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Meuse
The Meuse at Dinant
Basin of the Meuse
Native name
Location
Countries
Region Western Europe
Cities
Physical characteristics
Source 
 • locationPouilly-en-Bassigny, Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse, Haute-Marne, Grand Est, France
 • coordinates 47°59′12″N 5°37′00″E / 47.9867°N 5.6167°E / 47.9867; 5.6167
 • elevation409 m (1,342 ft)
Mouth North Sea
 • location
Hollands Diep, North Brabant/ South Holland, Netherlands
 • coordinates
51°42′54″N 4°40′04″E / 51.715°N 4.6678°E / 51.715; 4.6678
 • elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length925 km (575 mi)
Basin size34,548 km2 (13,339 sq mi)
Discharge 
 • average350 m3/s (12,000 cu ft/s)
[1]

The Meuse ( /mjuːz/ mewz, /mɜːz/, US also /mɜːrz, mʌz/ mu(r)z, [2] [3] [4] French: [møz] ; Walloon: Moûze [muːs]) or Maas ( /mɑːs/ mahss, [2] [4] [5] Dutch: [maːs] ; Limburgish: Maos [mɔːs] or Maas [maːs]) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea from the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. It has a total length of 925 km (575 miles).

History

From 1301, the upper Meuse roughly marked the western border of the Holy Roman Empire with the Kingdom of France, after Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of the County of Bar (Barrois mouvant) as a French fief from the hands of King Philip IV. In 1408, a Burgundian army led by John the Fearless went to the aid of John III against the citizens of Liège, who were in open revolt. After the battle, which saw the men from Liège defeated, John ordered the drowning in the Meuse of burghers and noblemen in Liège whose loyalties he suspected. [6]

The border remained relatively stable until the annexation of the Three Bishoprics Metz, Toul and Verdun by King Henry II in 1552 and the occupation of the Duchy of Lorraine by the forces of King Louis XIII in 1633. Its lower Belgian ( Walloon) portion, part of the sillon industriel, was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe. [7]

Auguste Paul Charles Anastasi, Bank of the Meuse at Zwindrecht (Holland), c. 1857, lithograph, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC

The Afgedamde Maas was created in the late Middle Ages, when a major flood made a connection between the Maas and the Merwede at the town of Woudrichem. From that moment on, the current Afgedamde Maas was the main branch of the lower Meuse. The former main branch eventually silted up and is today called the Oude Maasje. In the late 19th century and early 20th century the connection between the Maas and Rhine was closed off and the Maas was given a new, artificial mouth – the Bergse Maas. The resulting separation of the rivers Rhine and Maas reduced the risk of flooding and was considered to be the greatest achievement in Dutch hydraulic engineering before the completion of the Zuiderzee Works and Delta Works. [8] [9] The former main branch was, after the dam at its southern inlet was completed in 1904, renamed Afgedamde Maas and no longer receives water from the Maas.

The Meuse and its crossings were a key objective of the Battle of France, the Battle of Sedan and also for the last major German WWII counter-offensive on the Western Front, the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 and January 1945.

The Meuse is represented in the documentary The River People released in 2012 by Xavier Istasse. [10]

In July 2021, the Meuse basin was one of the many regions in Europe to experience catastrophic flooding during the 2021 European floods. [11]

Etymology

The name Meuse is derived from the French name of the river, derived from its Latin name, Mosa, which ultimately derives from the Celtic or Proto-Celtic name *Mosā. This probably derives from the same root as English " maze", referring to the river's twists and turns. [12]

The Dutch name Maas descends from Middle Dutch Mase, which comes from the presumed but unattested Old Dutch form *Masa, from Proto-Germanic *Masō. Modern Dutch and German Maas and Limburgish Maos preserve this Germanic form. Despite the similarity, the Germanic name is not derived from the Celtic name, judging from the change from earlier o into a, which is characteristic of the Germanic languages.[ clarification needed]

Geography

The Meuse seen from SPOT satellite. The village in the lower right of the photo is Bogny-sur-Meuse; the village in the upper left is Revin.

The Meuse rises in Pouilly-en-Bassigny, commune of Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse on the Langres plateau in France from where it flows northwards past Sedan (the head of navigation) and Charleville-Mézières into Belgium. [13]

At Namur it is joined by the Sambre. Beyond Namur the Meuse winds eastwards, skirting the Ardennes, and passes Liège before turning north. The river then forms part of the Belgian-Dutch border, except that at Maastricht the border lies further to the west. In the Netherlands it continues northwards through Venlo closely along the border to Germany, then turns towards the west, where it runs parallel to the Waal and forms part of the extensive Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, together with the Scheldt to its south and the Rhine to the north. The river has been divided near Heusden into the Afgedamde Maas on the right and the Bergse Maas on the left. The Bergse Maas continues under the name of Amer, which is part of De Biesbosch. The Afgedamde Maas joins the Waal, the main stem of the Rhine at Woudrichem, and then flows under the name of Boven Merwede to Hardinxveld-Giessendam, where it splits into Nieuwe Merwede and Beneden Merwede. Near Lage Zwaluwe, the Nieuwe Merwede joins the Amer, forming the Hollands Diep, which splits into Grevelingen and Haringvliet, before finally flowing into the North Sea.

The Meuse is crossed by railway bridges between the following stations (on the left and right banks respectively):

There are also numerous road bridges and around 32 ferry crossings.

The Meuse is navigable over a substantial part of its total length: In the Netherlands and Belgium, the river is part of the major inland navigation infrastructure, connecting the Rotterdam-Amsterdam-Antwerp port areas to the industrial areas upstream: 's-Hertogenbosch, Venlo, Maastricht, Liège, Namur. Between Maastricht and Maasbracht, an unnavigable section of the Meuse is bypassed by the 36 km (22.4 mi) Juliana Canal. South of Namur, further upstream, the river can only carry more modest vessels, although a barge as long as 100 m (328 ft). can still reach the French border town of Givet.

From Givet, the river is canalized over a distance of 272 kilometres (169 mi). The canalized Meuse used to be called the "Canal de l'Est — Branche Nord" but was recently rebaptized into "Canal de la Meuse". The waterway can be used by the smallest barges that are still in use commercially almost 40 m (131 ft) long and just over 5 metres (16 ft) wide. Just upstream of the town of Commercy, the Canal de la Meuse connects with the Marne–Rhine Canal by means of a short diversion canal. [14]

The Cretaceous sea reptile Mosasaur is named after the river Meuse. The first fossils of it were discovered outside Maastricht in 1780.

A view of the Meuse in the French Ardennes at Laifour

Basin area

The Meuse and the Rochers de Freÿr, in front of the Castle of Freÿr south of Dinant
The Meuse at Namur, capital of Belgium's Wallonia
The Meuse at Liège, third river port of Europe
The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht
Meuse near Gennep
Meuse near Grave
Meuse near Appeltern

An international agreement was signed in 2002 in Ghent, Belgium, about the management of the river amongst France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Also participating in the agreement were the Belgian regional governments of Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels (which is not in the basin of the Meuse but pumps running water into the Meuse).

Most of the basin area (approximately 36,000 km2) is in Wallonia (12,000 km2), followed by France (9,000 km2), the Netherlands (8,000 km2), Germany (2,000 km2), Flanders (2,000 km2) and Luxembourg (a few km2).

An International Commission on the Meuse has the responsibility of the implementation of the treaty.

The costs of this Commission are met by all these countries, in proportion of their own territory in the basin of the Meuse: Netherlands 30%, Wallonia 30%, France 15%, Germany 14.5%, Flanders 5%, Brussels 4.5%, Kingdom of Belgium 0.5%, and Luxembourg 0.5%.

The map of the basin area of Meuse was joined to the text of the treaty. [15]

As for culture, as a major communication route the River Meuse is the origin of Mosan art, principally (Wallonia and France).

The first landscape painted in the Renaissance was the landscape of Meuse by Joachim Patinir. [16] He was likely the uncle of Henri Blès, who is sometimes defined as a Mosan landscape painter active during the second third of the 16th century (i.e. second generation of landscape painters). [17]

Tributaries

The main tributaries of the Meuse are listed below in downstream-upstream order, with the town where the tributary meets the river:

Distributaries

The lower part of the Rhine-Meuse Delta

The mean annual discharge rate of the Meuse has been relatively stable over the last few thousand years. One recent study estimates that average flow has increased by about 10% since 2000 BC. [18] The hydrological distribution of the Meuse changed during the later Middle Ages, when a major flood forced it to shift its main course northwards towards the river Merwede. From then on several stretches of the original Merwede were renamed "Maas" (i.e. Meuse) and served as the primary outflow of that river. Those branches are currently known as the Nieuwe Maas and Oude Maas.

However during another series of severe floods the Meuse found an additional path towards the sea, resulting in the creation of the Biesbosch wetlands and Hollands Diep estuaries. Thereafter the Meuse split near Heusden into two main distributaries, one flowing north to join the Merwede and one flowing direct to the sea. The branch of the Meuse leading direct to the sea eventually silted up (and now forms the Oude Maasje stream), but in 1904 the canalised Bergse Maas was dug to take over the functions of the silted-up branch. At the same time the branch leading to the Merwede was dammed at Heusden (and has since been known as the Afgedamde Maas) so that little water from the Meuse entered the old Maas courses or the Rhine distributaries. The resulting separation of the rivers Rhine and Meuse is considered to be the greatest achievement in Dutch hydraulic engineering before the completion of the Zuiderzee Works and Delta Works. [8] [19] In 1970 the Haringvlietdam has been finished. Since then the reunited Rhine and Meuse waters have reached the North Sea either at this site or, during times of lower discharges of the Rhine, at Hook of Holland. [20]

A 2008 study [21] notes that the difference between summer and winter flow volumes has increased significantly in the last 100–200 years. It points out that the frequency of serious floods (i.e. flows > 1000% of normal) has increased markedly. They predict that winter flooding of the Meuse may become a recurring problem in the coming decades.

Départements, provinces and towns

The Meuse flows through the following departments of France, provinces of Belgium, provinces of the Netherlands and towns:

Detailed route

Main cities and tributaries will be in bold.

Region Municipality on the left bank Municipality on the right bank Route
European Union France Grand Est Haute-Marne

France

Grand Est Region

Haute-Marne Department

Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse Source near Pouilly-en-Bassigny

Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse

Premier pont de la Meuse

Dammartin-sur-Meuse Dammartin-sur-Meuse Malroy

Pont de Malroy

Pont du Pâtis des Vannees

Ruisseau de Pré Chatenay

Val-de-Meuse Val-de-Meuse Meuse

Pont de Meuse (D429 Val-de-Meuse - Dombrot-le-Sec)

Ruisseau d'Avrecourt

Railway bridge Culmont-Chalindrey - Toul line

Ru d'Ouette

Ru des Fossés

Ruisseau de Bocheret

Provenchères-sur-Meuse

Pont de Val-de-Meuse (D189)

Ruisseau des Aimeguenons

Pont de l'A31 ( A31 Nancy - Dijon)

Ruisseau de Joncourt

Pont de D132

Ruisseau de l'Étange

Ruisseau du Grand Étange

Lavilleneuve Val-de-Meuse Ruisseau de Rangecourt

Pont de Lavilleneuve (D132)

Le Viau

Val-de-Meuse Lénizeul

Pont de D228

Bassoncourt Bassoncourt Ruisseau du Soilleron

Pont de Bassin Court sur la Meuse (D33)

Breuvannes-en-Bassigny Breuvannes-en-Bassigny Ruisseau des Noues

Meuvy

Pont de Meuvy (D220)

Clefmont Clefmont /
Audeloncourt Audeloncourt Ruisseau du Grand Pré
Levécourt Levécourt Ruisseau de la Hourie

Levécourt

Pont de Levécourt (D131)

Huilliécourt Doncourt-sur-Meuse /
Hâcourt Hâcourt Pont de Hâcourt
Bourg-Sainte-Marie Hâcourt

Ruisseau de Piot

Brainville-sur-Meuse Pont de Bourg-Sainte-Marie (D119)
Bourmont-entre-Meuse-et-Mouzon Bourmont-entre-Meuse-et-Mouzon Bourmont
Saint-Thiébault Saint-Thiébault

Pont de Saint-Thiébault (D16)

Ruisseau d'Illoud

Bourmont-entre-Meuse-et-Mouzon Pont de Gonaincourt (D119)

Gonaincourt

Le Mordé

Pont de Bourmont sur la Meuse (D148)

Goncourt

Harréville-les-Chanteurs Harréville-les-Chanteurs Railway bridges Culmont-Chalindrey - Toul line (2x)

Harréville-les-Chanteurs

Pont de Harréville-les-Chanteurs (D202)

European Union France Grand Est Vosges (department)

France

Grand Est Region

Vosges Department

Bazoilles-sur-Meuse Bazoilles-sur-Meuse Railway bridges Culmont-Chalindrey - Toul line (2x)

Pont de Bazoilles-sur-Meuse (D74 Langres - Neufchâteau)

Bazoilles-sur-Meuse

Neufchâteau Neufchâteau Railway bridge Culmont-Chalindrey - Toul line

Neufchâteau

Pont de Neufchâteau (D674 Chaumont - Neufchâteau)

Mouzon

Railway bridge at Neufchâteau railway station

Pont All. Charles Péguy

Frebécourt Frebécourt Pont de Frebécourt

Frebécourt

La Saônelle

Coussey Coussey Coussey

Pont de Coussey (D3)

Domrémy-la-Pucelle Domrémy-la-Pucelle Pont de Domrémy-la-Pucelle (D164 Neufchâteau - Greux)

Domrémy-la-Pucelle

Greux Maxey-sur-Meuse Vair
Maxey-sur-Meuse Maxey-sur-Meuse

Pont de D19

European Union France Grand Est Meuse (department) France

Grand Est Region

Meuse Department

Brixey-aux-Chanoines Brixey-aux-Chanoines Pont de Brixey-aux-Chanoines
Sauvigny Sauvigny Ruisseau de Ruppes

Sauvigny

Pont de Sauvigny

Montbras /
Sauvigny Pont de Traveron

Traveron

Pagny-la-Blanche-Côte Pagny-la-Blanche-Côte Rivière de Chêtre

Pont de Pagny-la-Blanche-Côte (D32)

Rivière de Chêtre

Montbras Champougny /
Taillancourt La Haute Meuse
Champougny Champougny

Pont de Champougny

Maxey-sur-Vaise Maxey-sur-Vaise /
Burey-en-Vaux Sepvigny /
Sepvigny Pont de Sepvigny (D145)
Neuville-lès-Vaucouleurs Neuville-lès-Vaucouleurs /
Vaucouleurs Chalaines Chalaines

Pont de Chalaines (D960 Toul - Bure)

La Haute Meuse

Ugny-sur-Meuse Rigny-la-Salle Le Goulot de Meuse

Ugny-sur-Meuse

Saint-Germain-sur-Meuse Pont de Ugny-sur-Meuse (D36)

Saint-Germain-sur-Meuse

Pont de Saint-Germain-sur-Meuse (D144A)

Ugny-sur-Meuse Ourches-sur-Meuse Ourches-sur-Meuse

Pont de D144

Pagny-sur-Meuse Pagny-sur-Meuse Pont de Pagny-sur-Meuse ( N4 Paris - Strasbourg)

Pagny-sur-Meuse

Pont de D36

Troussey Troussey Troussey

Pont de D36C

Marne–Rhine Canal

Pont de Troussey (D36)

Void-Vacon Sorcy-Saint-Martin Ruisseau de Frasne

Le Vidus

Sorcy-Saint-Martin Pont de Sorcy-Saint-Martin (D10)

Sorcy-Saint-Martin

Pont de D144

Sorcy-Saint-Martin Euville Railway bridge Paris-Est–Strasbourg-Ville line

Issey

Pont d' Euville (D144)

Canal de l'Est

Commercy Commercy Canal de l'Est

Pont de D36

Ruisseau de la Noue

Vignot Vignot Ruisseau d'Aulnois

Pont de Vignot (D958 Commercy - Pont-à-Mousson)

Vignot

Commercy Commercy Pont de Rte de Boncourt (D8A)

Canal de l'Est

Lérouville Commercy Canal de l'Est
Boncourt-sur-Meuse Boncourt-sur-Meuse Railway bridge Lérouville - Metz line

Pont de Boncourt-sur-Meuse

Pont-sur-Meuse Pont-sur-Meuse Pont-sur-Meuse

Pont de Pont-sur-Meuse (D12)

Ruisseau de Chonville

Vadonville /
Mécrin Mécrin Pont de Mécrin (D12A)

Mécrin

Sampigny Han-sur-Meuse Rivière de Mont
Han-sur-Meuse Brasseitte

Pont du Moulin Blussot (D183)

Ally-sur-Meuse

Han-sur-Meuse

Saint-Mihiel Pont de Han-sur-Meuse (D7A)
Kœur-la-Petite Bislée Pont de D964 ( Commercy - Verdun)

Canal de l'Est

Kœur-la-Grande Pont de Bislée (D171)

Bislée

Chauvoncourt Canal de l'Est
Chauvoncourt Menonville
Saint-Mihiel Saint-Mihiel Canal de l'Est

Saint-Mihiel

Pont de Saint-Mihiel (D901 Saint-Mihiel - Rumont)

Les Paroches Maizey Le Rehaut

Canal de l'Est

Maizey Maizy
Dompcevrin Pont de Maizy (D101)

Dompcevrin

Le Hamboquin

Bannoncourt Rouvrois-sur-Meuse /
Bannoncourt La Petite Meuse

Pont de Bannoncourt (D109)

Bannoncourt

Railway bridge LGV Est high speed line ( Paris - Strasbourg)

Ruisseau de Rompierre

Lacroix-sur-Meuse La Prêle
Woimbey /
Troyon Troyon Pont de Troyon

Troyon

Bouquemont /
Tilly-sur-Meuse /
Tilly-sur-Meuse Pont de Tilly-sur-Meuse

Tilly-sur-Meuse

Ambly-sur-Meuse Ruisseau de Récourt
Villers-sur-Meuse Villers-sur-Meuse Villers-sur-Meuse

Pont de Villers-sur-Meuse (D21)

Les Monthairons Les Monthairons Pont de Rue du Lavoir

Les Monthairons

Le Petit Monthairon

Dieue-sur-Meuse Dieue-sur-Meuse Le Clair Fossé

Ruisseau de la Dieue

La Petite Meuse

Pont de Dieue-sur-Meuse (D159)

Dieue-sur-Meuse

Ruisseau de Billonneau

Ruisseau de la Dieue

Dugny-sur-Meuse Haudainville Pont de l' Autoroute A4 ( Paris - Strasbourg)

Ruisseau du Franc Ban

Belleray Belleray Pont de Belleray (D301)

Belleray

Canal de l'Est

Verdun Verdun Saint Vanne

Pont de D330

Pont de Rued'Anthouard

Verdun

Saint Vanne

Pont Fernand Legay

Canal du Puty

Pont Chaussée

Pont de D603 ( Verdun - Metz)

Belleville-sur-Meuse Thierville-sur-Meuse Railway bridge St-Hilaire-au-Temple- Hagondange line ( Verdun- Metz)

Canal de l'Est

La Scance

Pont de D302B

Charny-sur-Meuse Bras-sur-Meuse Charny-sur-Meuse

Pont de Bras-sur-Meuse (D115)

Vacherauville Vacherauville Vacherauville
Marre Champneuville Ruisseau de la Claire
Chattancourt /
Champneuville Pont de Champneuville (D214)
Cumières-le-Mort-Homme /
Regnéville-sur-Meuse Samogneux Regnéville-sur-Meuse

Pont de Samogneux

Samogneux

Forges-sur-Meuse Brabant-sur-Meuse Ruisseau de Forges
Consenvoye Consenvoye Pont de Consenvoye

Consenvoye

Dannevoux Sivry-sur-Meuse Canal de l'Est

Ruisseau de Guénoville

Le Butel

Pont de Dannevoux

Ruisseau de Brouzel

Vilosnes-Haraumont Vilosnes-Haraumont Canal de l'Est

Canal de l'Est

Vilosnes-Haraumont

Pont de Vilosnes-Haraumont (D123B)

Brieulles-sur-Meuse Brieulles-sur-Meuse Ruisseau de Domfontaine

Brieulles-sur-Meuse

Le Wassieu

Cléry-le-Petit Liny-devant-Dun Le Doua

La Tranchée

Dun-sur-Meuse Canal de l'Est
Doulcon Dun-sur-Meuse

Pont de Dun-sur-Meuse (D998)

Doulcon

L'Andon

Sassey-sur-Meuse Milly-sur-Bradon Ruisseau de Bradon

Canal de l'Est

Sassey-sur-Meuse Sassey-sur-Meuse

Pont de Sassey-sur-Meuse (D30)

Ruisseau des Gaules

Mont-devant-Sassey Ruisseau de Mont

Ruisseau de Longvaux

Saulmory-Villefranche Mouzay Ruisseau de Froide Fontaine

Le Grand Mohat

Le Petit Mohat

Wiseppe /
Stenay Canal de l'Est
Stenay Pont de Stenay (D947 Stenay - Montmédy)

Stenay

Canal de l'Est

La Wiseppe

Ruisseau de Cervizy

Martincourt-sur-Meuse Martincourt-sur-Meuse Pont de Martincourt-sur-Meuse

Martincourt-sur-Meuse

Luzy-Saint-Martin Inor Ruisseau de Cesse

Pont de Luz

Inor

Canal de l'Est

Pouilly-sur-Meuse Ruisseau du Fond de Noue
Pouilly-sur-Meuse Pont de Pouilly-sur-Meuse

Pouilly-sur-Meuse

European Union France Grand Est Ardennes (department)/ Meuse (department)

France

Grand Est Region

Ardennes Department / Meuse Department

Létanne Ardennes (department) Pouilly-sur-Meuse Meuse (department) La Wame

Létanne

European Union France Grand Est Ardennes (department)

France

Grand Est Region

Ardennes Department

Létanne Mouzon Le Bras de Vincy

Canal de l'Est

Canal de l'Est

Mouzon Mouzon

Pont de D19

Autrecourt-et-Pourron Yoncq

Autrecourt

Ruisseau de Brouhan

Villers-devant-Mouzon Villers-devant-Mouzon

Ruisseau de la Vignette

Ruisseau des Trois Fontaines

Coupure de Remilly

Remilly-Aillicourt Douzy /
Remilly-Aillicourt Petit Remilly

Pont de Remilly-Aillicourt (D4)

Remilly

Bazeilles Chiers

Aillicourt

Pont de Bazeilles (D129)

Coupure de Remilly

Noyers-Pont-Maugis Ruisseau de Thélonne

Railway bridge Mohon- Thionville line ( Sedan - Thionville)

Pont-Maugis

Balan Ruisseau de Batelotte
Wadelincourt Wadelincourt
Sedan Pont de Sedan (N43 Sedan - Charleville-Mézières)
Sedan Pont de l'Avenue Philippoteaux (D8043A)

Canal de l'Est Pont du Boulevard Fabert

Sedan

Pont de Meuse

Passerelle Saint-Vincent de Paul

Canal de l'Est

Pont-Neuf de Sedan

Glaire Floing Ruz de Glaire

Floing

Glaire

Tour à Glaire ( Glaire)

Ruisseau de Floing

Igles ( Glaire)

Saint-Menges Ruisseau du Bas Caillou

Saint-Menges

Donchery Ruisseau de la Falizette

Villette ( Glaire)

Pont de Glaire ( A34 Sedan - Charleville-Mézières)

Railway bridge Mohon- Thionville line ( Charleville-Mézières - Sedan)

Sedan Frénois ( Sedan)
Donchery Pont de Donchery (D24)

Donchery

Villers-sur-Bar Vrigne
Vrigne-Meuse Vrigne-Meuse

Bar

Dom-le-Mesnil Canal des Ardennes
Nouvion-sur-Meuse Nouvion-sur-Meuse

Pont de Nouvion-sur-Meuse (D33)

Flize Ruisseau des Trois Fontaines

Flize

Ruisseau de Boutancourt

Chalandry-Elaire Elaire ( Chalandry-Elaire)
Les Ayvelles Lumes Lumes
Lumes Railway bridge Mohon- Thionville line ( Charleville-Mézières - Sedan)
Villers-Semeuse Pont de Lumes ( A34 Sedan - Charleville-Mézières)

Ruisseau de la Truie

Dérivation de Romery

Saint-Laurent Dérivation de Romery
Charleville-Mézières Le Theux ( Charleville-Mézières)
Charleville-Mézières Vence

Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Reims)

Mohon ( Charleville-Mézières)

Canal de l'Est

Pont de la Victoire (D8043A)

Mézières ( Charleville-Mézières)

Pont de Pierre

Saint-Julien ( Charleville-Mézières)

Prix-lès-Mézières Pont de Manchester (N43 Charleville-Mézières - Sedan)

Ruisseau du Marbay

Manchester ( Charleville-Mézières)

Prix-lès-Mézières

Ruisseau des Rejets

Ruisseau de Praëlle

Warcq Warcq

Pont de Warcq (D16)

Sormonne

Charleville-Mézières Pont de N43 ( Charleville-Mézières - Sedan)

Passerelle Bayard

Pont d'Arches (D8043A)

Canal de l'Est

Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Reims)

Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Canal de l'Est

Charleville-Mézières

Pont de Mocy (D58)

Montcy-Saint-Pierre ( Charleville-Mézières)

Passerelle du Mont Olympe

Montcy-Notre-Dame Ruisseau de la Fontaine du Prince

Ruisseau de Soiru

Montcy-Notre-Dame

Pont de Montcy-Notre-Dame (D58A)

Canal de l'Est

Aiglemont /
Nouzonville /
Nouzonville Nouzonville

La Goutelle

Ruisseau du Pré Allard

Pont de Nouzonville (D13)

Joigny-sur-Meuse Joigny-sur-Meuse Pont de Joigny-sur-Meuse (D1A)

Joigny-sur-Meuse

Bogny-sur-Meuse Bogny-sur-Meuse Braux

Pont Jean-Rogissart (D1)

Levrézy

Bogny-sur-Meuse

Pont Rue Jourde (D1C)

Château Regnault

Monthermé Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Givet)
Monthermé Semois

Monthermé

Pont de Monthermé (D989)

Deville Deville

Ruisseau de Mairupt

Laifour Ruisseau de la Lambrèque
Revin Ruisseau de la Grande Commune

Ruisseau de la Petite Commune

Laifour

Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Pont de Laifour (D1)

Les Mazures /
Anchamps Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Anchamps Pont d' Anchamps (D1B)

Ru de la Pille

Ruisseau des Meurtriers

Revin Orzy

Pont d'Orzy

Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Revin

Pont de la Bouverie (D988 Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Sartnizon

Rocroi Pont de Saint-Nicolas

Saint-Nicolas ( Rocroi)

Faux

Ruisseau de Falières

Revin Pont de Fumay (D988 Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Ruisseau des Cochons

Fumay Ruisseau de Come
Fumay Ruisseau des Manises

Railway bridge Soissons - Givet line ( Charleville-Mézières - Givet)

Ruisseau de la Folie

Haybes Fumay

Pont de Fumay (D7)

Ri d'Alyse

Haybes Pont de la Guerre (D7B)

Haybes

Ruisseau de Mohron

Fépin Ruisseau d'Hargnies

Fépin

Montigny-sur-Meuse Vireux-Wallerand Risdoux

Fond de la Mènerie

Montigny-sur-Meuse

Vireux-Molhain Vireux-Molhain

Vireux-Wallerand

Pont de Vireux (D989)

Hierges Viroin
Aubrives Aubrives Aubrives
Ham-sur-Meuse Ham-sur-Meuse

Pont de Ham (D46DB)

Chooz Chooz Nuclear Power Plant
Chooz Pont de Chemin de Mission

Chooz

Pont de Chooz

Rancennes Le Fond des Vaux

Les Trois Fontaines ( Chooz)

Givet /
Givet Ruisseau de Rancennes

Givet

Pont des Américains (D949)

Houille

European Union France/ Belgium Grand Est/ Wallonia Ardennes (department)/ Namur Province

France / Belgium

Grand Est Region / Wallonia Region

Ardennes Department / Namur Province

Givet France Hastière Belgium Ruisseau de Mon Idée

Heer ( Hastière)

European Union Belgium Wallonia Namur Province

Belgium

Wallonia Region

Namur Province

Hastière Hastière Heer-Agimont

Pont de N909

Hermeton-sur-Meuse

Hermeton

Ruisseau de Féron

Hastière-Lavaux

Hastière-par-delà

Pont de Hastière-Lavaux (N915)

Fond des Vaux

Ruisseau de Bonsoy

Ruisseau de la Roule

Waulsort

Ruisseau du Chestia

Dinant Freÿr ( Hastière)

Moniat ( Hastière)

Dinant Anseremme

Noyon Pré

Railway bridge line 166 Libramont - Bertrix - Dinant

Lesse

Viaduc Charlemagne (N97 Ciney - Philippeville)

Neffe

Saint-Paul

Dinant

Pont Charles de Gaulle (N936)

Leffe

Ruisseau de Leffe

Bouvignes-sur-Meuse

Yvoir /
Anhée Houx ( Yvoir)

Railway bridge line 154 Dinant - Namur

Anhée

Molignée

Pont d' Anhée (N92 Namur - Dinant)

Yvoir

BocqBocq

Hun ( Anhée)

Rouillon ( Anhée)

Pont de Rouillon (N947a)

Profondeville Godinne ( Yvoir)

Rivière ( Profondeville)

Profondeville Burnot

Burnot

Pont de Lustin (N947)

Profondeville

Tailfer

Ruisseau de Tailfer

Namur Boreuville ( Namur)
Namur Pont de Wépion

Grand Ry

Dave

Ruisseau de Dave

Wépion

Marlagne

La Plante

Pont de Jambes

Jambes

Passerelle l'Enjambée

Sambre

Namur

Pont des Ardennes (N90 Namur - Liège)

Houyoux

Railway bridge 'Pont de Luxembourg' line 154 Dinant - Namur

Bouge

Pont des Grands Malades (N905)

Viaduc du Beez ( E411 Namur - Arlon)

Beez

Lives-sur-Meuse

Brumagne

Gelbresse

Marche-les-Dames

Andenne Andenne Samson

Samson

Pont de Namêche (N942)

Namêche

Sclayn

Pont de N968

Ruisseau de la Loysse

Seilles

Andenne

Pont d' Andenne (N921)

Andenelle

European Union Belgium Wallonia Liège Province

Belgium

Wallonia Region

Liège Province

Wanze Huy Gisves ( Huy)

Java ( Wanze)

Ben ( Huy)

Bas-Oha ( Wanze)

Solière

Pont Père Pire (N643)

Wanze

Mehaigne

Huy Anhin

Railway bridge

Pont Roi Baudouin (N64 Tienen - Huy)

Huy

Hoyoux

Pont de l'Europe

Amay Tihange Nuclear Power Station

Tihange ( Huy)

Pont d'Ampsin (N684)

Ampsin ( Amay)

Neuville-sous-Huy ( Huy)

Amay Pont d'Ombret (N696)

Amay

Ombret-Rawsa

Engis Ruisseau d'Oxhe

Flône ( Amay)

Saint-Georges-sur-Meuse Pont de Hermalle

Hermalle-sous-Huy ( Engis)

Mallieue ( Saint-Georges-sur-Meuse)

Engis Engis

Pont d' Engis (N639)

Flémalle Flémalle Ramioul

Ramet

Chokier

Ivoz

Pont barrage d'Ivoz-Ramet (N677)

Flémalle

Seraing Ruisseau de Ville en Cour

Railway bridge line 125A ( Liers - Liège - Flémalle-Haute)

Val

Seraing Troque

Jemeppe-sur-Meuse

Seraing

Pont de Seraing (A604 highway Liège Airport - Seraing)

Saint-Nicolas Tilleur ( Saint-Nicolas)
Liège Ougrée ( Seraing)

Sclessin ( Liège)

Pont d'Ougrée (N63 Liège - Marche-en-Famenne)

Railway bridge cargo line

Liège Kinkempois

Pont de Liège ( E25 highway Liège - Luxembourg City Luxembourg)

Railway bridge high speed line 3 ( Liège - Aachen Germany)

Angleur

Canal de l'Ourthe

Pont de Fragnée

Ourthe

Passerelle la Belle Liègeoise

Pont du Roi Albert 1er (N30)

Pont Kennedy

Passerelle Saucy

Liège

Pont des Arches (N3 LiègeGermany Germany)

Pont Maghin

Pont Atlas

Bressoux

Jupille-sur-Meuse

Albert Canal

Pont - Barrage de Monsin

Monsin Island

Canal de Monsin

Herstal Herstal

Wandre ( Liège)

Pont de Wandre (N667)

Pont d' Autorute E40 ( Liège - Aachen Germany)

Oupeye Visé Cheratte ( Visé)

Argenteau ( Visé)

Julienne

Hermalle-sous-Argenteau ( Oupeye)

Pont de Hermalle-sous-Argenteau

Richelle ( Visé)

Pont Trilogiport

Visé Visé

Pont de Visé (N618)

Canal de Haccourt - Visé

Railway bridge 'Pont des Allemands'

Pont et barrage de Lixhe (N602)

European Union Belgium Wallonia/ Flanders Liège Province/ Limburg (Belgium)

Belgium

Wallonia Region / Flanders Region

Liège Province / Limburg Province

Visé Wallonia Voeren Flanders Lixhe ( Visé)

Berwinne

Nivelle ( Visé)

European Union Belgium/ Netherlands Wallonia/ Limburg (Netherlands) Liège Province Belgium / Netherlands

Wallonia Region / Limburg Province

Liège Province Belgium

Visé Belgium Eijsden-Margraten Netherlands Voer

Eijsden ( Eijsden-Margraten)

Lanaye ( Visé)

Bike ferry service Lanaye - Eijsden

Canal de Lanaye

Petit Lanaye ( Visé)

European Union Netherlands Limburg (Netherlands)

Netherlands

Limburg Province

Maastricht Maastricht Maastricht

John F. Kennedybrug N278 ( Maastricht - Aachen Germany)

JekerJeker

Pedestrial bridge 'Hoge Brug'

Pedestrial bridge 'Sint-Servaasbrug'

Wilhelminabrug

Railway bridge Maastricht

Noorderbrug

Zuid-Willemsvaart

Juliana Canal

Borgharen

European Union Belgium/ Netherlands Flanders/ Limburg (Netherlands) Limburg (Belgium) Belgium / Netherlands

Flanders Region / Limburg Province

Limburg Belgium

Lanaken Belgium Maastricht Netherlands Smeermaas ( Lanaken)

Itteren ( Maastricht)

Neerharen ( Lanaken)

Maasmechelen Belgium Meerssen Netherlands Geul

Uikhoven ( Maasmechelen)

Bike ferry service Uikhoven - Geulle aan de Maas

Geulle aan de Maas ( Meerssen)

Oude Broekgraaf

Stein Netherlands Kotem

Elsloo

Scharbergbrug ( E314 Belgium / A76 Netherlands Genk Belgium - Heerlen Netherlands - Aachen Germany)

Stein

Meers

Maasmechelen

Kirkbeek

Maasband

Leut ( Maasmechelen)

Ur

Urmond ( Stein)

Berg aan de Maas ( Stein)

Car ferry service Meeswijk - Berg aan de Maas

Dilsen-Stokkem Belgium Sittard-Geleen Netherlands Obbicht ( Sittard-Geleen)

Boyen ( Dilsen-Stokkem)

Vrietselbeek

Bike ferry service Rotem - Grevenbicht

Grevenbicht ( Sittard-Geleen)

Kogbeek

Kingbeek

Echt-Susteren Netherlands Illikhoven ( Sittard-Geleen)

Visserweert ( Sittard-Geleen)

Maaseik Belgium Heppeneert ( Maaseik)

Kokkelert ( Sittard-Geleen)

Zanderbeek

Maaseik

Pater Sangersbrug (N761 Belgium / N296 Netherlands Maaseik Belgium - Susteren Netherlands)

Maasgouw Netherlands Ohé en Laak ( Maasgouw)

Bosbeek

Aldeneik ( Maaseik)

Kinrooi Belgium Ophoven ( Kinrooi)

Bike ferry service Ophoven - Ohé en Laak

Albeek

Stevensweert ( Maasgouw)

European Union Netherlands Limburg (Netherlands)

Netherlands

Limburg Province

Maasgouw Maasgouw Maasbracht

Wessem

Bike ferry service Thorn - Wessem

Bike ferry service Maasbracht - Wessem

Maasbrug bij Wessem ( A2 Eindhoven - Maastricht)

Juliana Canal

Wessem-Nederweert Canal

Linne-Buggenum Canal

Roermond Vlootbeek

Linne ( Maasgouw)

Roermond Merum

Bike ferry service Ool - Oolderhuuske

Ool

Herten

Roermond

Rur

Louis Raemaekersbrug (N280 Roermond - Weert)

Maasnielderbeek

Railway bridge Buggenum ( Iron Rhine Weert - Roermond)

Leudal Linne-Buggenum Canal

Buggenum ( Leudal)

Neerbeek

Swalm

Beesel Bike ferry service Neer - Rijkel

Rijkel ( Beesel)

Neer ( Leudal)

Peel en Maas Beesel

Kessel-Eik ( Peel en Maas)

Huilbeek Kessel ( Peel en Maas)

Car ferry service Kessel - Beesel

Tasbeek

Reuver ( Beesel)

Scheikensbeek

Venlo Oijen ( Peel en Maas)

Belfeld ( Venlo)

Aalsbeek

Steyl ( Venlo)

Car ferry service Baarlo - Steyl

Venlo Engerbeek

Tegelen

Springbeek

Zuiderbrug ( A73 Nijmegen - Venlo)

Wijlderbeek

Blerick

Stadsbrug Venlo (N556)

Railway bridge Venlo ( Venlo–Eindhoven and Nijmegen–Venlo lines)

Venlo

Rijnbeek

Stepkensbeek

Noorderbrug ( A67 Venlo - Duisburg Germany)

Horst aan de Maas Stopbeek

Baarsdonk

Everlose Beek

Vorstermolenbeek

Grubbenvorst ( Horst aan de Maas)

Velden ( Venlo)

Car ferry service Grubbenvorst - Velden

Latbeek

Hasselt ( Venlo)

Salderbeek

Houthuizen ( Horst aan de Maas)

Molenbeek van Lotum

Lomm ( Venlo)

Wielder ( Horst aan de Maas)

Tassbeek

Lottum ( Horst aan de Maas)

Car ferry service Lottum - Lomm

Pedestrian ferry service Lottum - Arcen

Arcen ( Venlo)

Aarsbeek

Broekhuizen ( Horst aan de Maas)

Car ferry service Broekhuizen - Arcen

Molenbeek

Broekhuizenvorst ( Horst aan de Maas)

Rode Beek

Bergen Geldernsch-Nierkanaal
Venray Wellerlooi ( Bergen)

Blitterswijck ( Venray)

Bike ferry service Blitterswijck - Wellerlooi

Sohr

Koninginnebrug N270 ( Venray - Eindhoven)

Well ( Bergen)

Wanssum ( Venray)

Grote Molenbeek

Oostrumsche Beek

Geijsteren ( Venray)

European Union Netherlands Limburg (Netherlands)/ North Brabant

Netherlands

Limburg Province / North Brabant province

Land van Cuijk North Brabant Bergen Limburg (Netherlands) Maashees

Ayensebeek

Aijen ( Bergen)

Vierlingsbeek ( Land van Cuijk)

Car ferry service Vierlingsbeek - Bergen

Bergen

Molenbeek

Heukelomsebeek

Heukelom ( Bergen)

Eckeltse Beek

Rekgraaf

Afferden ( Bergen)

Car ferry service Sambeek - Afferden

Sint-Jansbeek

Sambeek ( Land van Cuijk)

Gennep Limburg (Netherlands) Boxmeer ( Land van Cuijk)

Maasbrug van Boxmeer ( A77 Boxmeer - Cologne Germany)

Heijen ( Gennep)

Gennep

Maasbrug van Gennep (N264 Gennep - Veghel)

Niers

Oeffeltsche Raam

Milsbeek ( Gennep)

Tielebeek

Mook en Middelaar Limburg (Netherlands) Sint-Agatha ( Land van Cuijk)

Middelaar ( Mook en Middelaar)

Virdsche Graaf

Cuijk ( Land van Cuijk)

Car ferry service Cuijk - Middelaar

Mooks Kanaal

Mook ( Mook en Middelaar)

Katwijk ( Land van Cuijk)

Railway bridge Mook ( Nijmegen–Venlo line)

Molenhoek ( Mook en Middelaar)

European Union Netherlands Gelderland/ North Brabant

Netherlands

Gelderland / North Brabant province

Heumen Gelderland Maas–Waal Canal

Heumen

Maasbrug van Heumen ( A73 Nijmegen - Venlo)

Overasselt ( Heumen)

Tochtsloot

Grave ( Land van Cuijk)

John S. Thompsonbrug (N324 Grave - Nijmegen)

Nederasselt ( Heumen)

Raam

Wijchen Gelderland Balgoij ( Wijchen)
Oss North Brabant Keent ( Oss)

Neerloon ( Oss)

Niftrik ( Wijchen)

Maasbrug van Ravenstein ( A50 Nijmegen - Eindhoven)

Ravenstein ( Oss)

Bike ferry service Ravenstein - Niftrik

Railway bridge 'Edithbrug' ( Tilburg-Nijmegen line)

Neerlangel ( Oss)

Demen ( Oss)

Batenburg ( Wijchen)

Bike ferry service Demen - Batenburg

Dieden ( Oss)

West Maas en Waal Gelderland Nieuwe Wetering

Appeltern ( West Maas en Waal)

De Vliet

Car ferry service Appeltern - Megen

Megen ( Oss)

Car ferry service Maasbommel - Megen-West

Maasbommel ( West Maas en Waal)

Burgemeester Delenkanaal

Boveneind ( Oss)

Berghuizen ( West Maas en Waal)

Oijen ( Oss)

Car ferry service Oijen - Nieuwe Schans

Greffeling ( West Maas en Waal)

Alphen ( West Maas en Waal)

Lithoijen ( Oss)

Lith ( Oss)

Moordhuizen ( West Maas en Waal)

Car ferry service Lith - Moordhuizen

Maasdriel Gelderland Voorne ( Maasdriel)

Heerewaarden ( Maasdriel)

Bike ferry service Heerewaarden - Lithse Ham

Maren-Kessel ( Oss)

Sint Andries canal

Car ferry service Alem - Maren-Kessel

't Wild ( Oss)

Kerkdriel ( Maasdriel)

Hertogswetering

Hoefgraaf

's-Hertogenbosch North Brabant Gewande ( 's-Hertogenbosch)

Hoenzadriel ( Maasdriel)

Máxima Canal

Empel ( 's-Hertogenbosch)

Maasbrug van Empel ( A2 's-Hertogenbosch - Utrecht)

's-Hertogenbosch

Railway bridge 'Hedelse spoorbrug' ( Utrecht–Boxtel line)

Prinses Irenebrigadebrug

Hedel ( Maasdriel)

Oude Dieze

Dieze

Bokhoven ( 's-Hertogenbosch)

Ammerzoden ( Maasdriel)

Heusden North Brabant Well ( Maasdriel)

Zooislagen Buitendijkse Loop

Zaltbommel Gelderland Car ferry service Bern - Herpt

Bern ( Zaltbommel)

Heusden

Heusden Canal

European Union Netherlands North Brabant

Netherlands

North Brabant province

Heusden Altena Maasbrug van Heusden (N267 Heusden - Giessen)

Heesbeen ( Heusden)

Genderen ( Altena)

Doeveren ( Heusden)

Waalwijk Afwateringskanaal 's-Hertogenbosch - Drongelen

Drongelen ( Altena)

Waalwijk

Car ferry service Drongelen - Waalwijk

Car ferry service Dussen - Capelle

Dussen ( Altena)

Geertruidenberg Peerenboom ( Altena)

Keizersveerbrug ( A27 Breda - Utrecht)

Raamsdonksveer ( Geertruidenberg)

Geertruidenberg

Nieuwe Merwede

Mouth into the North Sea

Mention in patriotic songs

The Meuse (Maas) is mentioned in the first stanza of Germany's old national anthem, the Deutschlandlied. However, since its re-adoption as national anthem in 1952, only the third stanza of the Deutschlandlied has been sung as the German national anthem, the first and second stanzas being omitted. This was confirmed after German reunification in 1991 when only the third stanza was defined as the official anthem. The lyrics written in 1841 describe a then–disunited Germany with the river as its western boundary, where King William I of the Netherlands had joined the German Confederation with his Duchy of Limburg in 1839. Though the duchy's territory officially became an integral part of the Netherlands by the 1867 Treaty of London, the text passage remained unchanged when the Deutschlandlied was declared the national anthem of the Weimar Republic in 1922.

The name of the rivers also forms part of the title of " Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse", written after the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and a popular patriotic song for the rest of the 19th century and into the 20th.

See also

References

  1. ^ Marcel de Wit, Robert Leander, Adri Buishand: Extreme discharges in the Meuse basin Archived 2014-01-06 at the Wayback Machine, p. 2
    (The frequently mentioned figure of 250 m3/s refers to the Borgharen gauge near the frontier between Belgium and the Netherlands representing two thirds of the basin.)
  2. ^ a b "Meuse". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  3. ^ "Meuse" (US) and "Meuse". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-02-09.
  4. ^ a b "Meuse". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  5. ^ "Maas". Lexico US English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-02-26.
  6. ^ Loo, Bart van (2021). "Let Them All Die". The Burgundians: A Vanished Empire: A History of 1111 Years and One Day. London. ISBN  978-1-78954-343-8. OCLC  1264400332. Archived from the original on 2024-05-13. Retrieved 2022-09-16.{{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher ( link)
  7. ^ "Wallonie : une région en Europe" (in French). Ministère de la Région wallonne. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  8. ^ a b Van der Aalst & De Jongh (2004). Honderd Jaar Bergse Maas (in Dutch). Pictures Publishing. ISBN  90-73187-50-8.
  9. ^ Wols, Rien (2011). "De Uitvoering van de Maasmondingswerken". Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2014-11-03. Retrieved 2014-10-26.
  10. ^ "Presentation of The River People on Eurochannel". Archived from the original on 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
  11. ^ Barneveld, Hermjan; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Frings, R. M. (2022). "Massive morphological changes during the 2021 summer flood in the River Meuse" (PDF). hkv.nl. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 December 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  12. ^ Ferguson, Robert (1862). The River-Names of Europe. London: Williams & Norgate. p. 142. OCLC  1811056.
  13. ^ (in French) Sandre. "Fiche cours d'eau - La Meuse (B---0000)".
  14. ^ NoorderSoft Waterways database
  15. ^ "Accord international sur la Meuse". Archived from the original on 2022-05-23. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
  16. ^ French: Les rochers par lesquels l'art gothique suggère conventionnellement un site sauvage et désertique, sont présents. Comme d'aucuns l'ont remarqué, ces pics rocheux qui vont devenir chez Patinier, indissociables de l'évocation d'un paysage ressemblent à ceux qu'il a pu voir dans la région dinantaise (...) Mais il va de soi que les paysages représentés ne sont jamais dans leur ensemble la transposition de sites existants. L'espace tel que le conçoit Patinier est d'un autre ordre que celui qui s'offre au spectateur dans la réalité. in 'L'essor du paysage' in Jacques Stiennon, Jean-Patrick Duchesne, Yves Randaxhe, Cinq siècles de peinture en Wallonie, Les éditeurs d'art associés, Bruxelles, 1988, p. 67-72. The landscape of the Mosan valley is the inspiration of Patinier but the result of this inspiration was not a painting of this landscape.
  17. ^ Fraiture, Pascale (2002). "Contribution of scientific methods to the understanding of the work of the 16th century painter, Henri Bles". Dendrochronologia. 20 (3): 285–299. doi: 10.1078/1125-7865-00022.
  18. ^ Ward PJ, H Renssen, JCJH Aerts, RT van Balen & J Vandenberghe (2008), "Strong increases in flood frequency and discharge of the River Meuse over the Late Holocene: impacts of long-term anthropogenic land use change and climate variability". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 12: 159-175. http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/12/159/2008/hess-12-159-2008.pdf Archived 2020-02-17 at the Wayback Machine [Ward et al., 2008]
  19. ^ Wols, Rien (2011). "De Uitvoering van de Maasmondingswerken". Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2014-11-03. Retrieved 2014-10-26.
  20. ^ Rijkswaterstaat: Water Management in the Netherlands, 2011
  21. ^ Ward et al., 2008

External links

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