From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


North East Line
An unrefurbished C751A train at Punggol station, the NEL's north terminus.
Overview
Native nameLaluan MRT Timur Laut
东北地铁线
வடக்கு கிழக்கு எம்ஆர்டி வழி
StatusOperational
Owner Land Transport Authority
Locale Singapore
Termini
Stations16 [a]
1 (under construction)
Service
Type Rapid transit
System Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)
Operator(s) SBS Transit ( ComfortDelGro)
Depot(s) Sengkang
Rolling stock Alstom Metropolis C751A
Alstom Metropolis C751C
Alstom Metropolis C851E
Daily ridership527,000 [2] [3]
History
Planned opening2024; 0 years ago (2024) ( Punggol Coast)
Opened20 June 2003; 21 years ago (2003-06-20)
15 January 2006; 18 years ago (2006-01-15) ( Buangkok)
20 June 2011; 13 years ago (2011-06-20) ( Woodleigh)
Technical
Line length20 km (12 mi) (Operational)
1.6 km (0.99 mi) (under construction)
Track length20 km (12 mi)
CharacterFully underground
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 1,500 V DC from overhead catenary
Operating speedlimit of 90 km/h (56 mph)
Route map

 NE18 
Punggol Coast
Punggol Waterway
Punggol LRT
West loop│East loop
 NE17 

 PTC 

 CP4 
Punggol
Punggol LRT
West loop│East loop
Sengkang LRT
West loop│East loop
 NE16 
 STC 
Sengkang
Sengkang LRT
West loop│East loop
 NE15 
Buangkok
 NE14 
Hougang
 CR8 
 NE13 
Kovan
 CC13 
 NE12 
Serangoon
 NE11 
Woodleigh
 NE10 
Potong Pasir
 NE9 
Boon Keng
 NE8 
Farrer Park
 NE7 
Little India
 DT12 
 NE6 
Dhoby Ghaut
 CC1 
 NS24 
 NE5 
Clarke Quay
 DT19 
 NE4 
Chinatown
 TE17 
 EW16 
← to Tuas Link
to Pasir Ris
 NE3 
Outram Park
 NE1 
HarbourFront
 CC29 

The North East Line (NEL) is a high-capacity Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line in Singapore. Operated by SBS Transit, the 20-kilometre (12 mi) line is the MRT's shortest. [b] It runs from HarbourFront station in southern Singapore to Punggol station in the northeast, serving 16 stations via Chinatown, Little India, Serangoon and Hougang. Coloured purple on official maps, it is Singapore's third MRT line and the world's first fully-automated underground driverless heavy rail line.

The NEL was planned during the 1980s to alleviate traffic congestion on roads leading to the northeast suburbs of the country. However, the project was delayed due to lack of demand at the time. After the government's decision to eventually go ahead with the project at an estimated cost of S$5 billion, its alignment and stations were finalised in 1996 and construction began the year after. The line began operations on 20 June 2003. Two mid-line stations initially did not open with the rest of the line; Buangkok station opened on 15 January 2006, and Woodleigh station began operations on 20 June 2011. A one-station extension to Punggol Coast station, under construction, is expected to be completed in 2024.

The driverless line uses the moving-block Alstom Urbalis 300 CBTC signalling system. Three types of Alstom rolling stock – C751A, C751C and C851E – run on the NEL, which is powered by an overhead line. The NEL is Singapore's first Art-in-Transit line, with 18 artworks displayed across its 16 stations. The stations are wheelchair-accessible, and most of them are Civil Defence shelters designed to withstand airstrikes and chemical attacks.

History

Planning

A map showing proposed stations along the North East line running from HarbourFront to Punggol with proposed extensions to Jalan Kayu and the two outlying islands of Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong
Planning map for the line

The Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC) first proposed an additional MRT line serving the northeastern areas of Punggol and Jalan Kayu in September 1984. [9] In its preliminary studies, the Communications Ministry concluded that roads would be inadequate for projected traffic into the planned 21st-century housing estates. To minimise the impact on other development, the Ministry developed plans to determine which parcels of land would be needed for its construction. [10] In December of that year, a British consultancy team consisting of Sir William Halcrow and Partners, Merz & McLellan and London Transport International was appointed by the MRTC to look into possible routes for the line. [11]

In March 1986, the British consultants drew up a tentative route from Outram Park to Punggol. The line would connect to the existing MRT system at Dhoby Ghaut station and pass through Kandang Kerbau and Hougang, paralleling the major Serangoon and Upper Serangoon Roads. A branch line from Hougang to Jalan Kayu was also proposed. The segment of the line in the city would be underground, and the northern portion after Braddell Road would be elevated. [12]

The MRTC, which approved the project in October 1986, [13] proposed that the line link to Bishan Depot (which would maintain and service its trains). [14] In February 1991, it was proposed to extend the line to Pulau Tekong via Pulau Ubin to serve future residential and industrial developments in the long-term plans for these islands. [15]

Delay

Although the government approved the NEL "in principle" in January 1989, Communications Minister Yeo Ning Hong said that the line's construction was dependent on development in the northeast. [16] The Woodlands extension, [c] which cost S$1.35 billion (US$0.7 billion), took precedence over the S$4.3 billion (US$2.4 billion) NEL. According to Yeo's successor, Mah Bow Tan, there were firmer plans for development around the Woodlands extension, [18] unlike in the northeast, where the low population meant that the NEL would not be as cost-effective. [19] The four Members of Parliament (MPs) for the northeast called for the line to be built sooner, saying that there would be sufficient demand (given the area's population) and it would relieve traffic congestion. [19]

Reviewing the line's feasibility, [20] the Communications Ministry said in 1995 that the NEL could be completed in 2002 if construction began promptly. It was projected to cost S$5 billion (US$3.5 billion) and would operate at a loss of S$250 million (US$176.4 million) during its first four years, with lower daily passenger numbers (240,000). The ministry recommended the construction of the NEL to the Cabinet, citing "wider benefits" such as reduced travelling time and reliance on cars. [21]

There's no question about our desire or willingness to bring this extension forward. I believe it's worth the effort. It's worth doing. I believe residents will show their commitment and willingness to help us bring the gap in operating costs.

– Mah Bow Tan, engaging with grassroots leaders at the Punggol Community Club on 22 October 1995 [22]

Mah, engaging with grassroots leaders in October 1995, said that residents would have to be prepared to pay higher fares on the NEL to cover the line's cost and initial losses. His position was divisive; some leaders felt that it would be unfair to the residents, and others were confident that residents would be willing "to pay for a better quality of life". Increased fares for the entire network were also suggested, but Mah said that it would be more difficult to implement. He assured leaders that he would recommend construction of the line to the government. [22] [23]

A white paper released on 2 January 1996 said that the NEL would be built earlier to address congestion in the northeast corridor, which would also be relieved by express bus service. [24] [25] The government's announcement during a 19 January parliamentary debate on the report that it had decided to build the NEL "immediately" was greeted with applause. [26]

Construction and opening

Exterior of the Punggol station, seen from an empty field
The Punggol station's construction was expedited to serve the area's new developments.
North East Line stations timeline
Date Project Description
20 June 2003 North East Line HarbourFrontPunggol (14 stations)
15 January 2006 Opening of Buangkok station
20 June 2011 Opening of Woodleigh station
2024 North East Line Extension PunggolPunggol Coast (1 station, under construction)

The 16 NEL stations and their locations were announced on 4 March 1996. [27] Many residents and politicians welcomed the announcement, since the line was expected to relieve traffic congestion, improve transport in the northeast and stimulate development around the stations. [28] [29] Thirteen civil contracts for track work and construction of the stations, Sengkang Depot and associated tunnels were awarded for a total of S$2.8 billion (US$1.9 billion). Sixteen more contracts related to electrical and mechanical work were awarded for a total of S$1 billion (US$3.5 billion). [30]

To construct the line, 20 ha (49 acres) of private land was acquired and 43 ha (110 acres) of government land was returned to the state. [27] Several rental HDB blocks, private homes and shops were acquired, [31] dismaying many affected residents. [32] Those who had been asked to relocate in July 1996 requested more time to find new premises. [33] Construction of the line began with a groundbreaking ceremony at Farrer Park station on 25 November 1997. [34] [35] On 20 May 1999, SBS Transit (then Singapore Bus Service) was appointed to operate the line along with the Sengkang and Punggol LRT systems. With bus operations in the area handed over from Trans-Island Bus Services (TIBS) to the newly-appointed operator, SBS controlled northeastern bus and rail service; this provided the inter-modal integration desired by the government. [36] [37]

Construction challenges on the line included diverting the Eu Tong Seng canal for construction of the Chinatown station, [38] [39] and avoiding flooding the tunnels and stations while boring tunnels under the Singapore River between the Clarke Quay and Dhoby Ghaut stations. [40] At the Outram Park station, an arched roof of cement-filled steel pipes was laid underneath the EWL tunnels to minimise movement. [41] Jet-grout arches were used to support the North-South line (NSL) tunnels when explosives were used to remove rock while tunnelling from Clarke Quay to Dhoby Ghaut. [42] Roads around the line had to be temporarily diverted for construction. [43]

When the 16 stations were announced, Potong Pasir (then named Sennett), Woodleigh and Punggol were planned to be built as shell stations due to lack of development around the station sites. [44] It was later decided to build these stations in full as it would have been more costly to wait until later to complete the stations from the structural shells. [45] In 1998, the timeline for Punggol station was moved up because of planned housing developments in the area. [46] [47] The decision not to build Sennett station generated political controversy, however, with claims by residents and opposition MP Chiam See Tong that the station would only open if the ruling People's Action Party (PAP) secured the constituency. [48] [49] In 2002, after a revised ridership study, the government decided to open the station with the other NEL stations due to projected developments around the site; the station also received its present name. [50]

The NEL was initially expected to be completed by the end of 2002, [51] [52] with SBS staff trained in train maintenance and other technical aspects of the automated system. [53] However, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) said in September 2002 that the line might be opened in April 2003 to allow sufficient time for testing. [54] The line's systems were handed over to SBS Transit on 16 December, and the operator conducted further tests. [55] The NEL's opening was delayed until June due to a glitch in the signalling system, however, with tests briefly handed over to the LTA. [56] Since it had to bear the costs of maintenance and manpower, SBS Transit sought compensation from the government for the delay. [57]

Except for two stations ( Buangkok and Woodleigh), [58] the NEL began operations on 20 June 2003 and was attended by Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong. [59] [60] About 140,000 people rode the line on its opening day. [61] The line's opening ceremony was held on 28 August by Deputy Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. [62] Although the NEL has experienced a few glitches since its opening, it has been reliable and generally well-received by commuters. [63] The International Association of Public Transport called the NEL a model public-transport system for the future in July 2003, with other driverless systems planned around the world. [64] SBS Transit reported in June 2004 that the line averaged one 15-minute delay every six weeks, compared to expected twice-a-week delays. [65] Average daily ridership has risen to 174,000 in 2004, with highest at 268,000 during Lunar New Year celebrations on 3 January that year. [66]

Opening of reserved stations

Buangkok station entrance with a white canopy. The entrance faces an open field.
An entrance to Buangkok MRT station in August 2006, shortly after its opening

On 17 June 2003, SBS Transit announced that the Woodleigh and Buangkok stations would not open with the other NEL stations. Due to the lack of development, the operator said keeping the stations closed would reduce operating costs by S$2–3 million. [58] At the time, housing demand declined due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis and the economic downturn following the September 11 attacks. Consequently, the Housing and Development Board cut back on its development plans in the Singapore northeast area. [67] The operator said keeping the stations closed would reduce operating costs by S$2–3 million. [58] Residents around the line were upset by the sudden decision to keep Buangkok station closed, since they had been assured by MPs and grassroots leaders that it would be opened. [68] [69]

The government initially stood by SBS Transit's decision to keep the station closed, planning to open it in 2006 when more residential flats would be in the area. [62] [70] The opening was further postponed to 2008, following projected housing-development plans for the area. [71] After public pressure and promises by residents to use the station, [72] SBS Transit announced at the end of 2005 that it would open the station on 15 January 2006. [73] [74]

The Buangkok station opened as scheduled "with much fanfare". [75] [76] Since its opening, however, the station averaged only 1,386 daily riders instead of the expected 6,000. [77] Many residents still traveled to the adjacent Sengkang and Hougang stations due to their amenities. [78] SBS Transit, after saying that it was still "too early to draw a conclusion" about ridership, [77] remained committed to keeping the station open to serve future developments nearby. [78]

Woodleigh station, built near the former Bidadari cemetery, [79] was scheduled to open seven or eight years after the rest of the line. [80] [81] In January 2011, The Straits Times reported that preparations for the station's opening had been ongoing since the second half of 2010; the newspaper speculated that the station would open in mid-2011 to serve new developments in the area. [82] In a March parliamentary session, Transport Minister Raymond Lim confirmed that the station would open on 20 June 2011. [83] SBS deployed several staff members to assist confused commuters who alighted at Woodleigh station instead of the adjacent Serangoon station. Others alighted to view the station's interior or try an alternative route from the station. [84] [85]

North East Line extension (NELe)

View of the construction site with construction equipment and cranes around an excavated hole
Construction of connecting tunnels to the Punggol Coast station

On 17 January 2013, transport minister Lui Tuck Yew announced a one-station extension of the NEL to serve upcoming developments in Punggol North. [86] Although it was initially planned to extend the line by 2030, [87] [88] Second Minister for Transport Ng Chee Meng announced on 7 June 2017 that the 1.6-kilometre (0.99 mi) extension would be moved up to 2023 in conjunction with development plans for the area. [89] [90] [91]

The contract for the extension was awarded to China State Construction Engineering Corporation Limited (Singapore Branch) in December, and construction began that month. [92] [93] [94] Although tunneling was completed on 13 November 2020, transport minister Ong Ye Kung said at the tunnel breakthrough ceremony that the Punggol Coast station's completion would be delayed until 2024 due to delays caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. [95] [96]

Network and operations

Service

See caption
Map of the line

In 2022, the NEL had a daily ridership of 527,000. [2] [3] The line operates between 5:30 am and 12:30 am. On weekdays and Saturdays, the first train leaves Punggol (the northern terminus) at 5:42 am; the last train leaves HarbourFront (the southern terminus) at 11:56 pm. [97] Trains run every 2.5 to 5 minutes, [98] and the line's total travel time is 32 minutes. [99]

The NEL initially had a higher fare than the North South and East West lines due to greater operating costs. [100] On 30 December 2016, however, fares were lowered to match the other lines with a "purely distance-based approach". This revision, made after a fare review by the Public Transport Council, was intended to minimise commuter confusion. [101] [102]

The first line operated by SBS Transit, [37] the NEL has been part of the New Rail Financing Framework (NRFF) since 2018. Previously, the operator (the owner of the rail assets) had to bear the cost of maintaining and upgrading trains and signalling. Under the NRFF, the LTA and SBS Transit will share the profits and financial risks in operating the line and the LTA will take control of its operating assets on 1 April 2033. SBS Transit will operate the line under a 15-year licence which will expire on 31 March 2033. [103] [104]

Route

As its name implies, the fully-underground 20-kilometre (12 mi) NEL runs from Singapore's city centre to the northeastern parts of the island. [105] The line goes northeast from HarbourFront station, paralleling New Bridge Road and Eu Tong Street in Chinatown between the Outram Park and Clarke Quay stations. Passing under the Singapore River and Fort Canning Hill to Dhoby Ghaut station, it continues north to Little India station under Bukit Timah Road. Following Race Course Road and Serangoon Road through Little India and Boon Keng, it crosses the Whampoa and Kallang Rivers before reaching Potong Pasir. [106]

Between the Potong Pasir and Kovan stations, the NEL parallels Upper Serangoon Road before curving north to Hougang station. The line then runs along Hougang Avenue 6 and Sengkang Central to Sengkang station in Sengkang and its terminus in Punggol. [106] The NEL is expected to continue towards the Punggol Coast station in 2024, curving east past Punggol. [107] The line is coloured purple on official maps. [108]

Stations

The line has 16 stations from HarbourFront to Punggol. Eight stations (eventually nine upon completion of Cross Island line) connect to other MRT/LRT lines. [109] Punggol Coast, the seventeenth station on the line, is scheduled to open in 2024. [110] A station designated "NE2", which was included in the 1991 master plan between HarbourFront and Outram Park, [111] may be built if development warrants it. [1]

Station code Name Images Interchange;
Adjacent transportation
Opening
 NE1  CC29  HarbourFront Symmetrical view of HarbourFront station platform   Circle Line 

HarbourFront
20 June 2003;
21 years ago
 NE3  EW16  TE17 
Outram Park View of Outram Park island platform   East–West Line 
  Thomson–East Coast Line 
 NE4  DT19 
Chinatown View of Chinatown island platform   Downtown Line 
 NE5 
Clarke Quay View of Clarke Quay island platform
 NE6  NS24  CC1 
Dhoby Ghaut View of Dhoby Ghaut island platform   North–South Line 
  Circle Line 
 NE7  DT12 
Little India Symmetrical view of Little India station platform   Downtown Line 
 NE8 
Farrer Park View of Farrer Park island platform
 NE9 
Boon Keng View of Boon Keng island platform
 NE10 
Potong Pasir View of Potong Pasir island platform
 NE11 
Woodleigh View of Woodleigh island platform
20 June 2011;
13 years ago
 NE12  CC13 
Serangoon View of Serangoon island platform   Circle Line 

Serangoon
20 June 2003;
21 years ago
 NE13 
Kovan View of Kovan island platform
 NE14 
Hougang View of Hougang island platform   Cross Island Line  (2030)

Hougang Central
 NE15 
Buangkok Symmetrical view of Buangkok island platform
15 January 2006;
18 years ago
 NE16  STC 
Sengkang Symmetrical view of Sengkang island platform   Sengkang LRT 

Sengkang
20 June 2003;
21 years ago
 NE17  PTC 
Punggol View of Punggol island platform   Punggol LRT 
  CRL Punggol Extension  (2032)

Punggol
 NE18 
Punggol Coast
2024;
0 years ago

Infrastructure

Rolling stock

Refer to caption
Alstom Metropolis C751A trains stabled in Sengkang Depot
View of the underground tunnel with the overhead lines powering the train
The NEL is the only line that uses an overhead catenary electrification system.

The NEL's rolling stock has six-car electric multiple unit (EMU) trains, with four doors per side on each carriage, and can accommodate up to 1,920 passengers per trainset. [112] [113] Twenty-five first-generation Alstom Metropolis C751A trains were ordered, [30] [114] built in France by Alstom in 2000 and 2001. [112] An additional 18 second-generation Alstom Metropolis C751C trains, an updated version of the C751A, [115] were delivered to Singapore beginning in July 2014 [116] [117] and were built in Shanghai between 2014 and 2016. [112] To increase the line extension's passenger capacity, an additional six third-generation Alstom Metropolis C851E trains were ordered. [118] [119] Built in Barcelona, [112] the first trainset arrived in Singapore on 4 April 2021 and entered service on 28 July 2023. [120] [121]

The automatic trains are controlled by an operations control centre (OCC) at Sengkang Depot. The fleet's brake systems permit smooth, quiet stopping. [122] Train speeds can reach 100 km/h (62 mph). [113] Safety features include closed-circuit television cameras for train interiors and a passenger emergency communications system which allows communication between passengers and the OCC. [122] The trains have wide seats and dedicated space for wheelchair users. [123]

The trains are made of fire-resistant materials and include fire and smoke detectors and a fire barrier under its frame. [113] They have a pair of beams ( rail guards) which detect obstacles in the train's path; smaller debris is swept away, and the train automatically stops if the beams detect larger objects. [124] A 1,500V overhead catenary system (OCS) powers the trains, [d] the MRT network's first electrical system of that type. The OCS provides a safer environment for maintenance workers on the tracks and is less expensive, with a smaller conductor. [126] In an emergency when the train is stopped, the doors on both sides can be opened easily without electricity and ramps lower for passenger evacuation in the tunnels. [127] [128]

In 2019, the first-generation trains began undergoing a mid-life refurbishment which is scheduled for completion by the third quarter of 2024. [114] Upgrades include the replacement of interior parts and the installation of a new condition-monitoring system which will monitor train performance. [129] The first refurbished train re-entered service on 28 February 2022. [130]

With the passenger trains, the NEL tunnels and tracks are maintained by a fleet of engineering trains. There are four types of engineering trains: the locomotive, for towing wagons with equipment; the heavy crane vehicle, for changing tracks; the multi-function vehicle, for detecting flaws on rails and in tunnels; and the rail-grinding machine, for grinding rails back into shape. [131] The engineering trains are manufactured by Plasser & Theurer, Speno, and Harsco Rail. [132] A new fleet of engineering trains has been supplied by CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive. [133]

Depot

View of a glass-covered blue building (the depot administrative building) along a road
Sengkang Depot administrative building

The Sengkang Depot, located along Sengkang East Avenue between the Buangkok and Sengkang stations, is the service and storage area for NEL trains. [106] [134] [135] Built by Hyundai Engineering and Construction for S$350 million (US$235.72 million), [136] [137] the 27 ha (67-acre) depot includes the OCC [138] which monitors the line's train and station operations. [139]

The depot can accommodate up to 44 trains, [139] with three additional stabling tracks being built for the NELe as of 2019. [125] It also houses LRT trains for the Sengkang and Punggol LRT lines above the depot. [138] [140]

Its facilities include a four-storey administrative building, maintenance bays, a workshop and an automated warehouse. The depot's workshop has equipment which can raise an entire train for repairs, Singapore's first such workshop. Using the NEL's signalling system, train movement in the depot is mainly automatic. Staff members access the area via three dedicated tunnels for safety reasons. [141]

The OCC also controls the equipment and systems of tunnels, stations, power substations and the depot, which are integrated into one terminal. The systems are managed by four or five rotating teams working around the clock. Alongside a training and software-development room, the OCC has a depot control centre to monitor and supervise its operations. [139] [142]

Signalling

The NEL is fully automatic, [143] using Alstom's Urbalis 300 moving-block signalling system. [113] The NEL is the world's first fully automated heavy-rail system. [144] Its construction allowed the LTA to explore, integrate and implement new and existing technology as part of its vision of a fully-automated system. [145] The line's automatic train control (ATC) is based on Alstom's MASTRIA software, which also manages its automatic train protection (ATP) and automatic train operation (ATO) GoA 4 (UTO). The Urbalis system also includes a computer-based Interlocking system which controls the track switches and interfaces with the ATC and the data-management system. The DMS, monitored by station staff, oversees the signalling equipment, platform doors and trains. [113]

The ATP system maintains a buffer between trains. [146] The minimum permitted distance is 30 metres (98 ft), although the average distance between trains is at least 600 metres (2,000 ft). [124] Using microwave technology, the IAGO waveguide (Informatisation et Automatisation par Guide d'Onde or waveguide transmission line system for computer and automation applications) [147] allows two-way communication between trains and monitors the trains' positions and movements. If a train enters the buffer, the ATP automatically adjusts the train's speed. [146]

At least 500 computer systems control the NEL. In case of a glitch, backup systems would take over; the system would "go to sleep" if it experiences a severe malfunction. In the event of system failure, drivers would be deployed to manually operate the trains. [128] [143] The NEL maintains its " mean kilometres between failures" target of one million train-km (620,000 train-miles). As part of an NEL refurbishment programme announced on 17 December 2018, parts of the power and signalling systems were serviced and new rail crossings and tracks installed. [129]

Station facilities

Every station has a passenger service centre (PSC) on its concourse. [148] The PSCs are generally curved, unlike the boxier designs of those in older MRT stations. [149] In addition to assisting passengers and checking and topping up their fare cards, the PSC staff monitors and controls the functions of connecting tunnels and communicates with the OCC at the depot. When a station is used as a civil-defence (CD) shelter, the PSC becomes the command centre. [148]

Each NEL station is equipped with "energy-smart" Otis escalators connecting its levels. Their speed is reduced by half when not in use, reducing energy consumption and wear and tear. The Woodleigh station has one of the longest sets of escalators at 38.5 metres (126 ft). In addition to escalators, Dhoby Ghaut is the first MRT station with a set of 55-metre (180 ft) travellators which link the NEL and NSL platforms. [150]

All NEL stations have lifts which provide step-free access to their platforms. [151] Most of the lifts have glass doors, which improve appearance and enhance security. Each lift has a communications system, connected to the station's PSC. If a lift stalls during a station blackout, a battery-powered backup system provides lighting and ventilation for four hours. [152]

Accessibility

Refer to caption
Tactile tiles on the floor linking to the station lift at Outram Park station. The station, being close to Singapore General Hospital, has wheelchairs provided for the elderly. [153]

In compliance with Singapore's Code on Barrier-Free Accessibility, NEL stations have wheelchair-friendly facilities. [154] Each station has an entrance that was built with barrier-free access via lifts and ramps, [155] in contrast to older stations on previous lines which are being retrofitted. [156]

The NEL has the MRT's first tactile system. Consisting of tiles with raised rounded or elongated studs, the system intends to guide visually-impaired commuters through a station on a dedicated route from entrance to platforms. [59] [155] Station seats have armrests to assist those who have difficulty getting up. [154]

These accessibility features were part of the recommendations of a LTA working group set up to improve accessibility on the MRT network. Associations representing the disabled were also consulted. The group completed its findings in 1999; only some of its recommendations had been adopted by 2003, since station infrastructure was nearly completed by then. [155]

Safety

The station platform is separated from an incoming train by the platform screen doors.
Platform screen doors at Boon Keng station

Westinghouse supplied 768 pairs of platform screen doors (PSDs) to the NEL's original 16 stations. The PSDs are a safety barrier between passengers on platforms and trains. [157] [158] The PSDs enable climate control in a station, minimising the loss of cool air from the platforms and preventing warm air from entering the station from the tunnels. [159] The Punggol Coast station's PSDs will be supplied by ST Engineering Electronics. [160] The platforms have emergency-stop plungers (ESPs) to halt trains in an emergency. [161]

More than 10,000 smoke and heat detectors are installed in the NEL's stations as part of the line's fire-alarm system. [162] The alarm, which automatically alerts SBS Transit of any faults in the system, is integrated with the public address system; instead of alarm bells, pre-recorded messages would assist commuters in evacuating. In addition to the detectors, sprinkler and hose reel systems, dry riser pipeworks and an inert-gas system would contain a fire. [163]

During a fire, escalators could be shut down remotely from the PSC and the fare gates opened for evacuation. The air-conditioning system would be shut down to minimise re-circulation of smoke. [164] An installed "smoke curtain" system controls smoke movement, and automatic smoke-extraction fans remove any contained smoke. [159]

Civil defence

An opened door leads into the decontamination facilities.
The decontamination faciliities at Potong Pasir station

All NEL stations except Dhoby Ghaut, Sengkang and Punggol are designated civil-defence (CD) shelters. [165] [166] Each CD station is designed to accommodate at least 7,500 people and withstand airstrikes and chemical attacks. Equipment essential for shelter operations is mounted on shock absorbers to prevent damage during a bombing. When electricity supply to the shelter is disrupted, backup generators are used. [167]

During emergencies, large sliding doors would seal the entrances and the tunnel portals would be manually sealed by blast doors. [167] [168] The shelters have built-in decontamination chambers and dry toilets, with collection bins which would remove human waste from the shelter. The toilets are next to an exhaust ventilation outlet to remove odors. [169]

Culture

Architecture

Station architecture
View of the concourse level with the elliptical motif, with an open view of the platform below
HarbourFront station, with its elliptical ship-hull motif
A rectangular-shaped entrance at the street level, with leaf-shaped patterns on the metal grills of the entrance's exterior
Entrance to Little India station, with leaf-shaped patterns on metal grills
Photograph of Serangoon station entrance, encased in a blue cubic structure
Each of the triangular entrances at the Serangoon station is enclosed by a cubic structure.
Open view of the wide concourse level with pillars supporting the structure. A set of escalators ahead leads to the underground platforms.
Sengkang station concourse

Each of the 16 NEL stations has a unique design which reflects its location. [170] The HarbourFront station has a maritime theme, with an elliptical ship's-hull motif used for the ceiling and concourse entrances to the platforms. [171] At Little India, the station walls' metal grills have leaf-shaped patterns similar to the door patterns of Hindu prayer rooms. [170] The station's design was intended to reflect Indian traditions. [172]

Station entrances use glass, allowing natural lighting during the day. [170] Exit A of the Chinatown station has a transparent pavilion-style roof, which allows natural light and provides an unobstructed view of the shophouses along Pagoda Street. [109] [173] At Serangoon, each of its four triangular-shaped entrances is painted a different colour and enclosed in a cubic structure. [105] Unlike at the other NEL stations, the entrances to Buangkok do not use glass; white Teflon sheets are supported by metal frames. [170]

Dhoby Ghaut station is the MRT network's largest, [174] and the five-level station is integrated with the twin-towered office complex Atrium@Orchard above it. [175] The network's first such integration of an MRT station with a commercial development, [174] [176] it permits more efficient land use and improves access to public transport. [177] The station's NEL platforms, 28 metres (92 ft) underground, are some of the MRT's deepest. [178]

The four-level Sengkang station [179] [180] is an integrated hub, with Singapore's three public-transport modes – MRT, LRT and bus – serving the Sengkang area. The MRT/LRT station was the MRT network's first intermodal station for all three transport modes. [109] [181] In addition to its transport facilities, the station is integrated with the Compass Heights and Compass Point developments. [179] [181] [182]

Designed by the 3HPArchitects and Farrells architectural firms, [183] [184] the Punggol station is integrated with the LRT station and the bus interchange. [185] Its curved aluminium and stainless-steel cladding gives the station a futuristic look befitting the Punggol 21 developments. [186] [187] Covering 320 metres (350 yards) along Punggol Central to accommodate bus stops, taxi stands and passenger drop-off points along the road, the station is the NEL's longest. [187]

Artworks

The line introduced the MRT's Art in Transit (AiT) programme, which showcases art in the network. [188] Eighteen works by 19 artists are featured in its stations. [189] Artists were selected by an art-review panel, which reviewed the artists' portfolios and managed conceptual development. [190] Considered a "significant milestone" for public art in Singapore, [191] AiT aims to enhance the riding experience. [188] Unlike artwork in the original North–South and East–West Line (NSEWL) stations, the works must be integrated into a station's design and reflect the history and heritage of its surroundings. [189] [192]

Artwork list [188]
Station code Station name Artwork name Artist(s)
 NE1  CC29  HarbourFront Engimatic Appearances Ian Woo
 NE3  EW16  TE17  Outram Park Memories Wang Lu Sheng
Commuters Teo Eng Seng
 NE4  DT19  Chinatown The Phoenix's-Eye Domain Tan Swie Hian
 NE5  Clarke Quay The Reflections Chua Ek Kay
 NE6  NS24  CC1  Dhoby Ghaut Interchange Milenko and Delia Prvacki
Universal Language Sun Yu-Li
 NE7  DT12  Little India Memoirs of the Past S. Chandrasekaran
 NE8  Farrer Park Rhythmic Exuberance Poh Siew Wah
 NE9  Boon Keng Metamorphosis Lim Poh Teck
 NE10  Potong Pasir Point of View Matthew Ngui
 NE11  Woodleigh Slow Motion April Ng
 NE12  CC13  Serangoon Memories of Childhood Eng Joo Heng
 NE13  Kovan The Trade-off Eng Tow
 NE14  Hougang Hands Up for Hougang Seck Yok Ying
 NE15  Buangkok Water, Nature & Contemporary Vincent Leow
 NE16  STC  Sengkang T.R.A.N.S.I.T.I.O.N.S. Koh Bee Liang
 NE17  PTC  Punggol Water, Landscape & Future Goh Beng Kwan

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ A future station, between HarbourFront and Outram Park, is possible. [1]
  2. ^ Line lengths of other operational lines: The North-South line at 45 km (28 mi); [4] East-West line at 57.2 km (35.5 mi); [5] Circle line at 35 km (22 mi); [6] Downtown line at 42 km (26 mi); [7] Thomson–East Coast line at 29.8 km (18.5 mi). [8]
  3. ^ The North-South line, from Yew Tee to Sembawang. [17]
  4. ^ The NELe will use a Siemens overhead conductor rail instead of an OCS. [125]

References

  1. ^ a b "Why No Station Between NE1, NE3". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 30 July 2003. p. 17.
  2. ^ a b "Condensed Financial Statements for the Second Half and Full Year Ended 31 December 2022 and Dividend Announcement" (PDF). SBS Transit. p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2023. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  3. ^ a b Tan, Christopher (22 February 2023). "SBS Transit Reports 32% Rise in Full-Year Earnings to $68M on Back of Higher Ridership". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  4. ^ "North-South Line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  5. ^ "East-West Line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  6. ^ "Circle Line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Downtown Line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Thomson-East Coast Line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  9. ^ Lim, Soon Neo (26 September 1984). "Study on Future North-East Line". Business Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  10. ^ Dhaliwal, Rav (26 September 1984). "Study into MRT North-East Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 44. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  11. ^ Dhaliwal, Rav (7 December 1984). "British Team Selected". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  12. ^ Dhaliwal, Rav (30 March 1986). "Serangoon and Hougang May Be Next on MRT Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 10. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  13. ^ Dhaliwal, Rav (6 October 1987). "MRTC Okays Extension to Punggol, Jalan Kayu". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  14. ^ "Land to Be Set Aside for Punggol Extension". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 7 April 1987. p. 1. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  15. ^ "Long Term Development Plans for Tekong and Ubin Revealed". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 24 February 1991. p. 16. Retrieved 18 April 2023 – via NewspaperSG.
  16. ^ "North-Easterly MRT Route Will Depend on Demand". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 21 January 1989. p. 20. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  17. ^ "Woodlands MRT Line". Infopedia. National Library Board. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  18. ^ "MRT Link to N-E When Enough People Live There". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 16 January 1992. p. 26. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  19. ^ a b Tan, Sumiko (15 May 1993). "N-E Line Still on the Horizon". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 16. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  20. ^ "MRTC to Update Its Plans for North-East Sector, Link to Airport". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 6 September 1994. p. 18. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  21. ^ Leong, Chan Teik (15 July 1995). "North-East MRT Line to Cost Up to $5B". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 2. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  22. ^ a b Leong, Chan Teik (23 October 1995). "Govt Wants to Speed Up Construction: Mah". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 24 January 2023. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  23. ^ Leong, Chan Teik (9 October 1995). "Mah's Poser: Will Users Pay More to Get It Faster?". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 3. Retrieved 22 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  24. ^ Leong, Chan Teik (3 January 1996). "Govt Spells Out Its Vision of Top Transport System". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 December 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  25. ^ White Paper: A World Class Land Transport System (PDF). Singapore: Land Transport Authority. 1996. pp. 45–46. ISBN  978-9971-88-488-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  26. ^ Leong, Chan Teik (20 January 1996). "Immediate Start for North-East Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  27. ^ a b Leong, Chan Teik (5 March 1996). "16 MRT Stations for 20-km North-East Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 24 January 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  28. ^ Gascon, George (6 March 1996). "Residents in N-E Corridor Happy with Station Sites". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 16.
  29. ^ "Line a Relief to People and Boon for Commerce". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 6 March 1996. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2023 – via NewspaperSG.
  30. ^ a b "Projects – Rail". Land Transport Authority. 9 February 2004. Archived from the original on 9 February 2004. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  31. ^ Leong 2003, p. 33.
  32. ^ "They Have to Move to Make Way for the MRT Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 6 March 1996. p. 17. Retrieved 24 January 2023 – via NewspaperSG.
  33. ^ "Those Moving Out First Want More Time to House-Hunt". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 5 July 1996. p. 53. Retrieved 24 January 2023 – via NewspaperSG.
  34. ^ "Speech by Mr Mah Bow Tan, Minister for Communications at the Ground Breaking Ceremony for the NEL 25 Nov 97 at 5.30 pm at Farrer Park Station Site (Junction of Owen and Race Course Road)". National Archives of Singapore. 25 November 1997. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  35. ^ Kaur, Karamjit (26 November 1997). "Drilling Begins for N-E Line … at the Push of a Button". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Retrieved 14 March 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  36. ^ Kaur, Karamjit (21 May 1999). "SBS to Run North-East Line, Tibs to Merge with SMRT". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Appointment of Operator for the North East MRT Line". National Archives of Singapore. 20 May 1999. Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  38. ^ Leong 2003, p. 64.
  39. ^ Lim, Alan; G. Chandradas (31 May 2002). "Chinatown Back on Track – It Will Be an Even More Vibrant Hub". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 4.
  40. ^ Leong 2003, p. 84.
  41. ^ Leong 2003, p. 52.
  42. ^ Leong 2003, p. 88.
  43. ^ "Building of N-E MRT Line: Serangoon to See Detours; More Parking". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 8 February 1998. p. 23.
  44. ^ "3 Stations Identified but Will Not Be Built Yet". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 5 March 1996. p. 1. Archived from the original on 24 January 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  45. ^ Leong 2003, p. 161.
  46. ^ Leong 2003, p. 189.
  47. ^ Tan, Christopher (30 March 1998). "Punggol MRT Station to Get an Early Start". Business Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 2.
  48. ^ "Sennett or Potong Pasir: 2 Views". The Straits Times. 6 March 1996. p. 17. Retrieved 24 January 2023 – via NewspaperSG.
  49. ^ "MRT in Potong Pasir if PAP Wins?". Business Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 27 October 2001. p. 3.
  50. ^ Kaur, Karamjit; Vijayan, K. C. (28 February 2002). "MRT Trains to Stop at Potong Pasir After All". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 26 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  51. ^ Koo, Leslie (11 August 2001). "SBS' Train Chief Right on Track for New Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 6.
  52. ^ Nadarajan, Ben (8 June 2003). "North-East Line Set to Roll on June 20". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 3.
  53. ^ Kaur, Karamjit; Yeow, Stephanie (3 June 2002). "Staff Train Hard for Opening of N-E Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 2.
  54. ^ Kaur, Karamjit (8 September 2002). "No Rush to Open N-E MRT Line by Year-End". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 4.
  55. ^ "Opening of North East Line". Ministry of Transport. 21 January 2003. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  56. ^ Kaur, Karamjit; Leong, Chan Teik (21 March 2003). "N-E Line Delayed Again, to Start in May or June". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 7.
  57. ^ Leong, Chan Teik (20 March 2003). "SBS Seeks Govt Compensation over N-E Line Delay". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 22.
  58. ^ a b c Lim, Kenneth (18 June 2003). "Two of 16 NEL Stations Won't Open on Debut". Business Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 2.
  59. ^ a b "North East Line Opens for Passenger Service!". Land Transport Authority. 20 June 2003. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  60. ^ "PM GOH VISITS NORTH EAST LINE AT SENGKANG MRT STATION". 28 June 2003. Retrieved 18 July 2024.
  61. ^ Goh, Chin Lian (21 June 2003). "It's a Smooth Ride on NEL – Mostly". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2023. Minor hitches aside, the North-East Line got off to a smooth start yesterday
  62. ^ a b "Speech by Deputy Prime Minister Mr Lee Hsien Loong at the Official Opening of the North East Line and Sengkang LRT System on 28 August 2003". Ministry of Transport. 28 August 2003. Archived from the original on 10 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  63. ^ Goh, Chin Lian (1 September 2003). "North-East Line Gets Good Scorecard for First 70 Days". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 2.
  64. ^ "NEL Hailed by World Body As Model for Public Transport". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 5 July 2003. p. 15.
  65. ^ Goh, Chin Lian (18 June 2004). "Year-Old NEL Did Better than Expected". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 4.
  66. ^ "SBS Transit Celebrates First Anniversary Of Northeast Line". SBS Transit. 20 June 2004. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  67. ^ Chow, Clarice; Chia, Jean; Zhan, Mina (2018). Integrating Land Use & Mobility: Supporting Sustainable Growth (PDF). Singapore: Centre for Liveable Cities. p. 57. ISBN  978-981-11-7091-1.
  68. ^ Loh, Sherwin (18 June 2003). "Buangkok MRT Delay Frustrates Commuters". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 3.
  69. ^ Goh, Chin Lian; Hussin, Aziz (29 August 2003). "Buangkok Station May Open in Three Years". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 3.
  70. ^ Chandradas, G; Lim, Seng Young; Goh, Chin Lian (15 August 2003). "SBS Transit 'Made Mistakes' over Buangkok Station". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 5.
  71. ^ Kwek, Ken (20 September 2005). "LTA Needs a Few Months for Buangkok Review". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 3.
  72. ^ Loo, Serene; Leow, Joanne (27 July 2005). "Residents Willing to Walk over 400 Metres to Buangkok Station: Survey". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 1 December 2005.
  73. ^ "Buangkok Station to Open on Jan 15". Today. Mediacorp. 30 December 2005. p. 4. Retrieved 25 August 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  74. ^ Zahara, Rita (1 January 2006). "Buangkok MRT Station to Open on January 15". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 1 January 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  75. ^ "Buangkok NEL Station Commences Revenue Service amid Great Fanfare". SBS Transit. 15 January 2006. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  76. ^ Koo, Edwin; Tan, Theresa (16 January 2006). "All Aboard at 'White Elephant' Station". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 4.
  77. ^ a b Goh, Chin Lian (24 January 2006). "Poor Buangkok MRT Ridership Since Opening". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. H4.
  78. ^ a b Fong, Samantha; Huang, Esther; Wong, Cheric (23 February 2006). "Aiyoh, So Creepy at Night". The New Paper. Singapore Press Holdings.
  79. ^ Tan, Christopher (11 June 2011). "All Aboard for Woodleigh Train Stop". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 8.
  80. ^ Tan, Christopher; Chang, Ai-Eun (14 July 2003). "Closed MRT Station Running Up Power Bill". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 3.
  81. ^ "Buangkok, Woodleigh Closed Until…". Today. Mediacorp. Channel NewsAsia. 14 July 2003. p. 3.
  82. ^ Tan, Christopher (22 January 2011). "Woodleigh Station May Open by June". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 14.
  83. ^ Tan, Christopher (9 March 2011). "Plans to Ramp Up Rail Capacity on Fast Track". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 December 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  84. ^ Durai, Jennani (21 June 2011). "Woodleigh MRT Station Finally Opens – To Some Confusion". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 2.
  85. ^ Ramesh, S (20 June 2011). "Train Finally Arrives at Woodleigh MRT Station". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  86. ^ "Speech by Mr Lui Tuck Yew at Visit to DTL1 Chinatown Station on 17 January 2013". Ministry of Transport. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  87. ^ "Two New Rail Lines and Three New Extensions to Expand Rail Network by 2030". Land Transport Authority. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014.
  88. ^ "Annex: New Lines and Extensions" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2014.
  89. ^ Lim, Kenneth (7 June 2017). "New Train Station in Punggol North by 2023". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  90. ^ Abdullah, Zhaki (7 June 2017). "North-East Line Extension Serving Punggol North to Open in 2023 Instead of 2030; to Cater to Developments in the Punggol Area". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  91. ^ "Upcoming Projects – Rail Expansion – North East Line Extension". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  92. ^ "LTA Awards Contract for the Construction of Tunnels for North East Line Extension". Land Transport Authority. 8 December 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  93. ^ "North-East Line Extension: LTA Awards S$79m Contract to China State Construction Engineering". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. 8 December 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020.
  94. ^ Abdullah, Zhaki (8 December 2017). "China State Construction Engineering Wins $79M Contract for North-East Line Extension Tunnels". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  95. ^ Yong, Clement (13 November 2020). "Punggol Coast MRT Station Ready by 2024, 40% of Work Completed". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  96. ^ Abdullah, Zhaki (13 November 2020). "Opening of New Punggol Coast MRT Station to Be Delayed to 2024". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  97. ^ "First Train/ Last Train". SBS Transit. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  98. ^ "Transport Tools – MRT/LRT". Land Transport Authority. 6 May 2020. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  99. ^ "Travel Time". SBS Transit. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  100. ^ "No Revision to Bus and Train Fares and New NEL Fare Structure Approved". Ministry of Transport. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  101. ^ Abdullah, Zhaki (10 October 2016). "Public Transport Fares May Be Standardised". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  102. ^ "PTC Reduces Bus and Rail Fares". Public Transport Council. 26 October 2016. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  103. ^ "North East Line, Sengkang LRT and Punggol LRT to Transit to the New Rail Financing Framework: Completion of the Transition of All Existing Rail Lines, Benefitting Commuters". Land Transport Authority. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  104. ^ Abdullah, Zhaki (14 February 2018). "LTA to Take Over North East Line, Sengkang-Punggol LRT Assets Worth $30.8M". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  105. ^ a b "North East Line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  106. ^ a b c "OneMap". OneMap. Singapore Land Authority. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  107. ^ "Alignment of NELe and Tunnels Between Punggol and Punggol Coast Stations" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  108. ^ "MRT System Map" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2020.
  109. ^ a b c "North East Line". Land Transport Authority. 29 July 2020. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  110. ^ "Future System Map" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  111. ^ "Past Long-Term Plans". Urban Redevelopment Authority. 17 February 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  112. ^ a b c d "Alstom in Singapore" (PDF). Alstom. 8 December 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  113. ^ a b c d e "Singapore Northeast Line" (PDF). Alstom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  114. ^ a b "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) & SBS Transit – Enhancement Works for the North East Line to Commence in 2019". Land Transport Authority. 17 December 2018. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  115. ^ "Alstom to Supply 34 Metropolis Trains and Signaling Upgrade to Singapore Metro". Alstom. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  116. ^ "From Next Year – Shorter Waits and More Comfortable Rides on Circle Line and North East Line". Land Transport Authority. 23 July 2014. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  117. ^ Sim, Royston (23 July 2014). "First New Circle and North East Line Trains Arrive". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 17 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  118. ^ Lim, Adrian (30 April 2018). "Alstom to Supply 17 New MRT Trains for North East Line and Circle Line". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  119. ^ "Alstom to Supply 17 Additional Metropolis Trains for Singapore Circle Line and North East Line". The French Chamber of Commerce in Singapore. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  120. ^ "First of Six New Trains for North-East Line Arrived in Singapore". Unscrambled.sg. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  121. ^ "New Trains for North East Line to be Rolled Out for Passenger Service from 28 July 2023". Land Transport Authority. Retrieved 27 July 2023.
  122. ^ a b Ng, Hwee Koon (31 March 2001). "Too Smart to Need Driver". Today. Mediacorp. p. 2 – via NewspaperSG.
  123. ^ Leong 2003, p. 231.
  124. ^ a b Hashim, Jaleha; Kaur, Karamjit (20 November 2002). "Driverless MRT Trains on New Line Will Be Safe". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 10.
  125. ^ a b Tan, Christopher (11 February 2019). "Siemens Lands $111M Deal to Supply Power Systems for 2 MRT Extensions". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  126. ^ Leong 2003, pp. 242–243.
  127. ^ Leong 2003, p. 229.
  128. ^ a b Leong, Chan Teik; Tien, Chung Ping; Lee, Raymond; How, Hwee Young; Oh, Bobby (24 February 2003). "N-E Line Driverless, but Many Eyes Keep Watch". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 5.
  129. ^ a b Lim, Adrian (17 December 2018). "North East Line to Undergo Major Renewal Project Next Year". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  130. ^ Kok, Yufeng (27 February 2022). "Refurbished North East Line Train to Enter Service from Feb 28; First of 25 to Get Mid-Life Upgrade". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  131. ^ "We Call Them Yellow Submarines". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 8 June 2003. p. 8.
  132. ^ "MFV Keeps NEL Under Surveillance". Railway Gazette International. 1 July 2003. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  133. ^ 宋, 清林; 林, 建华; 陈, 征 (16 November 2020). "C838B型内燃电力地铁工程车的燃油箱设计_参考网" [Fuel Tank Design for the C838B Internal Combustion Electric Metro Construction Vehicle]. 过期杂志阅读平台_参考网 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  134. ^ Leong 2003, p. 199.
  135. ^ Leong 2003, p. 185.
  136. ^ "LTA Awards 5 More Contracts for N-E MRT Line". The Straits Times. 27 July 1997. p. 34.
  137. ^ "Architects61 – Infrastructure – Sengkang MRT Depot". a61.com.sg. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  138. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 201.
  139. ^ a b c Leong 2003, p. 207.
  140. ^ "New Two-Car Trains for Sengkang-Punggol LRT". Land Transport Authority. 5 February 2021. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  141. ^ Leong 2003, pp. 202–204.
  142. ^ "I Saw This Baby Through Its Birth". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 8 June 2003.
  143. ^ a b "Who's Driving the Train?". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 16 April 2003. p. 20.
  144. ^ Yeoh, Grace (12 November 2022). "In Focus: 35 Years of People and Purpose". Channel NewsAsia. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 28 February 2023. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
  145. ^ Leong 2003, pp. 19, 24.
  146. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 226.
  147. ^ Leong 2003, p. 225.
  148. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 216.
  149. ^ Leong 2003, p. 217.
  150. ^ Leong 2003, p. 210.
  151. ^ "Station Facilities". SBS Transit. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  152. ^ Leong 2003, p. 213.
  153. ^ Ang, Ildyko (15 August 2017). "Elderly, Disabled Commuters Get Helping Hand at Outram MRT". Today. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  154. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 250.
  155. ^ a b c Leong 2003, p. 248.
  156. ^ Kaur, Karamjit (24 December 2002). "More MRT Stops Ready for Disabled". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 1. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  157. ^ "Platform Screen Doors: North East Line". Westinghouse Platform Screen Doors. Westinghouse. 15 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  158. ^ "Platform Screen Doors: What Are PSDs". Westinghouse Platform Screen Doors. Westinghouse. 7 July 2007. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  159. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 239.
  160. ^ "Annual Report 2018/19" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. p. 61. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  161. ^ Leong 2003, p. 219.
  162. ^ Leong 2003, p. 234.
  163. ^ Leong 2003, p. 236.
  164. ^ Leong 2003, p. 237.
  165. ^ "Chemical Attack? Clean-Up at N-E Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 14 February 2003. p. 1.
  166. ^ "List of Public CD shelters as of 31 Dec 2019" (PDF). SCDF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  167. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 253.
  168. ^ Tham, Davina (13 February 2023). "Discovering the Hidden Bomb Shelters in MRT Stations That Keep Singapore Safe". CNA. Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  169. ^ "Fancy That, Dry Toilets Grab Most Interest". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. 16 February 2003. p. 21.
  170. ^ a b c d Chew, Seng Kim; Veow, Stephanie; Fang, Joyce; Wong, Kwai Chow (7 August 2002). "Local Flavour for Stops Along N-E Line". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. p. 8.
  171. ^ Leong 2003, p. 45.
  172. ^ Leong 2003, p. 115.
  173. ^ Leong 2003, p. 72.
  174. ^ a b "Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station". SAA Architects. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  175. ^ Kaur, Karamjit (12 August 1997). "5 Underground Levels for New Dhoby Ghaut Station". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 12 February 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  176. ^ "North East Line: Dhoby Ghaut Station". Land Transport Authority. p. 2. Archived from the original on 4 July 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2020 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  177. ^ "Topping-Out Of Commercial Development Above Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station". Land Transport Authority. 12 April 2001. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  178. ^ "Photo Gallery – Integrated Developments and Interchange Stations". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011.
  179. ^ a b "North East Line: Sengkang Station". Land Transport Authority. p. 1. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2020 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  180. ^ "North East Line: Sengkang Station". Land Transport Authority. p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2020 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  181. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 183.
  182. ^ "Compass Heights". Frasers Property. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  183. ^ Tan 2003, p. 179.
  184. ^ "Punggol Station". Farrells. 19 July 2017. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  185. ^ "North East Line: Punggol Station". Land Transport Authority. p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2020 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  186. ^ "North East Line: Punggol Station". Land Transport Authority. p. 1. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2020 – via Web Archive Singapore.
  187. ^ a b Leong 2003, p. 194.
  188. ^ a b c "Art in Transit". Land Transport Authority. 26 October 2020. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  189. ^ a b "Speech by Mr Khaw Boon Wan at the Launch of the North East Line Art in Transit Programme on 6 June 2003". Ministry of Transport. Archived from the original on 10 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  190. ^ Tan 2003, pp. 16, 18.
  191. ^ Tan 2003, p. 172.
  192. ^ Tan 2003, pp. 14–15.

Bibliography