Pulau_Ujong Latitude and Longitude:

1°22′N 103°48′E / 1.367°N 103.800°E / 1.367; 103.800
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Singapore Island
Native name:
Pulau Ujong (Malay), Pedra Draku ( Kristang) [1]
Planning areas of Singapore Island, including outlying islands
Location Southeast Asia
Archipelago Malay Archipelago
Adjacent to Singapore Strait
South China Sea
Straits of Malacca
Straits of Johor
Area730 km2 (280 sq mi)
Highest point Bukit Timah Hill — 163.63 metres (536.8 ft)
Population5,917,600 [2] (2023)
Pop. density7,804/km2 (20212/sq mi)
Ethnic groups Chinese

Singapore Island, also known as mainland Singapore, is the main constituent island of the sovereign island country and city-state of the Republic of Singapore. It is located at the southern tip of Malay Peninsula, in-between the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea. The Singapore Strait lies to the south, while the Johor Strait lies to the north.

The island forms the bulk of the country in terms of area, population and prominence, since areas situated on the country's smaller islands consist of military or industrial areas, with the exceptions being Sentosa and Ubin Island. [3] As of 2023, Singapore's population stood close to six million and the mainland has a land area of approximately 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). [2]


Temasek was the early recorded name of a settlement on the site of today's Singapore, although the island itself wasn't specifically defined. Meanwhile, Pulau Ujong was one of the earliest references to Singapore Island. The 3rd-century Chinese reference to Pú Luó Zhōng ( Chinese: ), corresponds to the local reference known as Pulau Ujong ( Malay for "Island at the End"). [4]

Travellers and merchants from around Asia arriving at the Singapore Strait to the South China Sea would have to pass by the island, hence the name Pulau Ujong. Similarly, Orang Laut tribes at the time referred to Singapore as the "End Island". Ujong Tanah ("Land at the Furthest") or its variants were also used in European sources as a name for Singapore. [5]

The Kristang indigenous name for the island, Pedra Draku ("Rock of Dragons" or "Dragonsrock"), comes from the Dragon's Tail Peninsula found in older maps of the world, identified as the former sub-continent of Sundaland that the island of Singapore now sits on top of. [1] The name Pedra Draku thus also has supposed parallels with the Dragon's Teeth Gate or Long Ya Men ( Chinese: 龍牙門) that once stood at the front of Keppel Harbour, and also with the Malay name Pulau Ujong, identifying Singapore as the island at the end of the Dragon's Tail Peninsula. [1]


According to the mythical third-century book Record of Foreign countries during the Eastern Wu Period (呉時外國傳), the island was inhabited by cannibals with five- to six-inch tails which may had racial connotations and skepticism. [6]


On a straight line, the island measures approximately 55 kilometres (34 mi) from east to west and 28 kilometres (17 mi) from north to south – with 201 kilometres (125 mi) of coastline. [7] The highest point of Singapore is Bukit Timah Hill, with a height of 163.63m (536.8ft) and made up of igneous rock, granite. Hills and valleys of sedimentary rock dominate the northwest, while the eastern region consists of sandy and flatter land.

Since 1822, there were land reclamation works by the British, who at that time controlled the island as a colony. Since independence, the contemporary government of Singapore has continued to increase the size of the island, having increased the area of the main island from 580 km2 (224 sq mi) in the 1960s to 710 km2 (274 sq mi) today. [8] A further 200 km2 (77 sq mi) of land is also expected to be added to the main island. [9]

Extreme points

The northernmost end of the island is Sembawang. The westernmost and southernmost points are at Tuas. The easternmost point of the island is Changi Bay.


  1. ^ a b c "Pedra Draku: Excavating a new old Kristang name for the island of Singapore". Merlionsman Coaching & Consulting. November 17, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Statistics Singapore – Population". Department of Statistics Singapore. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Pulau Ubin Stories". National University of Singapore. May 24, 2004.
  4. ^ Xu Yunqiao History of South East Asia 1961 Singapore World Publishing Co. 许云樵 《南洋史》 星洲世界书局 1961年
  5. ^ Peter Borschberg, ed. (December 2004). Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka Area and Adjacent Regions (16th to 18th Century). Harrassowitz. p. 98. ISBN  978-3447051071.
  6. ^ Record of Foreign Countries during the Eastern Wu Period, section on Pu Luo Jong 许云樵 《康泰吴时外国传辑注》 四十四-四十五页 1971 新加坡南洋研究所出版
  7. ^ "Yearbook of Statistics Singapore 2012" (PDF). Department of Statistics Singapore. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  8. ^ Gillis, K., & Tan, K. (2006). The book of Singapore’s firsts (p. 96). Singapore: Singapore Heritage Society. Call no.: RSING 959.57 GIL-[HIS].
  9. ^ "Long-Term Plan Review". Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  • Victor R Savage; Brenda Yeoh (2004). Toponymics A Study of Singapore's Street Names. Eastern University Press. ISBN  981-210-364-3.

Further reading

  • Kwa Chong Guan; Peter Borschberg (2018). Studying Singapore before 1800. NUS Press. ISBN  978-981-4722-74-2.

1°22′N 103°48′E / 1.367°N 103.800°E / 1.367; 103.800