Control system – a device, or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems.
Industrial control system (ICS) – encompasses several types of control systems used in industrial production, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS), and other smaller control system configurations such as skid-mounted
programmable logic controllers (PLC) often found in industrial sectors and critical infrastructures.
Industrialization – period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one.
Numerical control (NC) – refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via handwheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone.
Robotics – the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
Branches of automation
Autonomous automation – autonomous software agents to adapt the controllers of computer controlled industrial machinery and processes
Cybernetics – the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems.
Cognitive science – interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works.
Robotics – the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of
robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
History of automation
History of mass production – Prerequisites of mass production were interchangeable parts, machine tools and power, especially in the form of electricity. Mass production was popularized in the 1910s and 1920s by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company, which introduced electric motors to the then-well-known technique of chain or sequential production.
Industrial control system – encompasses several types of control systems used in industrial production, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS), and other smaller control system configurations such as skid-mounted programmable logic controllers (PLC) often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures.
Distributed control system (DCS) – control system usually of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers.
Manufacturing execution system (MES) – system that manages manufacturing operations in a factory, including management of resources, scheduling production processes, dispatching production orders, execution of production orders, etc.
Programmable automation controller (PAC) – digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures.
Programmable logic controller (PLC)A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. The abbreviation "PLC" and the term "Programmable Logic Controller" are registered trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company (Rockwell Automation). PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) – generally refers to industrial control systems (ICS): computer systems that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes, as described below:* Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.
Automation-related social movement – a movement that advocates semi- or fully automatic systems to provide for human needs globally. For example, automation of farming and food distribution throughout the world so that no one will go hungry. One goal is to automate all mundane labor, to free humans to engage in more creative activities (or less work).
Technocracy movement – social movement active from the Great Depression (1930s) to date that proposes replacing politicians and business people with scientists and engineers who have the technical expertise to manage the economy.
The Zeitgeist Movement – movement advocating the replacement of the market economy with an economy in which all resources are equitably, commonly and sustainably shared.
Automation in the future
Android – a robot or synthetic organism designed to look and act like a human, and with a body having a flesh-like resemblance
James S. Albus – a US government engineer and a prolific pioneering inventor of intelligent systems, automation and robotics. Also wrote extensively on the impact of automation on jobs, incomes, well-being and prosperity