This is a good article. Click here for more information.

New York Stock Exchange Building

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New York Stock Exchange
NYC Landmark  No. 1529
NYC - New York Stock Exchange.JPG
Broad Street facade of the 18 Broad Street section of the building
Location18 Broad Street, Manhattan, New York
Coordinates 40°42′25″N 74°00′40″W / 40.70694°N 74.01111°W / 40.70694; -74.01111
Latitude and Longitude:

40°42′25″N 74°00′40″W / 40.70694°N 74.01111°W / 40.70694; -74.01111
Built1903
Architect Trowbridge & Livingston; George B. Post
Architectural style Classical Revival
Part of Wall Street Historic District ( ID07000063)
NRHP reference  No. 78001877
NYCL  No.1529
Significant dates
Added to NRHPJune 2, 1978 [1]
Designated NHLJune 2, 1978 [1]
Designated NYCLJuly 9, 1985

The New York Stock Exchange Building (also the NYSE Building) is a structure in the Financial District of Manhattan in New York City, serving as the headquarters of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). It is composed of two connected structures occupying two-thirds of the city block bounded by Wall Street, Broad Street, New Street, and Exchange Place. The central third of the block contains the original structure at 18 Broad Street, designed in the neoclassical style by George B. Post. The northern third contains a 23-story office annex at 11 Wall Street, designed by Trowbridge & Livingston in a similar style.

The marble facade of 18 Broad Street contains colonnades facing east toward Broad Street and west toward New Street, both atop two-story podiums. The Broad Street colonnade, an icon of the NYSE, contains a pediment designed by John Quincy Adams Ward, depicting commerce and industry. The facade of 11 Wall Street is simpler in design but contains architectural details similar to those at 18 Broad Street. Behind the colonnades at 18 Broad Street is the main trading floor, a 72-foot-tall (22 m) rectangular space. An additional trading floor, nicknamed the Garage, is at 11 Wall Street. There are offices and meeting rooms in the upper stories of 18 Broad Street and 11 Wall Street.

The NYSE had occupied the site on Broad Street since 1865, but had to expand its previous building several times due to overcrowding. The structure at 18 Broad Street was erected between 1901 and 1903, replacing the previous building. Within two decades, the NYSE's new building had become overcrowded, and the annex at 11 Wall Street was added between 1920 and 1922. Three more trading floors were added in the late 20th century to accommodate increasing demand, and there were several proposals to move the NYSE elsewhere during that time. With the growing popularity of electronic trading in the 2000s, the three newer trading floors were closed in 2007.

The building was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978 and designated a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1985. The building is also a contributing property to the Wall Street Historic District, a National Register of Historic Places district created in 2007.

Site

Pedestrian-only zone outside the NYSE Building

The New York Stock Exchange Building is in the Financial District of Manhattan, occupying the city block between Broad Street to the east, Wall Street to the north, New Street to the west, and Exchange Place to the south. [2] The lot has a total area of 31,350 square feet (2,913 m2). [3] Nearby buildings include 1 Wall Street to the west; 14 Wall Street to the north; Federal Hall National Memorial to the northeast; 23 Wall Street and 15 Broad Street to the east; Broad Exchange Building to the southeast; and 30 Broad Street to the south. [2] The Broad Street station of the New York City Subway, serving the J and ​ Z trains, originally contained two staircases that led to the sidewalk directly outside the New York Stock Exchange Building. [4] One stair was closed after the September 11 attacks in 2001, [5] while the other was closed in 2012. [6]

The NYSE Building is surrounded by a security zone that was created around the building after the September 11 attacks. In addition, a pedestrian-only zone was established along several blocks immediately surrounding the building. [7] Bollards were installed at several intersections around the building in the mid-2000s. [8] The Downtown Alliance, in 2017, proposed improvements to the pedestrian-only zone surrounding the NYSE Building. [9] [10] The plans included a series of benches placed around the Fearless Girl statue on the Broad Street side of the building. [11] [12] The improvements also included the removal of the Broad Street subway entrances, which was approved in 2019. [6]

Design

18 Broad Street (center left) and 11 Wall Street (center right)

The building houses the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the world's largest stock exchange per market capitalization of its listed companies. [13] It is at the same location as the NYSE's previous headquarters on the same site, which had dated to 1865. The NYSE Building is composed of two primary structures. The southern structure, at 18 Broad Street in the center of the block, was designed by George B. Post in the classical style and was completed in 1903, directly replacing the former headquarters. [14] [15] [16] The northern structure, at 11 Wall Street on the northern end of the block, has a frontage directly on Wall Street; it was designed by Trowbridge & Livingston and completed in 1922. [17] [18] Due to the site's sloping topography, the first floor is at ground level at the corner of Wall and New Streets, but is one level above Broad Street. [19] [20]

Facade

18 Broad Street

18 Broad Street, the older structure in the modern building, is at the center of the block. The structure has a facade of white Georgia marble and a roof 156 feet (48 m) above sidewalk level. [21] [22] 18 Broad Street has a frontage of 152 feet 10 inches (47 m) on New Street and 137 feet 8.5 inches (42 m) on Broad Street. [22] [23]

Facing Broad Street is a two-story podium made of granite blocks. The podium is subdivided into seven vertical bays of doorways at the basement, which on Broad Street is at ground level, as well as arched windows with balconies on the first story. [23] [24] Each of the basement openings is topped by a decorative lintel, while each short balcony is supported by brackets. [25] South of this podium on Broad Street are two additional bays, which contain an entrance to the offices near the trading floor. It contains a double-height arched opening at basement level, with a flat lintel containing the words stock exchange above the doors. The top of the arch has an ornamented keystone. [26] On New Street, the basement and first stories are clad with rusticated marble blocks, and the openings are simpler in design compared to the Broad Street facade. [27]

Broad Street colonnade, detailing the pediment

Above the podiums on either side are colonnades on the second through fifth stories, each of which have two flat pilasters flanking six columns. Each of the columns is 5.5 feet (1.7 m) in diameter and 52 feet (16 m) tall. [24] [28] [29] The columns on Broad Street are fluted, while those on New Street are not. [27] [30] There are wrought-iron railings between each column. [31] Behind each colonnade is a single massive window, [25] [29] [19] each measuring about 96 feet (29 m) wide by 50 feet (15 m) tall. [25] [a] Each window has 18-inch (460 mm) vertical iron mullions that can support the window's weight and push back against the 75 tons of wind pressure on each window. [32] [33] The southernmost two bays on Broad Street, outside the colonnade, contain pairs of windows on each of the second through eighth stories. [26]

The top of the colonnade on Broad Street is a triangular pediment, originally carved by the Piccirilli Brothers [34] to designs by John Quincy Adams Ward and Paul Wayland Bartlett. [24] [35] [36] The pediment measures about 100 feet (30 m) above the sidewalk and about 110 feet wide. [37] It is composed of eleven figures representing commerce and industry, each ranging between 5 and 16 feet (1.5 and 4.9 m) tall. [21] The central figure is a female representation of Integrity, flanked on the left by figures depicting Agriculture and Mining, and on the right by those depicting Science, Industry and Invention. [31] [38] [39] The figures, originally fashioned from marble, were replaced in 1936 with sheet metal carvings coated with lead. [21] [40] [41] A cornice with egg-and-dart moldings and lions' head carvings runs atop the Broad Street facade; it is topped by a parapet with a balustrade. [24] The New Street facade has a simple cornice. [31]

11 Wall Street

The northern annex at 11 Wall Street is 22 stories tall, or 23 including the ground-level basement on Broad Street, and is constructed of Georgia marble. [17] [16] [42] It occupies an irregular lot extending 58 feet (18 m) on Broad Street, 156 feet (48 m) on Wall Street, and 100 feet (30 m) on New Street. [43] [44] 11 Wall Street has an overall height of 258 feet (79 m). [42] The building's massing, or general form, incorporates several setbacks. At the ninth story, the building is set back from all facades except the Wall Street side. There are further setbacks at the nineteenth and twentieth stories, as well as a roof above the twenty-second story. A heavy cornice runs around 11 Wall Street above the eighteenth story. [17]

11 Wall Street entrance

The annex's main entrance, a chamfered corner at Wall and New Streets, consists of a rectangular doorway flanked by Doric columns and topped by a transom, entablature, and balustrade. The windows on 11 Wall Street are largely paired, rectangular sash windows. [45]

The 11 Wall Street annex contains design elements that visually connect it to the older building. On Broad Street, a belt course above the first story, two floors above street level, connects with the top of the podium on 18 Broad Street. The balustrade at the ninth story, ten floors above street level, connects with those atop 18 Broad Street. [17] Additionally, on the Wall Street facade is a small row of Corinthian-style flat pilasters flanking the second- through fifth-story windows. These pilasters are similar in design to the colonnades of 18 Broad Street. [17] [46]

Interior

The exchange is the locus for a large amount of technology and data. For example, the trading floor requires 3,500 kilowatts of electricity, along with 8,000 phone circuits on the trading floor alone, and 200 miles of fiber-optic cable below ground. [47]

When the building was first completed, pneumatic tubes and telephones were installed in the trading floor and other parts of the building to facilitate communications. [48] [49] Some 25,000 feet (7,600 m) of pipes were used to heat and cool the offices. Four boilers generated a combined 800 horsepower (600 kW) in steam, while three power generators were capable of a combined 1,040 horsepower (780 kW). [22] In addition, numerous elevators were constructed in the building's constituent structures. Six passenger elevators, three lifts, and five dumbwaiters were provided at 18 Broad Street. [50] Eleven elevators were installed at 11 Wall Street; nine ran only to the 17th floor while the other two served the top six floors. [43]

Basement

There are four basement levels in total. [51] The machinery, electric and steam plants, employee rooms, and vaults are in the basement and subbasement underneath the first-story trading floor. [52] [20] When completed, the building had a steel safe deposit vault measuring about 118.58 feet (36 m) wide, 21 feet (6 m) long, and 9 feet 10 inches (3 m) high. The vault weighed 776 short tons (693 long tons; 704 t) when empty. [22] [52] A corridor in the basement led to the Wall Street station of the city's first subway line (now the 4 and ​ 5 trains), under Broadway. [53]

The lowest basement level, 42 feet (13 m) below Wall Street, is surrounded by a concrete cofferdam resting on solid rock. [52] [50] The cofferdam is 8 feet (2.4 m) wide and 50 feet (15 m) deep. [54] The surrounding area had an extremely high water table, with water being found only a few feet below ground, partially because Broad Street was formerly the site of a drainage ditch. [55] As a result, caissons were used to excavate part of the 18 Broad Street site, and the remainder of the basement and subbasement was then excavated. [55] [54] The caissons were built of wood and were 30 by 8 by 50 feet (9 m × 2 m × 15 m) each. John F. O'Rourke was the caisson contractor. [54]

Trading floors

Main trading floor

The main trading floor (formerly the board room), on the first story at 18 Broad Street, covers 15,000 square feet (1,400 m2). [48] [56] The room, extending the width of the block between New and Broad Streets, [23] [29] has floor dimensions of 109 by 140 feet (33 by 43 m), with a ceiling 72 feet (22 m) high. [22] [39] [57] [b] The trading floor was laid out to maximize usable space and, as a result, had minimal space for visitors on the floor itself. [48] [58] A narrow gallery for smokers was provided on the New Street side, and an admission area for guests was on Broad Street. [53] [59] [60]

The floor of the room is at the same level as New and Wall Streets; as built, a marble double stair from the basement at Broad Street provided entrance for members. [19] [20] The floor surface was originally covered with wood. [61] The floor is interrupted only by eight iron columns, the placement of which was decided only after twenty to thirty drawings were made. [20] The lowest 20 feet (6.1 m) of the walls is clad in marble, with arched alcoves for access to other rooms. [20] The walls are clad with marble panels, which contain bluish-brownstone centers and pink-marble metopes at the top. The ceiling is supported by four transverse trusses spanning the width of the room, measuring 115 feet (35 m) long and 15 feet (4.6 m) thick. [51] [62] These trusses are carried on pairs of pilasters at each end and subdivide the ceiling into coffers. [20] [62] [63] The center of the ceiling was fitted with a 30-by-30-foot (9.1 by 9.1 m) skylight, [39] [61] while the rest of the ceiling was gilded upon the building's completion. [62] [64]

As constructed, the room had 500 telephones, as well as annunciators clustered around the New Street end and surrounding the large columns on the floor. [32] [61] The northern and southern walls originally had colored "checkerboards" with over 1,200 panels, which could be lit in a variety of patterns to flash a myriad of messages to members on the floor. [22] [65] [66] Each of the four primary trading areas contain the NYSE's opening and closing bells (originally just one bell), which are rung to mark the beginning and the end of each trading day. [67] [68] Abutting the trading floor, but on higher levels, were doctors' rooms, baths, and barbershops for NYSE members. [39] [52] [53] A passageway leads north to the other trading floors at 11 Wall Street; another passage also formerly led south to 20 Broad Street. [51]

There is another trading floor at the northeast section of 11 Wall Street, nicknamed "The Garage". [39] The floor is 106 feet (32 m) long and 50–80 feet (15–24 m) wide, while the ceiling is 43 feet (13 m) high. The decoration is similar to at the main trading floor. Gray marble is used for the walls and public corridors, while the private corridors have Dover marble wainscoting and Alabama marble floors. [51] Until 2007, there were three additional trading floors. The "Blue Room" and the "Extended Blue Room" were within 20 Broad Street, immediately south of the NYSE Building. There was also a trading room at the Continental Bank Building on 30 Broad Street. [39]

Upper stories

The board room, formerly the Bond Room

The design was required to include a large interior light shaft in the upper stories of 18 Broad Street. The location of this shaft, as well as that of the trading floor’s skylight, was affected by the planning of the various rooms in the upper stories. [20] On the sixth story, above the trading floor, is the board room (formerly the Bond Room). This room has a skylight and coffered ceiling. The walls are decorated with white and gold decorations and contain arches supported by flat pilasters. [39] [52] While the room was originally outfitted with semicircular tiers surrounding a dais, [52] these have since been removed. [51]

The seventh story of 18 Broad Street contained the Luncheon Club facing New Street, which covered 12,055 square feet (1,119.9 m2). The Luncheon Club's main dining room measured 76 by 40 feet (23 by 12 m), with a ceiling 18 feet (5.5 m) high. [22] [69] A smaller dining room was provided for non-smokers, separated from the main dining room by a lounge. The eighth story along New Street contained the club kitchen with a mezzanine-level serving gallery. [69] After the Luncheon Club shut down during 2006, [70] the Luncheon Club space was converted into an event space called Freedom Hall. [71]

The other rooms on the sixth story of 18 Broad Street included the Governor's Room on the Wall Street side, as well as the president's and secretary's rooms, committee rooms, and offices on the New Street side. [23] The Committee on Arrangements and Admission room featured two large brass chandeliers. The other committee rooms on this story were similarly ornate. [52] The seventh and eighth stories facing Broad Street contained committee rooms and offices. [72] There are also offices on the upper floors at 11 Wall Street. [51] Up to the 17th floor, a typical floor at 11 Wall Street contains 7,500 square feet (700 m2) of space, but the top six floors contain only 3,661 square feet (340.1 m2) on average. [43] The upper stories of both structures contain several event spaces. [71]

History

What became the NYSE was founded in 1792, when brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement, thereby forming an organization for securities trading. Previously, securities exchange had been intermediated by auctioneers. [73] [74] In 1817, the organization reformed as the New York Stock and Exchange Board. The broker organization began renting out space exclusively for securities trading, using several locations for the next half-century, including the Tontine Coffee House. [75] With technological advances in the latter half of the nineteenth century, there was rapid growth in securities trading, and as a result the Stock and Exchange Board also grew rapidly. [76] [77]

Previous structure

In December 1865, the Stock and Exchange Board moved to 10 Broad Street, between Wall Street and Exchange Place. [23] [75] [78] This structure was owned by the New York Stock Exchange Building Company, and the Exchange itself used a room on the second story. [78] The Stock and Exchange Board's membership nearly doubled, from 583 to 1060, when it acquired the Open Board of Stock Brokers in 1869. [79] [80] The Stock and Exchange Board, originally a minor shareholder in the Building Company, bought all of the company's stock in November 1870. [81] [82] The lot at 12 Broad Street was also acquired, and the two buildings were combined and expanded to designs by James Renwick Jr.. The Stock Exchange Building reopened in September 1871. [81] [83] Within eight years, even the expansion was insufficient to accommodate the overcrowded NYSE. The exchange's governing committee thus acquired additional land on Broad and New Streets in late 1879. [84] Renwick was hired for another extension of the previous Stock Exchange Building, which was completed in 1881. [84] [85] The expanded quarters provided better ventilation and lighting, as well as a larger board room. [85]

By 1885 the plumbing and ventilation were described by the city's sanitary engineers as inadequate. [86] The board room, situated closer to New Street, was expanded yet again in 1887 toward Broad Street. [87] In a 1891 guidebook, the Stock Exchange Building was characterized as a five-story French Renaissance marble structure, with a spur toward Wall Street, adjoining the Mortimer Building to the northeast. Even though the building sat largely on Broad and New Streets, it had become more closely associated with Wall Street. [88] The building was largely shaped like a letter "T" and had much longer frontage on New Street than on Broad Street. By the end of the 1890s, the structure was again overcrowded. [89]

Replacement

Planning and construction

Front elevation of the New York Stock Exchange, prepared by George B. Post

The NYSE acquired the plots at 16-18 Broad Street in late 1898, [90] [91] after two years of negotiation. [92] The NYSE was planning yet another expansion to its building, which would start in 1903 after the plots' existing lease expired. [92] The following January, the NYSE acquired the lot on 8 Broad Street. [89] [93] The land cost $1.25 million in total. [94]

Eight architects were invited to participate in an architectural design competition for a replacement building on the site. [39] This competition involved a brief by architects William Ware and Charles W. Clinton. [79] [95] [96] The foremost consideration was the trading floor had to be an open space with few to no interruptions. Proposals were solicited for a structure that had banking space on the ground story, as well as those without any banking space. [79] The plans also had to consider the lot's complex topography, unusual shape, underlying ground, and the removal of the large deposit vault. [97] Publicist Ivy Lee wrote that the structure was to "be both monumental architecturally and equipped with every device that mechanics, electricity or ingenuity could supply with every resource needed to transact the security trading for the commercial center of the world." [95] [98] The NYSE governors ultimately decided against including a ground-level banking room, which they felt would restrict movement during emergencies. [63] [79]

In December 1899, the NYSE's governing committee unanimously approved the submission by George B. Post. [99] [100] A committee to oversee the construction of the new building was formed that month. [101] Post continued to revise his design during the next year. [94] By July 1900, the NYSE had arranged to move to the New York Produce Exchange at Bowling Green while the replacement NYSE Building was being constructed. [94] [102] Post filed plans for the building with the New York City Department of Buildings on April 19, 1901. [103] The traders' last day in the old NYSE Building was eight days later, on April 27. [52] [104] The cornerstone was laid on September 9, 1901. [96] [105] The contractors excavating the site had to work around the old vault, which had to not only be preserved while the new vault and foundations were being built, but also had to be delicately demolished afterward. [50] [54]

The structure was initially planned to be completed within one year of the old building's closure, but various issues delayed the opening by one year, including difficulty in demolishing the old building, as well as alterations made to the original plan during the course of construction. [50] R. H. Thomas, a chairman of the committee who was overseeing construction, justified the delay by saying, "Where so many of our members spend the active years of their lives, they are entitled to the best that architectural ingenuity and engineering skill can produce." [39] The building was dedicated on April 22, 1903, with a ceremony attended by over 2,000 guests. The event featured speeches from Rudolph Keppler, the president of the New York Stock Exchange, and Seth Low, the mayor of New York City. [22] [106] The trading floor opened for business the following day. The New York Times reported, "When the gavel fell many brokers vied with each other for the honor of making the first business transaction." [107]

Early years and annex

Pictured at left in 1909, with the Mortimer Building at center

In the years after the NYSE Building's completion, the exchange encountered difficulties. Following the Panic of 1907 in which the NYSE dropped by almost fifty percent from a peak the previous year, two government investigations in 1909 and 1912 led to the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. [108] [109] Furthermore, the onset of World War I in Europe in 1914 led many investors to liquidate their securities for gold. [110] As a result, the NYSE trading floor was fully closed for four months in 1914, [111] the first time such a prolonged closure had occurred. [112] The trading of war stocks led to an increase in business at the New York Curb Exchange outside the NYSE Building and, by 1916, the NYSE was contemplating allowing the Curb to move inside. [113] This plan failed and the Curb built its own structure at 86 Trinity Place, several blocks to the west, in 1921. [114] In addition, the Wall Street bombing occurred outside the building on September 16, 1920, killing thirty-eight people and injuring hundreds more. [115] [116]

In its first two decades, and especially following the end of World War I, the NYSE grew significantly. The rebuilt 18 Broad Street quarters quickly became insufficient for the exchange's needs. [108] In December 1918, the NYSE bought the Mortimer Building northeast of its existing structure, giving the exchange an additional 3,220 square feet (299 m2). The annex would give the building a full frontage on Wall Street, whereas previously 18 Broad Street only ran along Wall Street for 15 feet (4.6 m). [117] [118] The Mortimer Building's demolition commenced in mid-1919. [119] The NYSE also leased the Wilks Building northwest of its existing structure in January 1920; [46] the lot was assessed at $1.9 million. [120] Demolition of the Wilks Building commenced in June 1920. [120]

Trowbridge and Livingston were given the commission to design an annex on the Mortimer and Wilks sites. Marc Eidlitz and Son was given the construction contract for the construction of the annex. [119] Plans for an annex at 11 Wall Street, reaching twenty-two stories above a basement, were finalized in February 1920. The first eight stories and the basement were to be taken by the NYSE, including several stories for an expanded trading floor known as the "Garage". The upper stories would be leased to office tenants. [46] [121] By August 1922, the annex was nearly complete, and several firms had already signed leases for about 60 percent of the available office space. [43] [44] The annex's trading floor opened during the last week of December 1922. [122]

Later operations and expansions

1920s to 1940s

The adjacent 20 Broad Street building, original 18 Broad Street structure, and 11 Wall Street annex, seen from left to right

The office annex was not sufficient to accommodate the long-term growth of the NYSE. In mid-1926, the NYSE leased three floors at the neighboring Commercial Cable Building on 20 Broad Street. The ground floor would be connected to that of 18 Broad Street, while the first and second floors of that building were to be combined into a single bond trading room with a high ceiling. These stories were internally connected to 18 Broad Street, although they remained separate buildings. [123] [124] In 1928, the NYSE bought not only the Commercial Cable Building but also the Blair Building on the same block, giving the NYSE a leasehold or ownership over all the property on the city block. [125] [126]

The NYSE's growth stopped suddenly with the Wall Street Crash of 1929, when share prices on the exchange collapsed, in what was cited as one cause of the Great Depression. [127] [128] During the Depression, the NYSE trading floor was closed for over a week in March 1933, after president Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Emergency Banking Act. [112] [129] The marble sculptures of the pediment on Broad Street, which had deteriorated over the years, were replaced in 1936. [21] [40] [41] The new figures were made of metal, though this fact was kept secret for eighteen years. [41] At the end of the Great Depression, the NYSE started to grow again. [130] During World War II, women were allowed on the building's trading floor for the first time in the NYSE's history. [131]

1950s to 1980s

By 1954, the NYSE was planning to replace the Commercial Cable and Blair Buildings with a skyscraper at 20 Broad Street. Part of the skyscraper was to be used for auxiliary facilities for the NYSE, and the exchange formally held an option to expand its trading floor to 20 Broad Street if the need arose. [132] [133] The structure, designed by Kahn & Jacobs and Sidney Goldstone, was completed in 1956 with 27 stories and 421,000 square feet (39,100 m2). [134] The NYSE initially used the second through fourth floors at 20 Broad Street, corresponding to the first through third floors of its main building, as exhibition space. [135] 20 Broad Street, which was not part of the NYSE Building, was sold to the New York Life Insurance Company in 1959. [136]

By the early 1960s, the NYSE needed to expand its operations again and was considering moving out of its main building entirely. The building had housed some securities firms that were also members of the exchange, but the NYSE now needed the space for itself, and the last firm moved out during late 1961. [137] At that time, the NYSE's leadership hoped to acquire land in Lower Manhattan and construct a new building within five years. [138] Several proposals for new NYSE headquarters were made, but none were carried out. [16] [c] The exchange selected a site in Battery Park City in 1965, [139] but dropped plans for the site the next year. [140] [141] The NYSE's governors voted in 1967 to expand the trading floor into 20 Broad Street. [142] The expansion, nicknamed the "Blue Room", [39] opened in July 1969. It provided 8,000 square feet (740 m2) of additional space to the 23,000-square-foot (2,100 m2) trading floor, which could accommodate almost two hundred more clerks. [143] In addition, some of the computer facilities were moved to Paramus, New Jersey, between 1967 and 1969. [144]

The NYSE was looking in the long term to build a new headquarters along the East River, at the eastern end of Wall Street. These plans were postponed indefinitely in 1970 due to the recession of 1969–1970. [145] During 1977, the media published rumors that the NYSE and the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) would merge and construct a new combined facility, [146] [147] although the merger did not occur at that time. [146] [148] As a temporary measure, the NYSE renovated its visitors' center in 1979, adding a multi-story gallery with various displays adjacent to the main trading floor. [146] [149] Still short on space, the NYSE rented some offices at 100 Broadway, one block away, in 1980. [146] [150] The NYSE was looking to expand its trading floor again and, in 1985, announced an $11 million extension of the Blue Room at 20 Broad Street, which would add 7,000 square feet (650 m2) to the trading floor. [146] [151] This expansion was completed by 1988. [39] In addition, the original bell in the main trading floor was replaced in the late 1980s. [68]

1990s to present

Seen at Christmas

The NYSE, AMEX, and J.P. Morgan & Co. considered a plan to create a financial "supercenter" on the block immediately east of the NYSE Building, across Broad Street, in 1992. [152] The supercenter, to be developed by Olympia and York and designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), would have consisted of a 50-story tower above two 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m2) trading floors. After Olympia and York withdrew from the proposed supercenter due to its own financial difficulties, the project was taken up by a team composed of J.P. Morgan & Co., Lewis Rudin, Gerald D. Hines, and Fred Wilpon. The NYSE withdrew from the project in 1993. [146]

The NYSE resumed its search for alternate sites for its headquarters in mid-1996, following an over-100 percent increase in trading volume and the listing of more than 1,000 companies on its board within the previous five years. [146] At one site, along the East River at the end of Wall Street, developer Donald Trump proposed a 140-story building designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox for the NYSE, which would have been the world's tallest building. [153] [154] Other sites under consideration included the Broad Exchange Building immediately to the southeast, [155] as well as Bowling Green at the southern end of Manhattan. [153] The World Financial Center in nearby Battery Park City was also considered as a site for a new headquarters, [156] [157] as well as a site in Jersey City across the Hudson River. [156] [158] City authorities offered substantial tax incentives to try to keep the NYSE in the Financial District, [159] [160] which in turn raised the cost of the new building. [161] In late 1996, the NYSE proposed expanding the existing building eastward above Broad Street, closing it to vehicular traffic and creating a glass-covered atrium above the street. [162] [163] [164] The initial plan for the atrium by HLW International was widely criticized, as was a modification by Hugh Hardy, and the NYSE ultimately dropped the atrium proposal. [156]

As an interim measure, in 1998, the NYSE looked into opening a trading floor at 30 Broad Street less than a block to the south. [165] The expansion, which opened in late 2000, [166] consisted of a 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) facility designed by SOM. [167] [168] The same year, the NYSE signed an agreement with the New York City and New York state governments to acquire the block to the east, [167] [169] demolishing all structures except for 23 Wall Street to make way for a 50-story skyscraper designed by SOM. [167] [170] The September 11 attacks in 2001, which resulted in the collapse of the World Trade Center nearby, resulted in a multi-day closure of the NYSE's trading floor, only the third time such a closure had occurred in the building's history. [129] [171] The Lower Manhattan expansion to the NYSE was ultimately canceled in 2002; the NYSE sought to open its additional trading floor elsewhere to ensure it could keep operating if its main building was targeted by terrorists. [172]

Over the following years, the increase in electronic trading made physical trading space redundant; [173] [174] the floor accounted for less than half of trades in 2007, down from 80 percent in 2004. [175] As a result, the 30 Broad Street trading floor closed in February 2007. [39] [175] The Blue Room and Extended Blue Room were announced for closure later that year, leaving only the main floor and the Garage. [175] [176] The NYSE Building's trading floor was closed for two months in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, but electronic trading continued throughout. [177]

Impact

Critical reception

When the 18 Broad Street building was completed, Ivy Lee wrote: "In outer contour it suggests the columnar, monumental architecture of the ancient Greeks. But this exterior shelters the very essence of the strenuous energy of this twentieth century." [178] Percy C. Stuart of Architectural Record wrote that, with the colonnades and large trading-floor windows, "the new Exchange will have a scale of its own, at once so simple and impressive as to readily signalize it among its surroundings". [179] Architectural critic Montgomery Schuyler appraised the building as a "very brilliant and successful piece of work". [180] Schuyler especially appreciated that the colonnades' columns visually divided the large windows behind them; [30] [36] his only negative criticism was that the carving of the basement was incongruous with the rest of the design. [181] After the annex was completed, the Downtown League declared it to be the "best building" erected in Lower Manhattan during 1922. [182]

Some commentary focused on specific parts of the design. In 1903, Scribner's Magazine wrote that the pediment on Broad Street was disadvantaged by its location opposite several tall buildings, "which has caused Ward to give to his figures very great scale and to diminish their number". [37] An Architectural Record article the next year pointed out a similar issue, stating that a front view was extremely difficult unless one entered a nearby building, and that "neither architect nor sculptor could have expected many persons to examine the building in that way". [183] Architectural writer Robert A. M. Stern said that the pediment's sculptures gave the building "an air of magisterial calm as it presided over the financial world's most important intersection". [63]

Cultural impact

Fearless Girl (bottom) facing the New York Stock Exchange Building

The NYSE's logo, on which the NYSE holds a trademark, depicts the columns on the 18 Broad Street building. [184] This has led to disputes when coupled with the building's status as an icon of the NYSE. For instance, in 1999, the NYSE unsuccessfully sued the New York-New York Hotel and Casino for trademark infringement after the casino built the "New York-New York $lot Exchange", loosely based on 18 Broad Street. [184] [185] [186]

The NYSE Building's prominence has also made it the location of artwork. In 1989, artist Arturo Di Modica installed his sculpture Charging Bull in front of the building, in an act of guerrilla art. [187] The sculpture was removed within a day and ultimately reinstalled at Bowling Green, two blocks south. [188] Subsequently, in 2018, Kristen Visbal's bronze sculpture Fearless Girl was installed outside the NYSE Building on Broad Street. [189] The Fearless Girl sculpture had faced Charging Bull when it was installed at Bowling Green in 2017, but it was moved to the NYSE due to complaints from Di Modica. [190]

Landmark designations

As early as 1965, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) had considered designating the 18 Broad Street building, but not the 11 Wall Street annex, as a landmark. [74] [191] It was one of the first buildings to be proposed for landmark status by the LPC, which that year had gained the authority to designate the city's structures as landmarks. [191] However, the NYSE was opposed to landmark status at the time. [192] A second landmark hearing was held in 1980, but the proposal for landmark status was again rejected. [74] The New York Times, in 1983, cited the NYSE Building as one of several prominent structures that had not been designated by the LPC in the agency's first eighteen years, alongside Rockefeller Center and the Woolworth Building. [193] The LPC reconsidered designation for 18 Broad Street in 1985. [194] After numerous public hearings, the LPC finally granted landmark status to 18 Broad Street on July 9, 1985. [74] [195]

Both 18 Broad Street and 11 Wall Street were added to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) as a National Historic Landmark in 1978. [1] [196] [197] The building was designated as a contributing property to the Wall Street Historic District, [198] a National Register of Historic Places district, in 2007. [199]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ According to publicist Ivy Lee, who wrote of the building in 1902 before its completion, the windows were to measure 112 feet (34 m) wide by 52 feet tall. [32]
  2. ^ Architectural Record and the New-York Tribune give a width of 138 feet (42 m), a length of 112 feet (34 m), and a height of 80 feet (24 m). [29] [53] Architects' and Builders' Magazine gives a width of 144 feet (44 m), a length of 109 feet (33 m), and a height of 74.5 feet (22.7 m). [23]
  3. ^ Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) and Richard W. Adler proposed new NYSE buildings at the first World Trade Center in 1960–1961. O'Connor & Kilham and I. M. Pei made proposals in 1963, and SOM's Gordon Bunshaft made a proposal in 1966. [16]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "Federal Register: 44 Fed. Reg. 7107 (Feb. 6, 1979)" (PDF). Library of Congress. February 6, 1979. p. 7538 (PDF p. 338). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "NYCityMap". NYC.gov. New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  3. ^ "11 Wall Street, 10005". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  4. ^ "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Lower Manhattan" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  5. ^ Linder, Bernard (February 2016). "Contract 4 Subway Controversy". The Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association. 59 (2): 1, 6. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Transit & Bus Committee Meeting" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 22, 2019. pp. 206–210. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Dunlap, David W. (November 27, 2003). "Financial District Security Getting New Look, Welcomed by Businesses". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  8. ^ Dunlap, David W. (February 25, 2004). "A Plan for Wall St. Security, Without the Pickup Trucks". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  9. ^ Glassman, Carl (January 31, 2017). "Downtown Alliance Targets Street 'Mess' Around NY Stock Exchange". Tribeca Trib Online. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  10. ^ Walker, Ameena (May 14, 2018). "Tourist-heavy Wall Street could get pedestrian-friendly improvements". Curbed NY. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  11. ^ Morris, Sebastian (February 28, 2020). "LPC to Review Proposal for Revamped Pedestrian Space in Financial District". New York YIMBY. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  12. ^ Glassman, Carl (December 16, 2019). "Seats Beside 'Fearless Girl' to Be First Small Step in Future Streetscape Redo". Tribeca Trib Online. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  13. ^ Kiersz, Andy (November 18, 2014). "The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny". Business Insider. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  14. ^ New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009). Postal, Matthew A. (ed.). Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 15. ISBN  978-0-470-28963-1.
  15. ^ White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN  978-0-19538-386-7.
  16. ^ a b c d Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, p. 257.
  17. ^ a b c d e National Park Service 1978, p. 5.
  18. ^ Stern, Gilmartin & Massengale 1983, p. 460.
  19. ^ a b c Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, p. 390.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Stuart 1901, p. 541.
  21. ^ a b c d National Park Service 1978, p. 2.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h "New Exchange Opened: Great Throng Present". New-York Tribune. April 23, 1903. p. 1. ProQuest  571399564. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, p. 389.
  24. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 5; National Park Service 1978, p. 2.
  25. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 5; National Park Service 1978, p. 5.
  26. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, pp. 5–6.
  27. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 6.
  28. ^ Lee 1902, pp. 2773–2774.
  29. ^ a b c d Stuart 1901, p. 537.
  30. ^ a b Schuyler 1902, p. 417.
  31. ^ a b c Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 5.
  32. ^ a b c Lee 1902, p. 2774.
  33. ^ Stuart 1901, pp. 537–539.
  34. ^ Gray, Christopher (October 17, 1999). "Streetscapes/The Piccirillis; Six Brothers Who Left Their Mark as Sculptors". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  35. ^ Scribner's Magazine 1904, pp. 381–382.
  36. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 4.
  37. ^ a b Scribner's Magazine 1904, p. 382.
  38. ^ Scribner's Magazine 1904, p. 384.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "From the NYT web page of May 26, 2007". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  40. ^ a b "Integrity Figure Hoisted To Top of Exchange Building". Wall Street Journal. June 26, 1936. p. 7. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  41. ^ a b c Berger, Meyer (July 23, 1954). "About New York; Wall Street Is Let In on Secret Kept 18 Years as Tale of Stock Exchange Sculpture Is Told" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 19. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  42. ^ a b "11 Wall Street - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. April 7, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  43. ^ a b c d "Stock Exchange Building Will Be Ready November 1: Exchange Members Take 60% of Rentable Space--floors 3,661 to 7,500 Square Feet and Rent $5-$6.50 Per Foot". Wall Street Journal. August 8, 1922. p. 8. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  129995555. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  44. ^ a b "Exchange Addition Near Completion; Thirteen Firms Already Have Taken Space in New 22-story Building" (PDF). The New York Times. August 8, 1922. p. 35. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  45. ^ National Park Service 1978, pp. 5–6.
  46. ^ a b c "22-story Building for Stock Exchange; Plans Completed for Addition on Wall Street Extending from Broad to New" (PDF). The New York Times. February 13, 1920. p. 4. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  47. ^ Eaton, Leslie; Johnson, Kirk (September 16, 2001). "After the Attacks: Wall Street; Straining to Ring the Opening Bell". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  48. ^ a b c Lee 1902, p. 2775.
  49. ^ Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, pp. 394–395.
  50. ^ a b c d "Stock Exchange's New Building; Dedication Ceremonies to Take Place on Wednesday. Most Elaborate and Costly Hall Ever Built for Dealing in Securities Will Be Open for Business the Next Day" (PDF). The New York Times. April 19, 1903. p. 3. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  51. ^ a b c d e f National Park Service 1978, p. 6.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, p. 396.
  53. ^ a b c d "The New Stock Exchange: Most Expensive and Most Elaborately Equipped Business Structure in the World". New-York Tribune. November 30, 1902. pp.  31, 32. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  54. ^ a b c d "For the New Exchange". New-York Tribune. July 7, 1901. pp. 27, 28. Retrieved February 13, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  55. ^ a b Stuart 1901, pp. 530–531.
  56. ^ Stuart 1901, p. 532.
  57. ^ "New York Stock Exchange". Emporis. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  58. ^ Stuart 1901, pp. 532–534.
  59. ^ Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, pp. 391–392.
  60. ^ Stuart 1901, pp. 546–547.
  61. ^ a b c Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, pp. 392–393.
  62. ^ a b c Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, p. 391.
  63. ^ a b c Stern, Gilmartin & Massengale 1983, p. 189.
  64. ^ Stuart 1901, p. 547.
  65. ^ Lee 1902, pp. 2774–2775.
  66. ^ Stuart 1901, pp. 543, 546.
  67. ^ Gardner, Ralph, Jr. (April 30, 2010). "Lessons in Bell Ringing". Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  68. ^ a b "The NYSE Bell". New York Stock Exchange. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  69. ^ a b Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, pp. 395–396.
  70. ^ Edmonston, Peter (April 28, 2006). "Where Wall Street Meets to Eat, the Last Lunch". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  71. ^ a b "NYSE Events". New York Stock Exchange. May 11, 2005. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  72. ^ Architects' and Builders' Magazine 1903, pp. 389–390.
  73. ^ National Park Service 1978, p. 7.
  74. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 1.
  75. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, pp. 1–2; National Park Service 1978, pp. 8–9; Stuart 1901, p. 527.
  76. ^ National Park Service 1978, pp. 9–10.
  77. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 2.
  78. ^ a b Eames 1894, p. 50.
  79. ^ a b c d Stuart 1901, p. 529.
  80. ^ Eames 1894, p. 52.
  81. ^ a b Eames 1894, p. 57.
  82. ^ "The New-York Stock Exchange" (PDF). The New York Times. November 19, 1870. p. 5. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  83. ^ "The Stock Exchange.; Description of the Remodeled Building Reminiscences of the Old Exchange Lists of Officers of the Present Organization" (PDF). The New York Times. September 17, 1871. p. 6. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  84. ^ a b Eames 1894, p. 62.
  85. ^ a b "New York Stock Exchange: Description of the New Building for the Occupation of the "Bulls" and "Bears."". Daily American. July 29, 1881. p. 3. ProQuest  940505200. Retrieved February 9, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  86. ^ "The Stock Exchange Plumbing" (PDF). The New York Times. August 5, 1885. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  87. ^ Eames 1894, p. 65.
  88. ^ Kobbe, Gustav (1891). New York and Its Environs. pp. 98–99. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  89. ^ a b "Rushing Days on 'change: Enormous Transactions Cause Overcrowding on the Floor". New-York Tribune. January 29, 1899. p. A1. ProQuest  574551758. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  90. ^ "Stock Exchange Takes Title" (PDF). The New York Times. December 2, 1898. p. 10. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  91. ^ "The Private Sales Market". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. 62 (1603): 821. December 3, 1898 – via columbia.edu.
  92. ^ a b "Stock Exchange Buys Land: Room for Extension Five Years Hence Acquired for $823,000". New-York Tribune. October 19, 1898. p. 1. ProQuest  574542063. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  93. ^ "Real Estate Market". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. 63 (1610): 101. January 21, 1899 – via columbia.edu.
  94. ^ a b c "Space for Stock Exchange: Practically Certain That During Building Operations It Will Be Secured on Main Floor of Produce Exchange". New-York Tribune. July 21, 1900. p. 11. ProQuest  570868098. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  95. ^ a b Stern, Gilmartin & Massengale 1983, p. 187.
  96. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 3.
  97. ^ Stuart 1901, p. 530.
  98. ^ Lee 1902, p. 2773.
  99. ^ "Plans of New Stock Exchange Building; as Drawn by Architect Post They Are Unanimously Adopted" (PDF). The New York Times. December 8, 1900. p. 9. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  100. ^ "The Plans Adopted". New-York Tribune. December 8, 1899. p. 7. ProQuest  570866652. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  101. ^ "New Building of the Stock Exchange: a Permanent Committee Chosen to Select Plans for It". New-York Tribune. December 14, 1899. p. 3. ProQuest  574694404. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  102. ^ "Stock Exchange Quarters; Temporary Accommodations Sought in Produce Exchange" (PDF). The New York Times. July 21, 1900. p. 8. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  103. ^ "New Stock Exchange Building". Yonkers Statesman. April 20, 1901. p. 3. Retrieved February 13, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  104. ^ "Moving Day on Exchange: Workmen Busy in the Old Building and in Preparing the New Rooms for Business". New-York Tribune. April 28, 1901. p. 6. ProQuest  570975213. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  105. ^ "Laying of the Corner Stone". Wall Street Journal. September 10, 1901. p. 8. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  128795354. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  106. ^ "Stock Exchange's New Building Dedicated; Two Thousand Persons Witness Ceremonies in Board Room" (PDF). The New York Times. April 23, 1903. p. 6. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  107. ^ "Brokers on New Floor; Struggle to Make First Transaction on Stock Exchange" (PDF). The New York Times. April 24, 1903. p. 16. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  108. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 5; National Park Service 1978, pp. 10–11.
  109. ^ Markham, J.W. (2002). A Financial History of the United States: From Christopher Columbus to the Robber Barons (1492-1900). A Financial History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe. p. 34. ISBN  978-0-7656-0730-0.
  110. ^ National Park Service 1978, p. 11.
  111. ^ "The exchange opens". The Independent. December 7, 1914. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  112. ^ a b Osipovich, Alexander (March 29, 2020). "U.S. Rebuffs Calls to Close Stock Market". Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  113. ^ "Big Board Moves to Reform Curb; Approved Brokers May Be Allowed to Use the New Street Lobby of the Exchange" (PDF). The New York Times. February 25, 1916. p. 15. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  114. ^ Postal, Matthew (June 26, 2012). "New York Curb Exchange (incorporating the New York Curb Market Building), later known as the American Stock Exchange" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. pp. 2–3. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  115. ^ Baily, Thomas A; Kennedy, David M. (1994). The American Pageant (10th ed.). D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN  0-669-33892-3.
  116. ^ "Terrific Explosion Outside Morgan's Office". Wall Street Journal. September 17, 1920. p. 3. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 6, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  117. ^ "Mortimer Building Future; Stock Exchange Has No Definite Plan—Offices Leased Until 1920" (PDF). The New York Times. December 15, 1918. p. 14. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  118. ^ "Stock Exchange Plans Expansion". Wall Street Journal. December 13, 1918. p. 7. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  129679046. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  119. ^ a b "Stock Exchange to Build.; Contract Let for Extension Over Mortimer Building Site" (PDF). The New York Times. June 8, 1919. p. 110. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  120. ^ a b "Wilks Building Going" (PDF). The New York Times. June 27, 1920. p. 95. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  121. ^ "New Home of Stock Exchange to Cover An Entire Block: First Eight Floors of Building To Be Used by the Board, but the Remainder Will Be Rented". New-York Tribune. February 13, 1920. p. 14. ProQuest  576192605. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  122. ^ "Telephone Installers Speedily Wire Annex of Stock Exchange". The Sun and the Erie County Independent. December 28, 1922. p. 2. Retrieved February 19, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  123. ^ "Stock Exchange Will Add to Space; Leases Three Floors in West Part of Commercial Cable Building for Long Term" (PDF). The New York Times. August 6, 1926. p. 23. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  124. ^ "N.Y. Stock Exchange Takes Additional Space: Negotiates Long-term Lease for Three Floors of Commercial Cable Building". Wall Street Journal. August 6, 1926. p. 16. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  130338573. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  125. ^ "Stock Exchange Buys Adjoining Buildings: Plans to Expand Trading Floor by Purchase of Commercial Cable and Blair Buildings". Wall Street Journal. December 22, 1928. p. 9. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  126. ^ "Stock Exchange Buys Adjoining Buildings: Plans to Expand Trading Floor by Purchase of Commercial Cable and Blair Buildings". New York Herald Tribune. December 21, 1928. p. 1. ProQuest  1113509574. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  127. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 5; National Park Service 1978, p. 11.
  128. ^ Salsman, Richard M. (June 2004). "The Cause and Consequences of the Great Depression, Part 1: What Made the Roaring '20s Roar". The Intellectual Activist: 16. ISSN  0730-2355.
  129. ^ a b "No U.S. trading Thursday". CNN. September 12, 2001. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  130. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1985, p. 3; National Park Service 1978, p. 12.
  131. ^ "Timeline". New York Stock Exchange. August 15, 2010. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  132. ^ Bird, Robert S. (July 1, 1954). "Stock Exchange Planning 27 Story Office Building". New York Herald Tribune. p. 1. ProQuest  1318407727. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  133. ^ "Building to Rise Near Stock Mart; $15,000,000 Offices Planned on Broad St. Site Leased From the Exchange" (PDF). The New York Times. July 1, 1954. p. 42. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  134. ^ Stern, Robert A. M.; Mellins, Thomas; Fishman, David (1995). New York 1960: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York: Monacelli Press. p. 170. ISBN  1-885254-02-4. OCLC  32159240.
  135. ^ "Erection of Exhibit Hall Sparks Building Boom". New York Herald Tribune. March 31, 1957. p. I5. ProQuest  1323999237. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  136. ^ "Large Broad St. Building Purchased by N. Y. Life". New York Herald Tribune. May 11, 1959. p. B5. ProQuest  1327441396. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  137. ^ "Kidder-Peabody to Move From Big Board Building, Last of Outside Tenants". Wall Street Journal. November 21, 1961. p. 32. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  132644420. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  138. ^ "Big Board Plans to Construct New Building For $50 Million to $78 Million in Five Years". Wall Street Journal. November 22, 1961. p. 3. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  132632360. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  139. ^ "Big Board Says It Paid $7 Million for the Site Of Its New Building: Private Purchase Near Lower Tip of Manhattan Eliminates Plan for Urban Renewal Help". Wall Street Journal. March 30, 1965. p. 8. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  133034575. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  140. ^ Vartan, Vartanig G. (March 18, 1966). "Exchange Drops Plan to Build Here in Dispute Over Stock Tax" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  141. ^ "Big Board Drops Manhattan Building Plan, Decides to Look for a Site Outside State". Wall Street Journal. March 16, 1966. p. 3. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  133133872. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  142. ^ "Big Board Governors Vote to Extend Trading Floor to Next Building: Exchange President Calls Project, Costing $5 Million, 'Short-Term Solution' to Housing Problem". Wall Street Journal. February 17, 1967. p. 4. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  133259615. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  143. ^ "Addition to NYSE Trading Floor Is First Expansion Since 1922". Hartford Courant. July 6, 1969. p. 11C. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  144. ^ "Big Board Computers Going to New Jersey Sooner Than Expected: Exchange Says It Can't Wait Until Site It Purchased Is Developed, Will Move Into Existing Building". Wall Street Journal. July 27, 1967. p. 5. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  133206757. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  145. ^ Greer, Philip (September 16, 1970). "Big Board Postpones Building: NYSE Puts Off Plans For New Headquarters". The Washington Post. p. C1. ISSN  0190-8286. ProQuest  147944126. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  146. ^ a b c d e f g Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, p. 258.
  147. ^ Cole, Robert J. (February 22, 1977). "Big Board and Amex Termed Very Close to Merger Formula". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  148. ^ Sloane, Leonard (May 20, 1977). "Exchange Puts Off Action On Plan for Amex Merger". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  149. ^ "Notes on People". The New York Times. June 26, 1979. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  150. ^ "Realty News; Rockefeller Center Park Place Broadway Lease" (PDF). The New York Times. January 27, 1980. p. R4. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  151. ^ "New York Stock Exchange To Expand Trading Floor". Wall Street Journal. November 13, 1985. p. 1. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  397922932. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  152. ^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (October 28, 1996). "New York Stock Exchange Proposal Would Double Size of Trading Area". Wall Street Journal. p. 13. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  308243730. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  153. ^ a b Finder, Alan (August 13, 1996). "New York Stock Exchange Considers a Move, but Not From Manhattan". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  154. ^ Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, pp. 258–259.
  155. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (October 17, 1998). "New Stock Exchange Site Under Discussion". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  156. ^ a b c Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, p. 259.
  157. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (April 22, 1998). "Stock Exchange Weighs Move to Battery Park City". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  158. ^ "Stock Exchange Gets A New Jersey Offer". The New York Times. May 8, 1998. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  159. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (December 23, 1998). "City and State Agree to $900 Million Deal to Keep New York Stock Exchange". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  160. ^ Knox, Noelle; Moor, Martha T. (October 24, 2001). "'Wall Street' migrates to Midtown". USA Today. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  161. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (February 1, 2000). "City's Expense in Keeping Stock Exchange Here Goes Up". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  162. ^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (October 28, 1996). "Big Board Ponders a Radical Redesign". Wall Street Journal. p. C1. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  1441169097. Retrieved January 1, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  163. ^ Grant, Peter (October 29, 1996). "Hard sell for NYSE plan". New York Daily News. p. 238. Retrieved February 6, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  164. ^ Labate, John (November 27, 2001). "Decentralised exchange the hot topic of debate". Financial Times. p. 03. ProQuest  249306315. Retrieved February 6, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  165. ^ "NYSE eyes 30 Broad St. for interim expansion". Wall Street Letter. 30 (34): 2. August 24, 1998. ProQuest  191144118 – via ProQuest.
  166. ^ "Hundreds Move to New Big Board Trading Floor". Traders Magazine: 1. November 1, 2000. ProQuest  209750136 – via ProQuest.
  167. ^ a b c Stern, Fishman & Tilove 2006, p. 260.
  168. ^ "New York Stock Exchange Trading Floor Expansion". New York Construction News. 49: 25. December 2000.
  169. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (December 21, 2000). "Stock Exchange Signs Deal for New Site in Financial District". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  170. ^ Lee, Denny (September 10, 2000). "Neighborhood Report: Financial District; Residents Wish Stock Exchange Was Bearish About a New Office". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  171. ^ Power, William (September 6, 2016). "9/17/01: Wall Street's Proudest Day. A Look Back on the Reopening". Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  172. ^ Wyatt, Edward (August 2, 2002). "Stock Exchange Abandons Plans for a New Headquarters Building Across the Street". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  173. ^ "N.Y.S.E. Will Close a Trading Floor Room". The New York Times. November 1, 2006. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  174. ^ "Plots & Ploys". Wall Street Journal. April 4, 2007. p. B6. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  398975237. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  175. ^ a b c McGeehan, Patrick (September 23, 2007). "Next to Downsize on Wall Street? The Exchange Floor". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  176. ^ Bergstrom, Rupini (September 13, 2007). "NYSE to Shut Two Trading Rooms As Investors Shift to New Platforms". Wall Street Journal. p. C3. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  399097281. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  177. ^ Aratani, Lauren (May 26, 2020). "New York Stock Exchange reopens two months after closing due to Covid-19". the Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  178. ^ Lee 1902, p. 2772.
  179. ^ Stuart 1901, p. 551.
  180. ^ Schuyler 1902, p. 420.
  181. ^ Schuyler 1902, pp. 419–420.
  182. ^ "Stock Exchange Addition Wins Downtown Prize: Committee Thinks the Building the Best of Its Type Anywhere—New Board Room Is Without Columns—Up-to-date Equipment". Wall Street Journal. March 10, 1923. p. 7. ISSN  0099-9660. ProQuest  130090858. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via ProQuest.
  183. ^ "Facade of the New York Stock Exchange" (PDF). Architectural Record. 16: 465. November 1904.
  184. ^ a b "New York Stock Exchange Inc v. New York New York Hotel LLC LCC". Findlaw. April 1, 2002. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  185. ^ Dunlap, David W. (October 24, 1999). "Postings: Lawsuits Involved the Flatiron and the New York Stock Exchange; A Building as a Trademark". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  186. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (June 10, 1998). "Landmark Buildings Make Move To Trademark Their Images". Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  187. ^ Mcfadden, Robert D. (December 16, 1989). "SoHo Gift to Wall St.: A 3 1/2-Ton Bronze Bull". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  188. ^ "Wall St.'s Bronze Bull Moves 2 Blocks South". The New York Times. The Associated Press. December 20, 1989. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  189. ^ Moyer, Liz (November 28, 2018). "'Fearless Girl' on the move, but leaves footprints for visitors to stand in her place". CNBC. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  190. ^ Wiener-Bronner, Danielle (March 7, 2017). "Why a defiant girl is staring down the Wall Street bull". CNNMoney. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  191. ^ a b Hanson, Kitty (October 18, 1965). "Help! Landmarks Group Issues Civic SOC". New York Daily News. p. 474. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  192. ^ "Fight City OK on Landmarks". New York Daily News. November 7, 1965. p. 1086. Retrieved February 14, 2021 – via newspapers.com open access.
  193. ^ Dunlap, David W. (February 13, 1983). "Landmarks, Too, Often Change With the Times". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  194. ^ Shepard, Joan (March 15, 1985). "Landmark Designation for B. Altman". New York Daily News. p. 1272. Retrieved December 3, 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  195. ^ Berger, Joseph (July 11, 1985). "New York Stock Exchange Among 6 Buildings Gaining Landmark Status". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  196. ^ United States. Dept. of the Interior (1985). Catalogue of National Historic Landmarks. U.S. Department of the Interior. p. 162. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
  197. ^ "Buildings Get Landmark Tag". The New York Times. June 17, 1978. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  198. ^ "Wall Street Historic District" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service. February 20, 2007. pp. 4–5. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  199. ^ "National Register of Historic Places 2007 Weekly Lists" (PDF). National Park Service. 2007. p. 65. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

Sources

External links