers, and triple tracks covering 320.157 kilometers. [38]

The country is currently expanding its railway network through the double-track railway project, which aims to upgrade existing single tracks to double tracks. The project covers a total of 3,157 kilometers, with Phase 1 already completed for two out of seven lines spanning 993 kilometers. Phase 2 is currently underway, consisting of seven routes totaling 1,483 kilometers. Double-track railway project is expected to significantly increase transportation capacity, with annual railway freight transport projected to rise from 11 million to 46 million tons by 2027. [6]

Two new railway lines covering 681 kilometers are also currently under construction, and the next phase of the new railway project will add 12 new routes covering 2,419 kilometers. Upon completion of all phases, the railway will pass throughout a total of 61 provinces. [6]


Line Route Stations [b] Length [c] Opening Tracks Gauge Notes
km mi
Northern Chiang Mai Main Line BangkokChiang Mai 122 751.480 km 466.948 mi 1922 Single
Metre gauge
Sawankhalok Branch Line Ban Dara JunctionSawankhalok 3 29.007 km 18.024 mi 1910 Single Metre gauge
Northeastern Ubon Ratchathani Main Line BangkokUbon Ratchathani 71 [d] 575 km 357 mi 1930 Single
Metre gauge
Bua Yai Branch Line Kaeng Khoi JunctionBua Yai Junction 40 249.887 km 155.273 mi 1967 Single Metre gauge
Nong Khai Main Line BangkokNong Khai 44 [e] 624 km 388 mi 1958 Single
Metre gauge
Nong KhaiThanaleng, Laos 2 6 km 3.7 mi 2009 Single Metre gauge Opened by Princess Sirindhorn [39]
Eastern Aranyaprathet Main Line BangkokAranyaprathet 53 255 km 158 mi 1926 Single
Metre gauge Ban Klong Luk Border railway station at km 260 opened on 25 June 2019 even though the actual traffic started on 1 July 2019. [40]
Ban Phlu Ta Luang Main Line Chachoengsao JunctionChuk Samet- 20 134 km 83 mi 1989 Single
Metre gauge Section from Ban Phlu Ta Luang railway station to Sattahip intermittently closed and reopened. [41] [42]
Laem Chabang Line Si Racha Junction–Laem Chabang 2 13.457 km 8.362 mi Single
Metre gauge
Map Ta Phut Line Khao Chi Chan Junction–Map Ta Phut 3 24.070 km 14.956 mi Single Metre gauge
Kaeng Khoi Junction Branch Line Khlong Sip Kao JunctionKaeng Khoi Junction 7 81.358 km 50.554 mi 1995 Double Metre gauge The line was originally a single track but was later upgraded to a double track, with construction beginning on 19 February 2016 and completed on 18 February 2019 It also connects with Northeastern Line.
Mae Nam Line MakkasanMae Nam 2 6.600 km 4.101 mi 1909 Single Metre gauge Freight only
Southern Su-ngai Kolok Main Line ThonburiSu-ngai Kolok 204 1,144.160 km 710.948 mi 1921 Single
Metre gauge
Suphanburi Branch Line Nong Pladuk JunctionSuphanburi 16 78.090 km 48.523 mi 1963 Single Metre gauge
Nam Tok Branch Line Nong Pladuk JunctionNam Tok 29 130.989 km 81.393 mi 1958 Single Metre gauge
Khiri Rat Nikhom Branch Line Ban Thung Pho JunctionKhiri Rat Nikhom 9 31.250 km 19.418 mi 1956 Single Metre gauge
Kantang Branch Line Thung Song JunctionKantang 6 92.802 km 57.664 mi 1913 Single Metre gauge
Nakhon Si Thammarat Branch Line Khao Chum Thong JunctionNakhon Si Thammarat 9 35.081 km 21.798 mi 1914 Single Metre gauge
Padang Besar Branch Line Hat Yai JunctionPadang Besar, Malaysia 4 45 km 28 mi 1918 Single Metre gauge Connecting to the Western Coast Line of FMSR

Proposed and under construction

Route Stations Length Tracks Gauge Start Completion Status
km mi
Den Chai–Chiang Rai–Chiang Khong 25 323.1 km 200.8 mi Double Metre gauge 2022 [43] 2028 [43] Under construction [44]
Ban Phai–Mukdahan–Nakhon Phanom 18 355 km 221 mi Double Metre gauge 2023 2028 Under construction [45]
Mae Sot–Tak–Kamphaeng Phet-Nakhon Sawan 27 250.875 km 155.886 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed [46]
Nakhon Sawan–Ban Phai 15 304.318 km 189.094 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Sisaket–Yasothon–Roi et 162 km 101 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Ubon Ratchathani–Chong Mek 4 87 km 54 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Kanchanaburi–Ban Phu Nam Ron 36 km 22 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Kanchanaburi–Suphanburi– Ban Phachi Junction 221 km 137 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Si Racha–Rayong 5 136 km 85 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Map Ta Phut–Rayong–Chanthaburi–Trat–Khlong Yai 29 197 km 122 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Chumphon–Ranong 9 109 km 68 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Surat Thani–Phang Nga–Tha Nun 12 163 km 101 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Surat Thani–Don Sak 15 77 km 48 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Thap Put–Krabi 68 km 42 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Chatturat-Chaiyaphum-Loei-Nong Bua Lamphu 30 333 km 207 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Lam Narai-Phetchabun-Loei-Nong Bua Lamphu 35 392 km 244 mi Double Metre gauge Proposed
Sources: [47] [48] [49]
Route Stations Length Tracks Gauge Start Completion Status
km mi
Chachoengsao JunctionKaeng Khoi Junction 7 106 km 66 mi Double Metre gauge 2016 [50] 2019 [50] Completed [51]
Thanon Chira JunctionKhon Kaen 19 187 km 116 mi Double Metre gauge 2016 2019 Completed [52]
Map Kabao– Thanon Chira Junction 19 134 km 83 mi Double Metre gauge 2019 2023 Under construction [53]
LopburiPak Nam Pho 21 148 km 92 mi Double Metre gauge 2019 2023 Under construction [54]
Nakhon PathomHua Hin 27 169 km 105 mi Double Metre gauge 2019 2023 Under construction [55]
Hua HinPrachuap Khiri Khan 12 84 km 52 mi Double Metre gauge 2019 2023 Under construction [56]
Prachuap Khiri KhanChumphon 20 167 km 104 mi Double Metre gauge 2019 2023 Under construction [57]
Pak Nam PhoDen Chai 38 281 km 175 mi Double Metre gauge Prepared for Cabinet approval [58]
Den ChaiChiang Mai 17 189 km 117 mi Double Metre gauge Prepared for Cabinet approval [59]
Khon KaenNong Khai 15 167 km 104 mi Double Metre gauge 2024 Cabinet approval [60]
Thanon Chira JunctionUbon Ratchathani 35 308 km 191 mi Double Metre gauge Prepared for Cabinet approval [61]
ChumphonSurat Thani 21 168 km 104 mi Double Metre gauge Prepared for Cabinet approval [62]
Surat Thani–Songkhla 48 321 km 199 mi Double Metre gauge Prepared for Cabinet approval [63]
Hat Yai JunctionPadang Besar 3 45 km 28 mi Double Metre gauge Prepared for Cabinet approval [64]
Source: [47]


Route Length Gauge Established Closed Notes
Hat YaiSongkhla 30 km (19 mi) Metre gauge 1913 1 July 1978 Began operations in 1913. In 1978 the Cabinet has approved the cancellation of Hat YaiSongkhla lines, but preserve the railways. Now are under study to rebuild again as part of the Surat Thani- Hat Yai- Songkhla double tracking project.
Nam TokThanbyuzayat, Myanmar
( Burma Railway)
285 km (177 mi) Metre gauge 25 December 1944 Ceased operations after World War II. Also known as the Burma Railway or Death Railway.
BangkokSamut Prakan
( Paknam Railway)
21 km (13 mi) Narrow gauge 11 April 1893 1960 It is the first railway in Thailand. Open in 1893, operated by Paknam Railway Co.Ltd. In 1943, It is operated by State Railway of Thailand. In 1960 the cabinet approved the closure of the Paknam Railway to make Rama IV road.
Bang PhlatBang Bua Thong 68 km

(42 mi)

Narrow gauge

(75 cm)

1909 1943
( Kra Isthmus Railway)
90 km (56 mi) Metre gauge 1943 1945 Constructed by the Imperial Japanese Army for transport across the Kra Isthmus. Demolished after the Second World War.
Bung Wai– Ban Pho Mun 7 km (4.3 mi) Metre gauge 1 August 1930 1954 Closed due to inconvenience of transport of goods
Nong Khai–Talat Nong Khai 2 km (1.2 mi) Metre gauge 1958 19 March 2008
Su-ngai KolokRantau Panjang 3 km (1.9 mi) Metre gauge 1921 Closed due to increased tensions between SRT and KTM in operating cross-border rail services. There are plans to reopen the line.
Wongwian Yai–Pak Khlong San Metre gauge 1904 1 January 1961 Closed following Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat's cabinet agreement. Asphalt road paved on top of the existing tracks
Tha RueaPhra Phutthabat 20 km (12 mi) Narrow gauge 1902 1942 Operated by the Tha Ruea Company Limited. Closed due to regular derailments and huge financial losses.
PhetchaburiBang Thalu 15 km (9.3 mi) Narrow gauge 15 April 1921 31 May 1923 Served as a supply route for King Vajiravudh's residence at Chao Samran Beach. Closed and demolished after relocation of residence to Mrigadayavan Palace
Hua WaiTha Tako 53 km (33 mi) Metre gauge 1940 1967
Wang Kaphi–Wang Kaphi Sugar Mill 8 km (5.0 mi) Narrow gauge 1940 Closed due to improved road links to the sugar mill.

Regional rail transport

Rail transport in Bangkok

Commuter rail
Commuter rail at Hua Lamphong Railway Station
The SRT Dark Red Line, an electrified commuter rail line, features the Hitachi AT100 model train in its fleet, capable of reaching speeds of up to 160 km/h.

The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) manages the commuter rail system in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, which primarily serves individuals traveling to work, school, or business within a 150-kilometer radius of Bangkok. With stops at every station along the way, several commuter rail lines are available for passengers, such as the Northern Line connecting to Lopburi, the Northeastern Line connecting to Kaeng Khoi Junction, the Eastern Line connecting to Prachinburi, and the Southern Line connecting to Ratchaburi and Suphanburi. [65] The fully electrified Red Lines, which is powered by overhead lines, is a commuter rail system consisting of two lines: the Dark Red Line and the Light Red Line. Both lines fall under the category of commuter rail. The Maeklong Railway, on the other hand, is a separate entity consisting of two sections that are not connected to the main commuter rail lines. The first section links Wongwian Yai to Samut Sakhon, while the second section connects Ban Laem, Samut Sakhon, Maeklong, Samut Songkhram.

The SRT has plans to upgrade the existing railway system by electrifying the metre-gauge railway, with the aim of moving away from the current diesel-powered system. The proposed electrification plan will begin by transforming the commuter rail lines within a 100-kilometer radius of Bangkok in Phase 1, expanding to a 250-kilometer radius in Phase 2, and eventually to a 500-kilometer radius in Phase 3. [66] [67]

Line Route Type Stations Length Opening Gauge Notes
km mi
Northern Lopburi Line BangkokLopburi Commuter rail 133 km 83 mi Metre gauge [65]
Northeastern Kaeng Khoi Line BangkokKaeng Khoi Junction Commuter rail 125 km 78 mi Metre gauge [65]
Eastern Prachinburi Line BangkokPrachinburi Commuter rail 122 km 76 mi Metre gauge [65]
Southern Ratchaburi Line BangkokRatchaburi Commuter rail 117 km 73 mi Metre gauge [65]
Suphanburi Line BangkokSuphanburi Commuter rail 158 km 98 mi Metre gauge [65]
Mae Klong Branch Line Wongwian Yai Line Wongwian Yai–Maha Chai Commuter rail
20 31.22 km 19.40 mi 1904 Metre gauge
Ban Laem–Mae Klong Line Ban Laem–Mae Klong Commuter rail
15 33.75 km 20.97 mi 1905 Metre gauge
Red Lines Dark Red Line Krungthep AphiwatRangsit Commuter rail
Rapid transit
10 26 km 16 mi 2021 Metre gauge
Light Red Line Krungthep AphiwatTaling Chan 4 15 km 9.3 mi 2021 Metre gauge
Rapid transit
Chong Nonsi Station, an elevated station on the BTS Skytrain Silom Line, which is served by Siemens Modular Metro trains.
Chatuchak Park Station, an underground station on the MRT Blue Line located in the Chatuchak district.
Map of Bangkok urban transit systems
The M-Map details plans for additional rapid transit lines in Bangkok and Metropolitan Region.

Bangkok's rapid transit system comprises several lines, including the BTS Skytrain ( Silom Line and Sukhumvit Line and Gold Line ), MRT ( Blue Line and Purple Line and Yellow Line), Airport Rail Link, and Red Lines. While the Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand (MRTA) was established in 1992 to oversee the planning and development of the city's rapid transit system, [68] each line is operated by a different company under concession agreements with various government entities.

The BTS Skytrain, which started operating in 1999, was the first rapid transit system to be launched in Bangkok. The system is a public-private partnership between the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) and the Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTSC). The BMA signed an agreement with the BTSC in February 1992 to launch city's first elevated railway. The BTS Skytrain includes two lines, the Sukhumvit Line and the Silom Line, and serves the city's central business district, commercial areas, and major tourist destinations. The initial investment for the system was 50 billion baht, with the BTSC as the main investor for 30 years. The BMA oversaw land procurement and appropriation, while the BTSC invested in infrastructure such as tracks, station buildings, maintenance centers, rolling stock, signaling systems, and electrical systems, as well as system operations and maintenance. [69]

The MRT was launched in 2004 with the first line being the Blue Line, which was the first line to have underground stations. The second line, the Purple Line, was opened in 2016. [70] Both lines are operated by Bangkok Expressway and Metro (BEM) under a 25-year concession agreement with the MRTA. [71] The Yellow Line while also part of the MRT is instead operated by Eastern Bangkok Monorail, and opened in 2023.

The Airport Rail Link connects Phaya Thai to Suvarnabhumi Airport and was launched in 2010. [72] Initially operated by the SRT Electrified Train (SRTET), a subsidiary of the State Railway of Thailand (SRT), the operation of the line was transferred to Asia Era One in October 2021. [73] [74]

The Red Lines are a fully electrified commuter rail system that operates as part of the rapid transit network, using overhead contact system (OCS) and operates on a meter gauge rather than standard gauge, making it the first in Bangkok to use OCS for electrification on a meter gauge railway. [75] It is operated by SRT Electrified Train, a subsidiary of the State Railway of Thailand (SRT). The Cabinet approved the project in May 2007, and it finally opened in August 2021. The lines are the fastest meter gauge railways in Thailand, with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. [75] The Red Lines consist of two lines: the Dark Red Line and the Light Red Line. The plan for future expansion is to connect suburban areas in all directions and adjacent provinces. Once the expansions are complete, the Dark Red Line will cover a distance of 185 kilometers from Ayutthaya in the north, through Bangkok, to Ratchaburi in the southwest, while the Light Red Line will span a distance of 124 km, running from Nakhon Pathom to Chachoengsao in the east–west direction. [76]

As of 2023, Bangkok's rapid transit system consists of a total of 9 lines covering 289 kilometers and 163 stations. As of 2022 there were five projects currently under construction covering 112.20 kilometers and 74 stations, two projects under bid covering 31 kilometers and 28 stations, six projects under PPP covering 71.49 kilometers and 38 stations, and nine planned projects covering 120.78 kilometers and 81 stations. [3]

The plan for rapid transit in Bangkok has been in existence since 1994 when the Thai cabinet approved the Mass Rapid Transit System Master Plan (MTMP) for Bangkok. [68] The plan aimed to extend the mass transit lines and build new constructions to achieve a total length of 103 kilometers, including the Bangkok Elevated Road and Train System (BERTS). When the BERTS project was canceled, the MTMP was renamed the Urban Rail Transportation Master Plan in Bangkok and Surrounding Area (URMAP). URMAP proposed a mass transit system with 375 kilometers in total length, separated into three phases. The first phase of 141.9 kilometers was scheduled to finish from 2001 to 2011, followed by the second and third phases of 158.2 kilometers and 75.3 kilometers, respectively. However, the plan's implementation was postponed, and the Bangkok Mass Transit Master Plan (BMT) replaced it in 2004. BMT proposed seven lines with a total length of 291 kilometers, but only 41 kilometers of new tracks were added. Thus, the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP) revised the plan again in 2009, calling it the Mass Rapid Transit Master Plan in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (M-MAP), with 12 lines, including eight primary and five feeder lines. [77] However, the Thai government faced some issues with M-MAP, including inaccurate demand forecasting and lack of integration with urban development plans. As a result, they formulated the Second Mass Rapid Transit Master Plan in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (M-MAP2), with a new route development plan, and JICA assisted in its formulation. In March 2017, JICA and the OTP agreed to create the Blueprint for M-MAP2. [78]

Line Route Type Owner Operator Stations Length Gauge Opening Notes
km mi First Section Last Expansion
BTS Skytrain Sukhumvit Line Khu KhotKheha Rapid transit BMA BTSC 47 54.25 km 33.71 mi Standard gauge 1999 2020
Silom Line National StadiumBang Wa Rapid transit 14 14.0 km 8.7 mi Standard gauge 1999 2021
Gold Line Krung ThonburiKhlong San People Mover 3 1.80 km 1.12 mi Standard gauge 2020 Opened as a test run on 16 December 2020 and began commercial operation on 16 January 2021. [79] [80]
MRT Blue Line Tha PhraThailand Cultural CentreLak Song Rapid transit MRTA BEM 38 48.0 km 29.8 mi Standard gauge 2004 2019
Purple Line Khlong Bang PhaiTao Poon Rapid transit 16 23.0 km 14.3 mi Standard gauge 2016
Pink Line Nonthaburi Civic CenterMin Buri Monorail NBM 30 34.5 km 21.4 mi Guideway beam 30m [81] 2023
Yellow Line Lat PhraoSamrong Monorail EBM 23 30.4 km 18.9 mi Guideway beam 30m [81] 2023
APL City Line Suvarnabhumi stationPhaya Thai Airport rail link SRT AERA1 8 28.6 km 17.8 mi Standard gauge 2010
SRT Dark Red Line Krungthep AphiwatRangsit Commuter rail SRT Electrified Train 10 26.3 km 16.3 mi Metre gauge 2021 [82]
Light Red Line Krungthep AphiwatTaling Chan Commuter rail 3 15.2 km 9.4 mi Metre gauge 2021 [83]
Under construction
Line Route Type Owner Operator Stations Length Gauge Start Completion Status
km mi
MRT Pink Line Muang Thong ThaniLake Muang Thong Thani Monorail MRTA NBM 2 2.8 km 1.7 mi Guideway beam 30m [81] 2021 2025 Under construction
Orange Line
Eastern Section
Bang Khun NonThailand Cultural Centre–Yeak Rom Klao Rapid transit BEM 29 34.1 km 21.2 mi Standard gauge 2017 2028 Under construction
Purple Line
Southern Section
Tao Poon–Kru Nai Rapid transit 17 23.6 km 14.7 mi Standard gauge 2022 2027 Under construction
ARL City Line
Don Mueang Extension
Phaya ThaiDon Mueang Airport rail link SRT AERA1 1 7.8 km 4.8 mi Standard gauge 2023 2024 Under construction
HSR Line
Suvarnabhumi–U-Tapao Airport rail link
High-speed rail
6 183.6 km 114.1 mi Standard gauge 2023 2029 Under construction
Line Route Type Owner Stations Length Gauge Status
km mi
BTS Skytrain Sukhumvit Line Khu Khot–Eastern Outer Ring Rapid transit BMA 4 6.5 km 4.0 mi Standard gauge Proposed
Kheha–Bang Pu 4 7 km 4.3 mi Standard gauge Proposed
Silom Line Bang Wa–Taling Chan Rapid transit 6 7.50 km 4.66 mi Standard gauge Proposed
National Stadium–Yot Se 1 1.0 km 0.62 mi Standard gauge Proposed
MRT Blue Line
Western Extension
Lak Song–Phutthamonthon Sai 4 Rapid transit MRTA 4 8.0 km 5.0 mi Standard gauge Proposed
Orange Line
Western Extension
Thailand Cultural CentreBang Khun Non 12 17.5 km 10.9 mi Standard gauge Proposed
Brown Line Nonthaburi Civic Center–Lam Sali Monorail 21 22.0 km 13.7 mi Standard gauge Proposed
SRT Dark Red Line
Krung Thep AphiwatHua Lamphong Commuter rail SRT 5 6.9 km 4.3 mi Metre gauge Proposed [84]
Rangsit–Thammasat 4 8.84 km 5.49 mi Proposed [85]
Hua Lamphong–Bang Bon 8 13.18 km 8.19 mi Proposed
Bang Bon–Maha Chai 12 21.00 km 13.05 mi Proposed
Light Red Line
Krung Thep Aphiwat–Hua Mak 6 25.9 km 16.1 mi Proposed [84]
Taling Chan–Sala Ya 6 12.98 km 8.07 mi Proposed
Taling Chan–Siriraj 3 5.38 km 3.34 mi Proposed
BMA Grey Line Vatcharapol–Rama 9 Bridge Monorail BMA 21 26.0 km 16.2 mi Standard gauge Proposed
Silver Line Bang NaSuvarnabhumi Light rail 14 24.0 km 14.9 mi Standard gauge Proposed
Trams in Bangkok, 1905

The first tram in Bangkok was introduced in 1888 by a Danish company under government concession. Initially, horse-drawn trams were used, but in 1894, the system was electrified, making Bangkok the first city in Asia to have an electric tram system. [86] By 1903, the system carried approximately 10 million passengers annually. [87] However, the tram service ceased on 11 October 1968, after 80 years of operation, in order to make room for automobile traffic. [88]

A short-lived tram service operated in Lopburi between 1955 and 1962.

Rail transport in other provinces

Currently, Bangkok is the only city in Thailand that has urban rail transit. However, other major cities in the country are planning to implement light rail projects to address their growing urban transport challenges. These include Phuket, Phitsanulok, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen, and Nakhon Ratchasima. [89] [90] Pattaya is also planning a light rail project which is currently under a public consultation process. The project will also link to the Don Mueang–Suvarnabhumi–U-Tapao high-speed railway. [91] [92]

Airport Automated People Mover

The Suvarnabhumi Airport Automated People Mover is an automatic people mover in Suvarnabhumi Airport, first opened for service on 28 September 2023, running between the main terminal building and Satellite-1 terminal (SAT-1), with a distance of 1 kilometer. Currently, there is only one service in Suvarnabhumi Airport.

High-speed rail

The Fuxing Hao CR300AF will be used on the Northeastern Line from Bangkok to Nong Khai, with an operating speed of 250 km/h.
Shinkansen trains capable of reaching a maximum speed of 300 km/h will be used on the Northern Line from Bangkok to Chiang Mai.

While there is currently no high-speed rail in Thailand, The State Railway of Thailand has carried out a high-speed rail project to connect different regions of the country in order to improve inter-regional travel, promote economic growth, and enhance trade markets between countries. The project comprises four lines that cover all regions of the country: the northern, eastern, northeastern, and southern. The project has been divided into three phases: urgent, medium, and long-term. In the urgent phase, which includes 4 routes covering a total of 1,208 kilometers, the focus is on developing three main lines: the Northeastern Line from Bangkok to Nakhon Ratchasima, which second section will be extended to Nong Khai; the Eastern Line from Don Mueang to U-Tapao; and the Northern Line from Bangkok to Phitsanulok. The medium phase, covering 3 routes and a total of 689 kilometers, aims to connect the Southern Line from Bangkok to Hua Hin, the Eastern Line from Rayong to Trat, and the Northern Line from Phitsanulok to Chiang Mai. In the long-term phase, covering 2 routes and a total of 759 kilometers, the plan is to further extend the Southern Line, first from Hua Hin to Surat Thani and then further to Padang Besar. [93]

The Bangkok-Nong Khai route, which covers a distance of 606 kilometers, is a joint venture project between Thailand and China that started in 2014. However, in 2016, the Thai government decided to fully finance and operate the construction of entire project itself, and China is now assisting in the civil works. [19] [20] The construction of the project commenced on 21 December 2017. [94] The first section of the project, from Bangkok to Nakhon Ratchasima, is currently under construction and expected to be completed in 2026, [95] while the second section, from Nakhon Ratchasima to Nong Khai, is scheduled to begin construction in 2023, both of which are part of the urgent phase.[ citation needed]

The Don Mueang-Suvarnabhumi-U-Tapao route, connecting three major airports over a distance of 220 kilometers, signed a joint venture agreement on 24 October 2019. [96] The agreement was signed with Eastern High-Speed Rail Linking Three Airports, a consortium led by The Charoen Pokphand (CP) and consisting of Italian-Thai Development, China Railway Construction Corporation, CH. Karnchang, and Bangkok Expressway and Metro. [97] In September 2021, the consortium changed its name to Asia Era One, [98] which will operate the route. Construction is expected to begin in 2023, [22] with the second section to Trat included as part of the medium phase of the project.[ citation needed]

The Bangkok-Chiang Mai route spans 688 kilometers, is a joint effort between Thailand and Japan since the signing of a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) in 2015. [99] The project has been divided into two phases: urgent and medium. The urgent phase includes the first section connecting Bangkok to Phitsanulok, for which a feasibility study has been conducted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2017. On 8 March 2023, JICA completed an economic and financial feasibility study which analyzed the direct and indirect benefits of the project. The study found that the project is worth investing in, with an economic return (EIRR) of 17.3 percent, 12 percent higher than the threshold, and a positive net present value (NPV) over the period of operation. Japan has suggested using Shinkansen trains, which are capable of reaching a maximum speed of 300 km/h. The medium phase will include the second section connecting Phitsanulok to Chiang Mai. [100] [101] [102]

The Bangkok-Padang Besar route spans 759 kilometers and is divided into three sections and two phases. The medium phase includes the Bangkok-Hua Hin section, which is the first section of the route. The long-term phase includes the second section from Hua Hin to Surat Thani and the third section extending to Padang Besar. All of which are currently being prepared for study.

Line Route Operator Stations Operation Speed Length Gauge Start Completion Status
km mph km mi
Northeastern Line First Section Krung Thep AphiwatNakhon Ratchasima State Railway of Thailand 6 250 km/h 160 mph 253 km 157 mi Standard gauge 2017 2027 Under construction [103]
Second Section Nakhon RatchasimaNong Khai State Railway of Thailand 5 250 km/h 160 mph 355 km 221 mi Standard gauge 2029 Prepared for Cabinet approval [104]
Eastern Line First Section Don MueangSuvarnabhumi AirportU-Tapao AERA1 15 250 km/h 160 mph 220 km 140 mi Standard gauge 2023 2029 Under construction [105]
Second Section RayongChanthaburiTrat State Railway of Thailand 4 250 km/h 160 mph 190 km 120 mi Standard gauge 2028 Reviewing suitability study report. [105]
Northern Line First Section Krung Thep AphiwatPhitsanulok State Railway of Thailand 7 250 km/h
300 km/h
160 mph
190 mph
380 km 240 mi Standard gauge 2029 Currently considering project format/design. [106]
Second Section PhitsanulokChiang Mai State Railway of Thailand 5 250 km/h
300 km/h
160 mph
190 mph
288 km 179 mi Standard gauge 2029 Reviewing suitability study report. [106]
Southern Line First Section Krung Thep AphiwatHua Hin State Railway of Thailand 5 250 km/h 160 mph 211 km 131 mi Standard gauge 2032 Budgeting for study review [107]
Second Section Hua HinSurat Thani State Railway of Thailand 3 424 km 263 mi Standard gauge 2032 Currently preparing for a study [108]
Third Section Surat ThaniPadang Besar State Railway of Thailand 3 335 km 208 mi Standard gauge 2044 Currently preparing for a study [109]

Rail links to adjacent countries

Rolling stock


The Pacific CX50 steam locomotive, numbered 850, was leading a train on the Death Railway line, passing through the Krasae Cave in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, during the year 1998.
CDA5B1, a diesel-electric locomotives from CRRC Qishuyan that will replace decade-old locomotives.
KiHa 183 series, a diesel multiple units donated by JR Hokkaido

The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) operates both diesel and electric locomotives for long-distance passenger and freight train transportation. The SRT also reserves steam locomotives for special services only, such as the SRT Class Japanese Mikado (DX50), JNR Class C56, and SRT Class Japanese Pacific (CX50), which are used on special excursion services on specific days. [111] The first steam locomotive was used in 1893, [112] and in 1961, the SRT established a railway museum to preserve and display steam locomotives. [113]

In 2020, the SRT procured 50 diesel-electric locomotives, model CDA5B1, from CRRC Qishuyan. These locomotives have a top speed of 120 kilometers per hour for passenger trains and 70 kilometers per hour for freight trains. Weighing 16 tons per axle, the CDA5B1 locomotives are equipped with modern safety features, including an Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system and Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras that also produce low emissions and are fully compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) level 1. [114] The first 20 units were delivered on 4 February 2022, and another 30 units delivered in February 2023. They will be allocated for use in towing convoys of passenger and freight trains throughout the country., which will increase the efficiency of train operations and support the opening of the double-track railway during 2023–2024, replacing the aging engines that have been in service for almost half a century. [115]

In December 2021, the SRT received 17 air-conditioned KiHa 183 series diesel multiple unit trains from JR Hokkaido, paying only for shipping. These trains, consisting of four sets with four vans and a backup car each, offer a total of 216 seats per train and can travel up to 110 kilometers per hour. They feature facilities for tourists, including air conditioning, reclining seats, and closed-system bathrooms. Currently, the trains are utilized for one-day travel routes, and all 17 units are expected to be operational by the end of 2023. [116]

The SRT has collaborated with King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) and Energy Absolute (EA) to develop a locally made battery-electric locomotive prototype under the "EV on Train" project. The prototype was finalized in 2022, and the SRT plans to produce three more battery locomotives and procure another 50 from other sources this year to replace its aging fleet of diesel engines. By the end of 2023, Thailand is expected to have around 54 battery-powered trains, with four of them being domestically produced. This effort aligns with the government's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by 2030. [117]

Electric multiple units

The Siemens Modular Metro is used on both the Silom Line and Sukhumvit Line of the BTS Skytrain, as well as on the Blue Line of the MRT system.
J-TREC Sustina S24m are operating on the Purple Line.
The Siemens Desiro, a type of electric multiple unit train that is used on the Airport Rail Link

Electric multiple units (EMUs) are the primary type of rolling stock used in Bangkok's rapid transit systems due to their environmental sustainability and efficiency. These trains can draw power from both overhead wires and third rails, allowing them to provide rapid and reliable service to passengers. EMUs are used by different rapid transit systems in Bangkok, each with its unique features.

The BTS Skytrain uses a variety of electric multiple units (EMUs) including the Siemens Modular Metro, Siemens Bozankaya, and CRRC Changchun. The Siemens Modular Metro, which operates on the Silom and Sukhumvit Lines, was first introduced in 1999. The newer Siemens Bozankaya model, introduced in 2018, features advanced safety and energy-saving features such as regenerative braking and a lightweight design. Both models have an air-conditioning system that responds to weather conditions, high temperatures, and humidity levels. They also utilize interior and exterior LED lights to reduce maintenance costs and energy consumption. [118]

The MRT system uses Siemens Modular Metro and Siemens Bozankaya EMUs on its Blue Line. Meanwhile, the J-TREC Sustina S24 EMUs are used exclusively on the Purple Line and feature a lightweight stainless steel design, making them more energy-efficient and reducing maintenance costs. [119] [120]

The Red Lines commuter rail employs the Hitachi AT100, which is capable of reaching a maximum speed of 160 km/h. The train's electric car design incorporates Aluminum Plate and Aluminum Extrusion materials. [121] The State Railway of Thailand awarded the Red Line Project contract to Hitachi, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Sumitomo Corporation on 30 March 2016. The first and second completed rolling stocks for the project were shipped out from Hitachi Kasado Works in Kudamatsu, Yamaguchi Prefecture in September 2019. Hitachi was contracted to ship a total of 25 train sets, comprising 130 rolling stock units, by the end of June 2020. [122]

Siemens Desiro EMUs are utilized by the Airport Rail Link. A total of nine Siemens Desiro sets were purchased, [123] with five three-car trains operating the city services and four trainsets with a fourth car designated for check-in baggage handling the express services. The first trains were shipped from Germany in September 2007, and testing was initiated in Bangkok in March 2008. [124]


Innovia Monorail 300 systems, will be operating on Yellow Line and Pink Line

Monorail will be used for a secondary mass transit system in Bangkok, designed to feed passengers into the main line. The Pink Line and Yellow Line are two such systems, with a total of 42 Innovia Monorail 300 model trains. The first branch of trains arrived in Thailand on 28 September 2020, and the second branch arrived in November 2020. [125] The trains are controlled by an unmanned CITYFLO 650 signaling system, and inside the cabin of the train, there are safety equipment such as CCTV cameras, smoke detectors, and communication buttons for passengers to interact with car operators. [126]

People mover

Innovia APM 300 systems are operating on Gold Line

The Innovia APM 300 is the only people mover currently in operation on Bangkok's Gold Line, introduced in June 2020. [127] It uses a central rail-guided system and rubber tires, offering passengers a smooth and noiseless ride. This unmanned electric vehicle can reach speeds of up to 80 km/h. On the other hand, the Siemens AirVal model arrived in Thailand in July 2020 [128] and is set to commence operations on the Suvarnabhumi Airport Automated People Mover at Suvarnabhumi Airport's terminals in September 2023. [129] This model has the capacity to transport up to 3,590 passengers per hour and direction during peak periods, operating 24/7 to accommodate varying demand. It also features spacious aisles and large doors, making it easy for passengers to board and disembark, and providing ample room for luggage. [130]

High-speed trains

Thailand's first high-speed train service on the Northeastern Line, connecting Bangkok to Nong Khai, will be powered by the Fuxing Hao CR300, which is expected to arrive in 2024. [131] The service will operate on a double-track designed for high-speed travel, with an operating speed of 250 km/h. Each of the six trains will feature eight passenger cars, offering a total of 594 seats, including 96 first-class seats and 498 standard-class seats. [132] Meanwhile, on the Northern Line connecting Bangkok to Chiang Mai, Japan has suggested employing Shinkansen trains, which can reach a maximum speed of 300 km/h. [100]



Thailand's railway tracks come in two types: metre gauge and standard gauge. The majority of railway tracks in the country use metre gauge, but in Bangkok, the Mass Rapid Transit System operates on standard gauge tracks, with the exception of the Red Lines, which are electrified and run on metre gauge tracks. As of 2020, the total length of metre gauge tracks in Thailand, excluding the Red Lines, is 4,814.862 km. This includes 3,326.230 km of single tracks, 1,103.192 km of double tracks, 320.157 km of triple tracks, and 65.283 km of separated tracks on the Maeklong Railway. [38]

The Mass Rapid Transit System in Bangkok consists of several lines, with most of the tracks being standard gauge. As of 2022, the total length of standard gauge tracks in the system, excluding the Red Line, is 170.438 km. The Red Lines include the Dark Red Line, which is 26.30 km long, and the Light Red Line, which is 15.26 km long, and both are electrified and run on metre gauge tracks. [3]

Railway stations

Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal, the current central rail transportation hubs in Thailand.

There are approximately 650 open railway stations and halts in Thailand, [133] with the Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal being the largest in both Thailand and Southeast Asia. The terminal covers an area over 270,000 square meters and has three floors, as well as a mezzanine and an underground level. It serves up to 800,000 passengers per day and has replaced the Bangkok (Hua Lamphong) railway station, as the primary rail transportation hub. The name Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal was bestowed by King Rama X, signifying the prosperity of Krung Thep, which is the official name of Bangkok. The station has 24 platforms, including 10 for high-speed rail, 2 for the Airport Rail Link, 8 for inter-city rail, and 4 for Red Lines. It is also linked to the Blue Line [134]

To further improve the station's accessibility and convenience for all passengers, including those with disabilities and the elderly, a double-track railway project is currently underway. The project will apply universal design principles, making the station more user-friendly and accommodating to everyone. [135]


Thailand's railway system features approximately 1,000 bridges, varying in size from small overpasses to large viaducts. [136] One noteworthy construction is the railway bridge over the Mae Klong River, which runs parallel to the Chulalongkorn Bridge in Ratchaburi Province. The former railway bridge over the Mae Klong River has been replaced by this extradosed railway bridge, the first of its kind in Thailand. Spanning 340 meters, the bridge includes a 160-meter-long cable-stayed section with a height of 16 meters from the rail ridge to the top of the cable-stayed pole. [137] Another remarkable project is the Lopburi-Pak Nam Pho double-track railway, featuring a 19-kilometer-long elevated railway that bypasses Lopburi city, making it Thailand's longest elevated railway. [138]


Khun Tan Railway Tunnel once longest railway tunnel in Thailand, from 1925 to 2021

There are currently 8 railway tunnels in Thailand. The Khun Tan Railway Tunnel, measuring 1,352.10 meters, located between Hang Chat District, Lampang Province and Mae Tha District, Lamphun Province, held the title of Thailand's longest railway tunnel for several decades, from 1925 to 2021. [139]

In 2021, the record for the longest railway tunnel in Thailand was surpassed by the construction of the Dong Phaya Yen Railway Tunnel, which spans a distance of 5.85 kilometers between Map Kabao Station, Pha Sadet Station, and Hin Lap Station in Saraburi Province. The Dong Phaya Yen Railway Tunnel is part of the Map Kabao–Thanon Chira Junction double-track railway project and runs through the Dong Phaya Yen mountain range. [4]

Level crossings

As of 2022, there are 2,630 level crossings across the country. These crossings are categorized into 195 overpasses, 215 underpasses, 1,409 level crossings with rail barriers, 5 private level crossings, 186 crossings with traffic signs, and 620 illegal crossings. The lack of proper safety features, such as crossing barriers, has resulted in frequent accidents, particularly at the unauthorized crossings created by villagers without authorization from the railway authority. To address this issue, the State Railway of Thailand has implemented a policy to close unauthorized crossings, established 122 safety passages, and constructed overpasses and underpasses in double-track railway project to prevent accidents. [140] [141]


The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) has been pushing upgrades to the signalling system. The new signalling mandate being adopted is the European Train Control System (ETCS), a standard that boosts capacity and increases the reliability of rail networks. Thales, has been supporting SRT's efforts by introducing its ETCS technology since 2017, and has designed, delivered, and installed the ETCS Level 1 Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system covering a total of 48 stations across four sections of track in the Bangkok area. [24] The Cityflo 650 Communications-based train control (CBTC) system, developed by Alstom, has been in use on the Purple and Gold Line, and will be used on the Pink Line and Yellow Line. Meanwhile, the older signalling system in use on most parts of the rail network, relying on colour light signals, semaphore signals and token signalling.

See also


  1. ^ This number includes the 65.283 kilometers of the Maeklong Railway, which is classified as a single track.
  2. ^ Including halts
  3. ^ Might not be accurate
  4. ^ From Ban Phachi Junction
  5. ^ From Thanon Chira Junction


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Works cited

External links