Prince Rudolf of Liechtenstein (18 April 1838 – 15 December 1908) was an Austrian
aristocrat, a general in the
Common Army and one of the highest officials in the court of Emperor
Franz Joseph I.
Rudolf was the youngest child and second son of
Prince Karl Joseph of Liechtenstein and Countess Franziska von Wrbna-Freudenthal. His family was a cadet branch of the reigning
Princely House of Liechtenstein, the Moravský-Krumlov line, which was descended from
Prince Karl Borromäus, the younger brother of
Franz Joseph I, Prince of Liechtenstein. Upon the death of his older brother Karl Rudolf – who was unmarried and childless – in 1899, Rudolf became head of the family.
After completing his education, Rudolf joined the military, eventually becoming
General of the Cavalry in 1904. In 1862 he entered the service of the imperial court in Vienna, first as treasurer and later, privy councilor and Acting Minister of the Horse, as well as an honorary colonel of the Imperial Life-guards. In 1896 he was personally appointed by the Emperor as First
Oberhofmeister ( Lord High Steward), the premier official of the court, after the death of Prince
Konstantin of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.
Rudolf's tenure at court was fraught with multiple events: the
 Badeni riots in Bohemia in 1897, the assassination of the
Empress Elisabeth in 1898, and the morganatic marriage of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand to
Countess Sophie Chotek in 1900. He was also present during the state visits of King
Edward VII of the United Kingdom,
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia in 1903.
An accomplished musician, Rudolf composed music for the texts of
Walther von der Vogelweide and
In the later years of his life, Rudolf was often plagued by illness; his duties were taken over by his deputy
Alfred, 2nd Prince of Montenuovo. He eventually died unmarried in 1908, and was interred in the family crypt in
Moravský Krumlov castle,
Moravia. With his death, the Moravský-Krumlov line of the House of Liechtenstein became extinct.
National orders and decorations
Foreign orders and decorations
Kingdom of Bavaria:
Belgium: Grand Cordon of the
Order of Leopold (military)
Principality of Bulgaria:
Grand Cross of St. Alexander, in Brilliants
Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order
: Grand Officer of the
France Legion of Honour
Grand Duchy of Hesse: Grand Cross of the
Ludwig Order, 18 May 1893
Kingdom of Italy:
Grand Cross of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Empire of Japan:
Grand Cordon of the Rising Sun
Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion
Grand Cross of the Wendish Crown, with Golden Crown
Order of Osmanieh, 1st Class
Persian Empire: Order of the August Portrait, in Brilliants
Kingdom of Portugal:
Grand Cross of the Tower and Sword
Kingdom of Prussia:
Order of the Double Dragon, Class III Grade I
Kingdom of Romania:
Grand Cross of the Star of Romania
Grand Cross of the White Falcon, 1892
Kingdom of Saxony:
Schaumburg-Lippe: Cross of Honour of the House Order of Lippe, 1st Class
Kingdom of Serbia:
Grand Cross of the White Eagle
Grand Cross of the White Elephant
: Grand Cross of the
Spain Order of Charles III, with Collar, 19 October 1906
Knight of the Seraphim, 25 February 1904
Tuscan Grand Ducal Family:
Grand Cross of St. Joseph
: Honorary Grand Cross of the
United Kingdom Royal Victorian Order, 9 October 1903
Ancestors of Prince Rudolf of Liechtenstein
Prince Karl Borromäus of Liechtenstein 4. Prince Karl of Liechtenstein 9.
Princess Maria Eleonore of Oettingen-Spielberg 2. Prince Karl Joseph of Liechtenstein 10. Johann Joseph I, Prince of Khevenhüller-Metsch 5. Countess Marianne Josepha von Khevenhüller-Metsch 11. Countess Karolina Maria von Metsch 1. Prince Rudolf of Liechtenstein 12. Count Eugen Wenzel Wrbna-Freudenthal 6. Count Rudolf von Wrbna-Freudenthal 13. Countess Maria Theresia von Kollonitz 3. Countess Franziska von Wrbna-Freudenthal 14. Dominik Andreas II, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg-Questenberg 7. Countess Maria Theresia Kaunitz-Rietberg-Questenberg 15. Countess Bernhardine von Plettenberg-Wittem
Egger, Franz (1972),
"Liechtenstein Rudolf Prinz von und zu" (PDF), Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 (in German), vol. 5, Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences, p. 206
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Dotson, Samuel C. (2003). Genealogie des Fürstlichen Hauses Liechtenstein seit Hartmann II. (1544-1585) (in German). Rosvall Royal Books.