As little is known of Bosch's life or intentions, interpretations of his artistic intent behind the work range from an admonition of worldly fleshy indulgence, to a dire warning on the perils of life's temptations, to an evocation of ultimate sexual joy. The intricacy of its symbolism, particularly that of the central panel, has led to a wide range of scholarly interpretations over the centuries. Twentieth-century art historians are divided as to whether the triptych's central panel is a moral warning or a panorama of paradise lost. (Full article...)
The second production by
Star Film, Tjioeng Wanara was released 18 August 1941. It was advertised heavily, emphasising the fact that the scholar
Poerbatjaraka had served as the historical adviser and that the film was based on
Balai Pustaka's version of the legend. It premiered to commercial success, but received mixed reviews. This
black-and-white production, which was screened until at least 1948, is now thought
lost. (Full article...)
Amir began writing poetry while still a teenager: though his works are undated, the earliest are thought to have been written when he first travelled to Java. Drawing influences from his own Malay culture and Islam, as well as from Christianity and Eastern literature, Amir wrote 50 poems, 18 pieces of lyrical prose, and numerous other works, including several translations. In 1932 he co-founded the literary magazine Poedjangga Baroe. After his return to Sumatra, he stopped writing. Most of his poems were published in two collections, Nyanyi Sunyi (1937) and Buah Rindu (1941), first in Poedjangga Baroe then as stand-alone books. (Full article...)
Harta Berdarah ([harˈtabərˈdarah];
Indonesian for Bloody Treasure) is a 1940 action film from the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Set in the Middle Ages, the film stars R Sukran and Hadidjah as a pirate and a princess who fall in love.
Union Films, the country's first indigenous film production house, produced the film with Rd Ariffien and R Hu as directors. It was written by
Saeroen, one of the country's most prolific screenwriters.The film, which stars Zonder and Soelastri, tells of a young man who convinces a stingy
hadji to be more charitable and, in the process, falls in love with the man's daughter.
Eid al-Fitr, Harta Berdarah was advertised as a "magnificent Indonesian action hit" and used Zonder's silat skills and Soelastri's fame as a keroncong singer to draw audiences. Reviews for the work were positive, with praise focused on its acting and story. Although Harta Berdarah was screened as late as 1944, as with most contemporary productions it is now likely
lost. (Full article...)
In September 1740, as unrest rose among the Chinese population, spurred by government repression and declining sugar prices,
Governor-GeneralAdriaan Valckenier declared that any uprising would be met with deadly force. On 7 October, hundreds of ethnic Chinese, many of them
sugar mill workers, killed 50 Dutch soldiers, leading Dutch troops to confiscate all weapons from the Chinese populace and to place the Chinese under a
curfew. Two days later, rumors of Chinese atrocities led other Batavian ethnic groups to burn Chinese houses along Besar River and Dutch soldiers to fire cannons at Chinese homes in revenge. The violence soon spread throughout Batavia, killing more Chinese. Although Valckenier declared an amnesty on 11 October, gangs of irregulars continued to hunt down and kill Chinese until 22 October, when the governor-general called more forcefully for a cessation of hostilities. Outside the city walls, clashes continued between Dutch troops and rioting sugar mill workers. After several weeks of minor skirmishes, Dutch-led troops assaulted Chinese strongholds in sugar mills throughout the area. (Full article...)
Boenga Roos dari Tjikembang ([buˈŋaˈrusdaˈritʃiˈkəmbaŋ]; translated to English as The Rose of Cikembang) is a 1927
vernacular Malay-language novel written by
Kwee Tek Hoay. The seventeen-chapter book follows a plantation manager, Aij Tjeng, who must leave his beloved njai (
concubine) Marsiti so that he can be married. Eighteen years later, after Aij Tjeng's daughter Lily dies, her fiancé Bian Koen discovers that Marsiti had a daughter with Aij Tjeng, Roosminah, who greatly resembles Lily. In the end Bian Koen and Roosminah are married.
Inspired by the lyrics to the song "If Those Lips Could Only Speak" and
William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Boenga Roos dari Tjikembang was initially written as an outline for the stage drama troupe Union Dalia. Kwee intermixed several languages other than Malay, particularly Dutch,
Sundanese, and English; he included two quotes from English poems and another from an English song. The novel has been interpreted variously as a promotion of
theosophy, a treatise on the
Buddhist concept of
reincarnation, a call for education, an ode to njais, and a condemnation of how such women are treated. (Full article...)
Featured lists have been determined by the Wikipedia community to be the best lists on English Wikipedia.
This page is a list of
films that received the
Golden Film since its introduction in 2001 by the
Netherlands Film Festival and the
Netherlands Film Fund. In 2001 and 2002, films from the
Netherlands received the award once they had sold 75,000 tickets. From 2003 to date, the Golden Film is awarded to films from the Netherlands once they have sold 100,000 tickets. This page shows, for both audience criteria, which films received the Golden Film and how soon they received it after their releases.
In the following tables, the 'year' column contains the years in which the films received the Golden Film, the '#' column contains the number of the Golden Film, the 'film title' column contains the titles of the receiving films, the 'film release' column contains the dates on which the films were first released in the cinemas, and the 'Golden Film' column contains the days when the Netherlands Film Festival and the Netherlands Film Fund announced that the receiving films reached the audience criterion of the Golden Film. (Full article...)
Twenty-nine people are recorded as having
directed fictional films in the
Dutch East Indies between 1926, when L. Heuveldorp released Loetoeng Kasaroeng, the colony's first domestically produced film, and 1949, when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesia's sovereignty after a
four-year revolution, leaving the Dutch East Indies defunct. Thirteen directors active in the Indies continued to direct films after 1950, including
Usmar Ismail: his 1950 film Darah dan Doa (The Long March) is generally considered the first truly Indonesian film.
A total of 112
fictional films are known to have been produced in the
Dutch East Indies (modern-day Indonesia) between 1926 and the colony's dissolution in 1949. The earliest motion pictures, imported from abroad, were shown in late 1900, and by the early 1920s imported
serials and fictional films were being shown, often with localised names. Dutch companies were also producing documentary films about the Indies to be shown in the Netherlands. The first reports of fictional film production in the Indies date from 1923, although the work in question was not completed. The first locally produced film, Loetoeng Kasaroeng, was directed by L. Heuveldorp and released on 31 December 1926.
Between 1926 and 1933 numerous other local productions were released. Although Dutchmen like Heuveldorp and
G. Krugers continued to be active in the industry, the majority of filmmakers and producers were
ethnic Chinese. The Tan brothers (Khoen Yauw and Khoen Hian) and
The Teng Chun were major producers during this period, while the
Wong brothers (Nelson, Othniel, and Joshua) were among the more prominent directors. During the mid-1930s, production dropped as a result of the
Great Depression. The release of
Albert Balink's commercially and critically successful Terang Boelan (Full Moon) in 1937 led to renewed interest in filmmaking, and 1941 saw thirty locally produced films. This rate of production declined after the
Japanese occupation beginning in early 1942, closing all but one film studio; this resulted in several films which had begun production in 1941 being released several years later. The majority of films produced during the occupation were short
propaganda pieces. Following the
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945 and during the ensuing
revolution several films were made, by both pro-Dutch and pro-Indonesian backers; the Dutch formally recognised Indonesia's sovereignty on 27 December 1949, leaving the Dutch East Indies defunct. (Full article...)
The colony's first producer, Heuveldorp, was of European descent. He was followed in 1928 by the
ethnic Chinese businessmen Tjan Tjoen Lian and Liem Goan Lian, who began work on Lily van Java but soon pulled out, to be replaced by David Wong. By 1930 Chinese producers had dominated the industry. The most active of these,
The Teng Chun, made his debut in 1931 with Boenga Roos dari Tjikembang; he would go on to produce another 27 films before independence. No
native Indonesian film producers are recorded from this period, although several productions were credited only to companies. (Full article...)
The Amsterdam Tournament (
Dutch: Amsterdam Toernooi) was a pre-season
association football competition, held in
Netherlands. The competition was hosted by
Ajax at the
Amsterdam Arena. It was inaugurated in 1975 as the Amsterdam 700 Tournament to celebrate 700 years of history in the city. It was held annually each summer until 1992, when the last edition of the original tournament was played. It returned in 1999 with the backing of the International Event Partnership (IEP). Four teams participate in the competition, played in a league format since 1986.
Since its return, the tournament has used an unusual point scoring system. As with most league competitions, three points are awarded for a win, one for a draw and zero for a loss. An additional point, however, is awarded for each goal scored. The system is designed to reward teams that adopt a more attacking style of play. Each entrant plays two matches, with the winner being the club that finishes at the top of the table. The original competition was held at Amsterdam's
Olympic Stadium, where Ajax played its international games until 1996. The Amsterdam Arena, now named the
Johan Cruyff Arena, has played host to the event since the return until 2009. (Full article...)
As of 1 January 2023, there are 342 municipalities (
Dutch: gemeenten) and three
special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten) in the
Netherlands. The latter is the status of three of the six island territories that make up the
Dutch Caribbean. Municipalities are the second-level administrative division, or
public bodies (openbare lichamen), in the Netherlands and are subdivisions of their respective
provinces. Their duties are delegated to them by the
central government and they are ruled by a
municipal council that is elected every four years. Municipal
mergers have reduced the total number of municipalities by two-thirds since the first official boundaries were created in the mid 19th century. Municipalities themselves are informally subdivided into districts and neighbourhoods for administrative and statistical purposes.
These municipalities come in a wide range of sizes,
Westervoort is the smallest with a land area of 7.03 km2 (2.71 sq mi) and
Súdwest-Fryslân the largest with a land area of 523.01 km2 (201.94 sq mi).
Schiermonnikoog is both the least populated, with 936 people, and the least densely populated municipality at 23/km2 (60/sq mi).
Amsterdam has the highest population with 893,783 residents, whereas
The Hague is the most densely populated with a density of 6,650/km2 (17,200/sq mi). (Full article...)
By October 1797, the plan to attack Ireland had been abandoned and the British North Sea Fleet was again at full strength. During a brief period replenishing supplies at
Yarmouth, news reached Duncan on 10 October that the Dutch had sailed on a raiding cruise and he returned to the Dutch coast, intercepting de Winter's fleet on its way back to the Texel. The Dutch formed a
line of battle in shallow coastal waters to meet Duncan's attack, which was conducted in a confused mass, the British fleet separating into two groups that struck the
rear of the Dutch fleet, overwhelming each in turn and capturing eleven ships, including de Winter's flagship
Vrijheid. On the return journey, three of the captured ships were lost, and none of the surviving Dutch prizes was ever suitable for active service again. Both sides suffered heavy casualties during the battle as each fleet had been trained to aim at the hulls of their opponents, maximising the damage to personnel. (Full article...)
Born a member of the
House of Orange-Nassau, William III won the English, Scottish and Irish Crowns following the
Glorious Revolution, during which his uncle and father-in-law, the Catholic
James II (VII in Scotland)), was deposed. In
Ireland, William ruled jointly with his wife,
Mary II, until her death on 28 December 1694. He reigned as 'William II' in Scotland, but 'William III' in England and Ireland. Often he is referred to as William of Orange, a name he shared with many other historical figures. In
Northern Ireland and
Scotland, he is often informally known as "King Billy".
Empire of Japan. Reproduction: National Numismatic Collection, National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution
The Japanese-issued Netherlands Indies gulden was the currency issued by the
Japanese Empire when it occupied the
Dutch East Indies during World War II. Following the Dutch capitulation in March 1942, the Japanese closed all banks, seized assets and currency, and assumed control of the economy in the territory. They began issuing
military banknotes, as had previously been done in other occupied territories. These were printed in Japan, but retained the name of the pre-war currency and replaced the Dutch gulden at par. From 1943 the military banknotes were replaced by identical bank-issued notes printed within the territory, and the currency was renamed the roepiah from 1944. The currency was replaced by the
Indonesian rupiah in 1946, one year after the Japanese surrender and the country's independence.
This note, denominated ten gulden, is part of the 1942 series.
Richèl Hogenkamp (born 16 April 1992) is a professional tennis player from the Netherlands. Her highest
WTA singles ranking is 94, which she reached on 24 July 2017. On the
ITF Women's World Tennis Tour, she has won 16 singles and 14 doubles titles. This photograph depicts Hogenkamp competing at the 2015
This note, denominated 100,000 rupiah, is from a 2011 revision of an earlier series. It depicts
Mohammad Hatta, respectively Indonesia's first president and vice-president, on its obverse, and the
People's Consultative Assembly building on its reverse.
Baby Huwae (22 November 1939 – 5 June 1989) was an Indonesian model, film actress and singer. Born in
Rotterdam, Netherlands, she moved to Indonesia, where she took up modelling, by the 1950s. She entered the film industry in 1958, and gained popularity following the success of Asrama Dara. Over the next few years, Huwae acted in a further five films and established a girl group, the Baby Dolls, with several actresses who had appeared in her second film. She made a guest appearance in one more film in 1971 after a ten-year hiatus.