From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from MediaCorp)

Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
Company type State-owned
Industry
Predecessors
  • Radio Singapura (1945–1965)
  • Television Singapura (1961–1965)
  • Radio Television Singapore (1965–1980)
  • Singapore Broadcasting Corporation (1980–1994)
  • Singapore International Media (1994–1999)
Founded1 June 1936; 87 years ago (1936-06-01)
Headquarters1 Stars Avenue (Mediapolis@onenorth),
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Niam Chiang Meng ( Chairman)
Tham Loke Kheng ( CEO)
Products
Services
  • Television
  • radio
  • online
RevenueIncrease US$750.8 million
Number of employees
3,000 (2022)
Parent Temasek Holdings
Website mediacorp.sg

Mediacorp Pte. Ltd. is a state-owned public media conglomerate in Singapore. Owned by Temasek Holdings—the investment arm of the Government of Singapore—it owns and operates television channels, radio, and digital media properties. As of 2022, Mediacorp employs over 3,000 staff in total with a larger part of them are in both public and private sector broadcasting. [1]

The company forms half of the mass media duopoly in the country alongside SPH Media Trust; the company was established in its current form in 1999, following the 1994 privatization of one of its predecessors—the Singapore Broadcasting Corporation (SBC)—as a group of state-owned enterprises known as Singapore International Media.

Mediacorp holds a monopoly on terrestrial broadcasting in Singapore, operating five generalist channels broadcasting in the official languages of English ( Channel 5), Mandarin Chinese ( Channel 8 and Channel U), Malay ( Suria), and Tamil ( Vasantham), as well as the pan-Asian news network CNA, and streaming service meWatch. It also operates the websites Today and 8days, which had previously operated as print publications.

Its monopoly on terrestrial television was briefly broken in the early-2000s by SPH MediaWorks. In 2004, amid struggles at its two channels, SPH sold the MediaWorks subsidiary to MediaCorp in exchange for stakes in its television and publishing businesses; only its Chinese-language Channel U would continue under MediaCorp. SPH divested its stake in MediaCorp in 2017 after Today ceased print publication.

History

1925–1965: Pre-independence era

First experiments

The history of radio broadcasting in Singapore began with the formation of the Amateur Wireless Society of Malaya (AWSM) in April 1925, which launched shortwave transmission from a studio in the Union Building at Collyer Quay using a 100-watt transmitter lent by the Marconi Company under callsign 1SE (One Singapore Experimental). [2] [3] [4] The transmissions could be received as far as Penang, albeit with atmospheric interferences at times. [5] In 1930, Sir Earl from the Singapore Port Authority commenced its short wave broadcast every fortnight either on Sundays or Wednesdays. The BBC World Service of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was inaugurated on 19 December 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave [6] and aimed principally at English speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message (1932), King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". [7] First hopes for the Empire Service were low. The Director General, Sir John Reith, said in the opening programme:

Don't expect too much in the early days; for some time we shall transmit comparatively simple programmes, to give the best chance of intelligible reception and provide evidence as to the type of material most suitable for the service in each zone. The programmes will neither be very interesting nor very good. [7] [8]

In Singapore, the BBC World Service in English is essentially treated as a domestic broadcaster, easily available 24/7 through long-term agreement with British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation which expanded the array of programmes available for resident listeners. In 1933, Radio ZHI was launched as the first professional shortwave broadcasting station in Singapore. Owned by the Radio Service Company of Malaya, it was a shortwave radio station that delivered static-free broadcasts. Radio ZHI acquired a loyal following in Singapore and abroad. Despite its success, the station closed at the end of December 1936 when its license expired [9] because the British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation was granted the status of having the radio monopoly. [10]

British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation

The British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation (BMBC) was created on 12 April 1935 with a nominal capital of $500,000, [11] formed on 21 July 1935 and awarded a broadcasting license by the British crown on 1 June 1936 as a radio network. [12] The station was initially scheduled to start broadcasting in 1935, but was subsequently delayed to 1936 due to initial government uncertainties. [13] The station broadcast from the hill on Thomson Road. [14] ZHL made its first broadcast of Chinese music on 10 June 1936 as an experiment. [15] The BMBC conducted auditions in November 1936. [16] On 1 March 1937 at 6pm, its studios and transmitters at Caldecott Hill were officially opened by Governor of the Straits Settlements Shenton Thomas, aiming at a potential target audience of 10,000 listeners. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]

In a move to adjust its budget, BMBC cut the number of weekly hours in late June 1937, from the initial 34 3/4 hours to 28 3/4. The Sunday schedule was cut from seven hours to four: before the revision, the daytime period ran from 11am to 1:30pm and the evening period from 5:30pm to 10pm. This was cut to 11:30am to 1:30pm for the daytime period (reducing half an hour) and 6pm to 8pm for the evening period (cutting two and a half hours). On weekdays the schedule ran from 6pm to 10pm, simply cutting the last quarter hour on air (before then, the station closed at 10:15pm). On Saturdays, the afternoon period remained in the 12:45pm to 2pm slot, but the evening period, starting at 6pm, now ended at 9:35pm instead of 11:15pm. This also prompted ZHL to reduce the number of artists to those able to perform without paying fees. Juvenile sessions were dropped because the artists had paid more. The existing charter suggested that the daily schedule would last at least four hours, with extensions depending on listener feedback. Any potential expansion was hampered purely by lack of budget. The monthly income was of $3,500, $2,500 from the licence and $1,000 from the Municipality. There were hopes to increase the income due to the start of sponsored programmes. [22] Plans for shortwave broadcasting had been outlined in July 1937, despite concerns over the quality of its reception. [23] In its first trimester on air, the BMBC was operating at a loss, a cause of "grave concern" for the staff. [24]

Work on the shortwave BMBC station started in October 1937, aiming at a March 1938 launch date. The station was to broadcast at a frequency of 31.48 meters daytime and 49.9 meters nighttime. The programming would be the same as the existing medium wave ZHL station. [25]

In January 1938, it was announced that the BMBC would cease receiving its monthly $1,000 grant from the municipality effective the end of February. [26] In the year ending February 28, 1938, the BMBC was operating at a net profit of $275.88; compared to the loss of $5,368.67 [27] The number of listeners now stood at 4,213, up from the initial figure of 2,598 - even so, the figure was relatively lower than the planned target of 10,000 in the formal launch the previous year. [28] Ahead of the start of the shortwave service, it was reported that it would be picked up by over 9,000 radio receivers in Malaya - combined with over 4,000 in Singapore, the number of potential listeners was going to increase threefold. [29] The station started on 19 July 1938 under the callsign ZHP (the "P" stood for "Progress") attracting an audience not just in Malaya, but also in Sarawak, Borneo and the Dutch Indies, especially in tin mines and rubber estates. [30]

Thanks to the wider coverage range of ZHP, ZHL was able to broadcast more sporting events, namely horse races, tennis and the football, specifically the Malayan Cup. Before the change in policy, it was more likely for attendees to go to the matches. [31]

The shortwave frequency moved in on 1 October 1938 from 30.96 meters to 48.58 meters, under the new callsign ZHO, at the request of the Posts and Telegraphs Department. The extant medium wave frequency (225 metres or 1333kc) remained unchanged. [32]

In February 1939, the government started giving aid to the BMBC. The listener base was by then upgraded to 15,000 listeners: 5,000 in Singapore, a further 5,000 in the Federated Malay States, 2,000 in Penang, 1,000 in Johor and 350 in Malacca. Statistically, out of the 5,104 licence holders (number of receivers) in Singapore, 2,574 were Europeans and Eurasians, 2,023 were Chinese, 219 were Malays, 195 were Indians, 87 were Japanese and six were Siamese. [33] The shortwave transmitter carrying ZHO upgraded its power in mid-1939, from 400 watts to 2 kilowatts. [34] At the 1939 Annual Report, there were plans to create two separate services, an 8+12-hour European service and a 9+12-hour Asiatic one. Included in the proposal was the creation of a second medium wave transmitter for the two programmes to be delivered from the extant facilities. [35] Subsequently, a second plan to increase the power of the shortwave transmitter was held in early 1940, this time increasing its coverage to reach out to the entirety of Malaya, Borneo, the Netherlands Indies and Siam. Much of the equipment used was already manufactured in Singapore. [36]

Malaya Broadcasting Corporation

The corporation was taken over by the Straits Settlements government in 1940 [37] as a part of the British Department of Information, subsequently nationalised and reorganised as the Malaya Broadcasting Corporation (MBC), [18] the local counterpart to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Additional French programming was added on 16 September 1940. [38]

In order to counter German propaganda, a second shortwave transmitter was added on 29 September 1940, ZHP 3 (the existing transmitter was renamed ZHP 1). The station carried a special programme in German on Friday nights from 10pm to 10:30pm. The remainder of the line-up consisted of music and news, in Hindustani, Dutch, Tamil, Arabic and French. ZHL and ZHP 1 carried primarily content in English and Chinese dialects, with some Malay programming as well. [39] [40] By April 1941 ZHP 2 was activated. The station was merely a relayer of ZHL's output, that was also heard on ZHP 1. [41]

Syonan Broadcasting Station

During World War II, when the Japanese Imperial Army occupied Singapore from 1942 to 1945, the radio station on the island of Singapore was seized by the Japanese authorities and renamed Syonan Hoso Kyoku ('Light of the South' Broadcasting Corporation, 昭南放送局, known in English as the Syonan Broadcasting Station or SBS), the local counterpart to the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK). Broadcasts under the new administration started on 13 March 1942 and broadcast over three frequencies, one in medium wave for within Singapore, another to relay output from Tokyo and a shortwave frequency aimed at the time in Australia. [42] After repairs, broadcasts officially started on 28 March. [43] Programming was at the outset of occupation airing daily from 7pm to 10pm (later the closing time moved to 10:30pm) with an additional hour-long period from 10am to 11am for educational programming. Programming was still in the same mix of languages as before but content in Japanese was added. [44]

In June 1942, the Syonan station broadcast Japanese language learning classes to students, installing sets in 87 schools. [45]

During occupation, a confidential British Far Eastern Broadcasting Service (BFEBS) was carried out by the UK to its occupied territories, briefly having its offices at Caldecott Hill. The facilities were later used as a relay station for the BBC. [18]

Radio Singapore

After the war, the British came back into power and reclaimed the radio station, with the station managed by the interim government – British Military Administration (BMA). [17]

Two separate stations were introduced from 23 December 1945. The existing service was renamed Blue Network, carrying programming in English and Malay. The second service, the Red Network, carried content in Tamil, Hindustani and Chinese dialects. The Blue Network was carried on the 41,61,225 metre band and the Red Network, on the 41,61,300 metre band. [46]

On 1 April 1946, Radio Malaya Singapore and the Federation of Malaya (RMSFOM; or Radio Malaya), a short- and mediumwave service, was established in Singapore. Radio news and information, as well as local entertainment, were aired on its stations in English and later Mandarin Chinese and Malay. In June 1947, the BBC initiated a one-year takeover plan of the BFEBS. [47] The plan was culminated on 8 August 1948. [48]

Changes to programming led to the Blue Network adding some Chinese content on from 1 January 1949. Both networks increased their airtime. [49] This was due to requests from individual communities, who demanded more programmes for them. [50] The Chinese output gained its own station on 1 January 1951, the Green Network. [51]

Radio Malaya left the Cathay building on 4 November 1951 at closedown. [52] The two networks increased their schedule again in January 1952. [53]

On the basis of the Radio Malaya broadcasters that moved to Kuala Lumpur in 1958, Radio Singapura took over on 4 January 1959 as the radio service for Singapore, organised into a station each for English, Malay and Mandarin listeners, plus a blocktime slot for Tamil speakers. [54] Shortwave broadcasts commenced on 14 February 1960, consisting of relays of extant Radio Singapore output. [55] The frequency changed in 1961, with test transmissions in the new frequencies (7250, 6175, 6615 and 4280) were carried from mid-January. [55] A new radio station, Siaran Istimewa, was announced in May 1961 [56] and started broadcasting on 3 June, on 990 kc (990 kHz) in all of the official languages. [57] When Singapore joined Malaysia on 16 September 1963, Radio Singapura's stations became part of Radio Malaysia and rebranded as "Radio Malaysia (Singapura)". [58]

From 2 March 1964, the Malay, Tamil and Mandarin sections increased their airtime. [59] The number of radio news bulletins was increased from 29 to 42. [60]

Television broadcasting

Shortly after Singapore reached self-government status on 3 June 1959, there were plans to obtain television transmission rights. This manifested the founding of Television Singapura on 4 April 1961.

Television Singapura aired test broadcasts on channel 5 from 21 January to 15 February 1963, ahead of its first official pilot broadcast on the evening of 15 February 1963. Minister for Culture S. Rajaratnam became the first person to appear on Singapore TV, announcing that "Tonight might well mark the start of a social and cultural revolution in our lives." The first programme aired was a documentary, TV Looks at Singapore. The pilot service would broadcast for one hour and 40 minutes nightly; at the time, it was estimated that only one in 58 Singaporeans owned a television. [61]

On 2 April 1963, Channel 5 was officially inaugurated by Yang di-Pertuan Negara Yusof Ishak; the service expanded to 7:15 to 11:00 p.m. nightly. By September, its broadcast day had been lengthened to begin at 6:30 p.m. [62] Initially, Channel 5 carried programmes in all four of Singapore's official languages. On 31 August, Channel 8 started trial broadcasts, [63] before starting its regular service on 23 November 1963. [64]

In January 1964, Television Singapura became the state branch of the new Televisyen Malaysia from Kuala Lumpur and was subsequently rebranded as sister channel "Television Malaysia (Singapura)". During its time as part of Malaysia, Singapore, like its three other partners–Sabah, Sarawak and Malaya—had its own radio network, but Singapore was the only state to have its own television network. The state's radio and television broadcast right was included as an annex in the Malaysia Agreement which garnered autonomy in this area, among others.

Television advertising started on 15 January 1964. [65]

1965–1980: Radio Television Singapore

After the separation of Singapore from the Malaysian federation, its radio and television outlets became part of Radio Television Singapore (RTS), a division of the Ministry of Culture. This led to expansions of the network, including a move to the new $3.6 million Television Centre at Caldecott Hill on 27 August 1966. [66]

An FM service was announced in January 1967, set to start in June or July of that year, where the four existing stations would be relayed. [67] The experimental FM service started testing in May 1967 and upgraded to a pilot service on 23 June, with FM being ideal for Singapore's size. [68] The service went regular on 15 July, broadcasting over five frequencies: 94.2 (Malay), 95.8 and 96.8 (Chinese), 96.8 (Tamil) and 92.4 (English). [69] Test broadcasts of the FM Stereo service started on 18 July 1969 using the 92.4 frequency. [70] New radio studios were built in 1972, starting with the addition of the Radio House, then in 1975 by a new complex costing $4.2 million. [18]

From 30 March 1973, Channel 5 began focusing on English and Malay-language programmes, while Channel 8 would focus on Chinese- and Tamil-language programmes. [71] On 24 October 1973, RTS aired a 40-minute documentary titled Addiction: Three Experiences, chronicling the lives of three drug addicts. The documentary was given a Special Commendation by the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union in 1974. [72]

In January 1974, RTS bought two colour television transmitters worth $700,000. The old transmitters installed in 1966 would remain as standby equipment. [73] On 2 May 1974, the two channels conducted colour test broadcasts of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, [74] followed in July by its first live colour broadcast—the 1974 FIFA World Cup final. About 2,000 colour television sets were sold in Singapore three days before the match. [75] On 9 August, that year's Singapore National Day Parade became the first live broadcast to be produced by RTS in colour. [76] The second phase of the pilot colour service began on 11 November 1974, with newsreels being converted to colour, but it still had to air monochrome newsreels because some of the footage available was still in black and white. The number of weekly hours given to colour programming increased from two to four on weekdays and four to six on weekends. [77]

In honour of the impending launch of full-time colour broadcasts, RTS held a contest to design a new logo. After 662 submissions, the winning design by Loh Hong Liat and Lawrence Wong Heng Kwok was unveiled in August 1975. Lok designed the letters "R and T" which represent recording, while Wong designed the letter "S". [78] Full-time colour broadcasts began on 1 November 1977.[ citation needed]

RTS radio stations began extending broadcasting hours of programmes in stereo on 3 April 1978, adding technical costs to the broadcaster. [79]

In accordance with the 1975 Geneva Frequency Plan, the RTS radio stations moved their frequencies effective 23 November 1978:

  • English Service: 630 kHz → 630 kHz
  • Chinese Service: 680 kHz → 675 kHz
  • Multilanguage Service: 790 kHz → 792 kHz
  • Malay Service: 990 kHz → 990 kHz
  • Tamil Service: 1370 kHz → 1368 kHz

Since their frequencies were already spaced in the multiples of 9 kHz before the Geneva Frequency Plan, the English and Malay stations had their frequencies unchanged. [80]

1980–1994: Singapore Broadcasting Corporation

Singapore Broadcasting Corporation logo

The ability for RTS to grow was hampered by administrative and budgetary constraints, leading to frequent turnover in staff, and a reliance on imported programmes rather than domestic productions. In September 1979, an act was proposed in the Parliament of Singapore to separate RTS from the Ministry of Culture, and replace it with a new statutory body known as the Singapore Broadcasting Corporation (SBC). The SBC was envisioned as an autonomous, state-owned enterprise akin to Singapore Airlines and comparable to the BBC in the United Kingdom. [81] [82] The SBC Act was approved in parliament on 12 January 1980. [83]

A competition for a new SBC logo was initiated in January 1980. The characteristics of the new brand were to be "simple and attractive", while not having more than three colours, including the background. The winner would receive a cash prize worth $5,000. [84]

The government officially dissolved RTS on 31 January 1980 and transferred its assets to the SBC. [85] The rebrand was not ceremonious. Ahead of closedown, an announcement was made telling viewers of the rename. The following morning, at 6 a.m., SBC formally started with no preamble, with the only visible changes being a new interim wordmark logo, updated startup and closedown sequences, and a new news intro. [86] The new logo competition finished on 16 February. A preliminary selection was determined by five judges on 22 February. At first the logo was set to be introduced in March. [87] A total of 4,042 entries were received. [88] The new logo was unveiled to the public on 18 May 1980. [89] The winner was Laurence Wong Heng Kwok—who had previously co-designed the RTS logo. [90]

Its programming had not changed much following the relaunch, to the point that some viewers mockingly said that "SBC" stood for "Same Boring Channel". [91] SBC introduced "weather girls" on 1 May 1980 for its English news broadcasts, before expanding to other languages in 1981. The format ended in March 1982 because it wanted the weather report to be the same as the other languages and the "weather report within the news bulletin was adequate". [92] From June 1980, SBC would start sponsoring the clock before the news on its television channels, which it anticipated could bring in an additional S$1 million in revenue. [93] SBC began adapting a new format for its television news broadcasts in August 1980. [94] The new format would feature two newscasters and more on-location reporting. [94]

SBC introduced political party broadcasts for the 1980 general election campaign on 17 December 1980, with the People's Action Party getting 12 minutes of broadcast, the United Front and the Workers' Party three minutes each and United People's Front three and a half minutes. [95] The shortest available broadcasts were for parties with six candidates with two and a half minutes. [96] The participating parties were required to send five copies of their manifestos to SBC. A final broadcast was held on 22 December. [96]

The English-language current affairs programme Friday Background debuted in March 1981. [97] In April 1981, to maximise SBC's resources in improving its sports presentation, the Malay and Chinese versions of the corporation's sports programme Sports Parade were cancelled; the programme now only airs in English. [98]

In May 1981, on the day President Benjamin Sheares was pronounced dead, SBC's television channels cancelled their regular programming and replaced them with "solemn music and serious documentaries". The next day, the corporation aired two episodes of Destiny and an episode of Sandiwara, which SBC thinks were too serious to be aired. SBC also decided not to repeat the state funeral of Sheares because it would "lend levity to a sad occasion". [99]

On 1 January 1982, SBC renamed its radio stations:

  • Radio 1 (English; present-day Gold 905)
  • Radio 2 (Malay; present-day Warna 942)
  • Radio 3 (Chinese; present-day Capital 958)
  • Radio 4 (Tamil 6am to 9pm and Chinese 9pm to midnight; present-day Oli 968)
  • Radio 5 (Classical Music, the former FM Stereo; present-day Symphony 924)

The revamp was the result of a 1978 survey where listeners preferred entertainment programming over talk. [100]

On 30 March 1982, SBC 5 began airing the children's storytelling programme Share A Story, with the Tuesday's broadcast aimed at 3 to 5-year-old children and the Thursday's broadcast aimed at 6 to 9-year-old children. [101] In 1982, commercial breaks during prime time on SBC 5 were four minutes long with six to nine advertisements squeezed in, while SBC 8's were eight to ten minutes. [102] On 1 February 1983, SBC's television news broadcasts received a new studio set, described as "duck-egg blue" and "three-dimensional". A special semi-circular table was created for the set. The previous set was "pink" in colour. The new set was inspired from news and current affairs programmes in the United States. [103] Other changes include each newscaster reading different stories [103] and more graphics and illustrations. [103]

The next day, SBC launched Newswatch, a children's news programme aimed at 10 to 14-year-old children [104] It would air three times a week for 10 minutes; every Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 7:20 pm. [104] The idea for Newswatch was suggested by the-then Cultural Minister in 1980 [105] and planning for its creation started the following year, [104] involving the studying of similar news programmes such as John Craven's Newsround [106] and Video Despatch. [104] The development for Newswatch was headed by SBC news executive Myrna Thomas and is assisted by William Earl of Television New Zealand. [106] The initial presenters of Newswatch were Woon Liew and Shantini Sundram. [104] Toh Seng Ling, who presented Newswatch in 1990, would later become the newscaster for News 5 Tonight in April 2001. [107]

SBC Radio 1 and SBC Radio 3 started carrying hourly news bulletins on 1 May 1983. [108]

On 31 January 1984, SBC launched Channel 12, a new television service devoted to cultural programming. In connection to its launch, the English and Mandarin news bulletins had their length extended to 30 minutes the following day. The move was taken considering mass interest in Cantonese productions in Malaysia, as well as the limited number of Mandarin speakers in the country. Musical programmes were also included in the agreement, and would also be distributed to Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Europe and North America. [109] On 30 July, SBC started dubbing its series to Cantonese for the video market in Malaysia, in a contract with Unity Records that was valid from 1 September. [110]

SBC began on-camera coverage of Parliament proceedings in 1985. [97] Today in Parliament began on 1 March 1985 with a one-hour long broadcast. [111] Studio 6, a studio specially made for local programmes especially dramas, was completed in early 1985. [112]

Advertisements on SBC in 1986 were limited to four for a half-hour programme and eight for an hour-hong programme. [113] In May 1986, SBC introduced "subtitle ads", advertisements appearing as a single-line sentence or one letter at a time and appear for 10 seconds. This format is used to compensate for the advertisement limit imposed by the corporation. However, they only appear on programmes that do not have translation subtitles. While this advertisement format enabled more companies to advertise on television due to its cheaper rates, it has caused irritation among viewers. [113]

On 3 August 1987, by request from listeners overseas, SBC began adding financial news bulletins from Radio 5 on the shortwave versions of Radio 1 and 3, while FM and mediumwave listeners can tune in to regular programming during the bulletin. [114] In August 1988, SBC news broadcasts adopted a new "upbeat and viewer-friendly" look. The backdrop is now that of the skyline of Singapore. It generated positive response from viewers. [115]

On 1 January 1989, SBC launched two new radio stations: Perfect 10 (airing English contemporary hits for youth) and YES (airing Mandarin music).

SBC stopped airing Late News bulletins on Channel 12 in English and Channel 8 in Mandarin on 2 January 1989 due to fewer news developments happening between the main news and the late news bulletins. [116]

Two further radio services were announced in December 1989: 93.3 (airing Mandarin music) and a yet-unnamed MOR service (which would later become Class 95). The former was scheduled to launch on 1 January 1990, similar to Perfect 10 the year before. The existing numbered radio services had some changes: broadcasting hours on Radios 2 and 4 (Malay and Tamil) were extended to 2 a.m. [117] in June 1989, along with Radio 3 (Chinese) but only on Fridays, Saturdays and the eve of public holidays, [118] and Mandarin language broadcasts were phased out from Radio 5. [117] The MOR service, Class 95, started on 1 April 1990. [119] "Ria" (airing popular Malay music) started later.

93.3 at its beginning was also known as Radio 6. [120] The station would also have the same broadcasting hours as almost all of SBC's radio stations. [121]

SBC announced on 21 February 1990 that it would begin NICAM stereo broadcasts by August that year, spending $3.5 million in the installation of the systems. [122] Channel 5 began stereo broadcasting on 8 August 1990, the first programme in the new format being Countdown to National Day 90. [123] With the start of stereo broadcasts, SBC invested $5 million to upgrade its production facilities for the new technology. [124] Channel 12 followed in December. [125] Additionally, SBC had further ambitious projects throughout the 90s, costing a grand total of $700 million: a new studio complex, upgraded equipment and transmission facilities and the development of new programmes and staff. To minimize congestion from Caldecott Hill, a second facility was to be opened tentatively from Bukit Batok, the location of the television transmitter. [126]

By the early 90s, SBC's Mandarin drama series were already being exported to places such as China and Canada. [127]

SBC Channel 12 logo from 1990 to 1994

Up until 1991, broadcasts of the television channels started and ended with multilingual greetings (Mandarin, Malay, Tamil, English), in what was known as the "good-night girls". The start-up and closedown sequence, including the anthem, was known in Singaporean terminology as a "presso". From then on, SBC replaced the videos, which changed annually, by a CGI animation created by Ong Lay Hong, that was to be used in both start-ups and closedowns. The new video bagged a bronze medal at the Fuji Network System Title Fair in June 1991, out of more than thirty entries from Asia. Such animation conveyed "human warmth" by including footage from SBC programmes, and the music was arranged to match the multi-ethnic nature of Singapore, incorporating drum beats, sitars and violins. [128]

Four of the five numbered SBC radio stations got their names changed over the course of several months from late 1991 to early 1992. Radio 2 was renamed Warna; Radio 3, The City Channel; Radio 4, Olikkalanjiam and Radio 5, Symphony. Radio 1 maintained its name since the station was "well established as a leader". [129]

SBC began accepting programmes from production houses in 1992. One of the first programmes commissioned was Kalau Dapur Tak Berasap from Communications 2000. [130] SBC ended live broadcasts of parliament proceedings in June 1992; earlier the corporation trialed broadcasts of the Budget debate. SBC's highlights of parliament coverage continued but only as a 15-minute broadcast. [131]

In January 1993, SBC added 20 hours a week of broadcasting hours for its television channels. As a result, each channel refined its identity – SBC 5 will only air English and Malay shows, SBC 8 with Mandarin and Tamil and SBC 12 with "serious fare" and sports. Some programmes were reshuffled, while newer programme genres, including talk shows and classic TV in the form of sitcom reruns were introduced. [132] The corporation also introduced block programming; originally began in 1992 with the Saturday morning cartoon slot "Nine to Twelve". [132]

An educational programming block known as CDIS (Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore) began airing on Channel 12 on 4 January 1993 produced by the Ministry of Education for SBC similar to Malaysia's TV Pendidikan and the then Indonesian TPI blocktime service on TVRI. On 1 February of that year, SBC celebrated its 30 years of television broadcasting. On 7 June that year, Channel 8 expanded its airtime, now broadcasting from 3:00 p.m. on weekdays. In November that year, SBC announced a satellite television network named Singapore International Television (SITV), to start on 1 January 1994. The service was to be operated by the Singapore International Foundation (SIF) with the aim of promoting the Singaporean way of life abroad, and was to broadcast over a rented transponder in the Palapa satellite from 10:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. nightly. [133]

By 1993, SBC had ambitions to produce more local content and broadcasting hours on channels 5 and 12, with Malay content scheduled to move to Channel 12. [134] Channel 8 would stick to the existing formula of Mandarin and Tamil. [135] SBC made its first attempt at producing an English drama by producing the made-for-TV movie Time Tomorrow, which aired on 9 March 1993. [136]

In 1993, SBC launched an home shopping programme called Sell-a-Vision (provided by Quantum International and represented locally by LeisureMart Pte Ltd) which broadcast twice daily for two hours a day on its television channels and was expected to run until May 1994. However, The Straits Times writer Cherian George mentioned that Sell-a-Vision was not part of SBC's twelve minutes of advertising per hour rule. [137] It would also expand to SBC 8 in October 1994. [138]

On 1 January 1994, Channel 5 moved its remaining Malay programming to Channel 12, and re-launched as an English-language channel. On the same day, AM radio broadcasts were cut without prior warning. [139]

Radio Singapore International (RSI) was launched on 1 February 1994 as the official radio international broadcasting company in Singapore, airing news and current affairs, lifestyle, and music programming in English, Malay, Mandarin and Indonesian. [140] [141]

SBC began preparing for 24 hour broadcasts for its information-based radio stations in late 1993. 93.3 started 24 hour broadcasts on 1 May 1994; Radio One on 16 May 1994; Class 95 in June [142] and City Sounds 95.8 in October [142] (later moved to December). [143] Love 97.2 launched on 23 September 1994, playing sentimental Mandarin pop music. [144]

1994–1999: Privatisation

On 18 December 1991, the Minister of Information and the Arts George Yeo announced that the Singapore Broadcasting Corporation was to be privatised within a period of two years. Its three television channels would be placed under the control of "two or three companies" and the radio stations spun off to a separate company. There were already talks with foreign investors from Hong Kong and the United States regarding the possibility of allowing potential stakes in the new companies. [145] The decision was delayed in March 1993 from year-end 1993 to year-end 1994 to allow for greater competition in the region and abroad. [146] SBC held a committee for the names of the new corporations. One peculiar suggestion came from lettering artist Rathna Kumari, who suggested that the facilities service was to be called "The Backbone", the radio network "Silksound" and the company in charge of channels 5 and 8 "FutureVision". [147]

Ahead of the privatisation, a fourth television channel on UHF was announced, carrying cultural content carried over from Channel 12's old format, in order to streamline Channel 5 as an English channel and Channel 8 as a Chinese channel, moving the Tamil content from Channel 8 to Channel 12. [148]

On 1 January 1994, Channel 5 relaunched with its new English-language format. [149][ better source needed] Singapore International Television launched the same day, broadcasting an hour of programming nightly; the channel opened with a special edition of Channel 5's Inside Asia followed by a relay of its 10:30 p.m. news. The first half hour was to be devoted to current affairs and lifestyle programming. [150] Channel 5's relaunch was followed by a relaunch of Channel 12 on 30 January (after having shifted to Malay programming), [151][ better source needed] and Channel 8 on 28 May. [152][ better source needed]

Radio Singapore International (RSI) was launched on 1 February 1994 as the official radio international broadcasting company in Singapore, airing news and current affairs, lifestyle, and music programming in English, Malay, Mandarin and Indonesian. [140] [141] 93.3 started 24 hour broadcasts on 1 May 1994, followed by Radio One on 16 May 1994, Class 95 in June, [153] and City Sounds 95.8 in December. [154] [153] Love 97.2 launched on 23 September 1994, playing sentimental Mandarin pop music. [155]

On 1 October 1994, SBC was formally privatised into the new holding company Singapore International Media (SIM), with four business units: Television Corporation of Singapore (TCS), Radio Corporation of Singapore (RCS), Singapore Television Twelve (STV12) and SIM Communications (SIMCOM). [156] [157] [158] The Singapore Broadcasting Authority allocated $40 million per annum of money to TV12 to provide 45 out of the 60 hours a week of public service broadcasting, with 19 hours for arts, sports and culture programming, 15 for Malay programming and 11 for Indian programming. The rest of the hours was funded by TV12. [159]

In early 1995, TCS scrapped the duty officers, who were responsible to gauge feedback from viewers. The programme advisory committee – which were made up of members of the public and were useful for internal check – were also scrapped. [160] TV12 moved to the Bestway building sometime in July 1995. [159]

On 1 September 1995, Channel 8 expanded into a 24-hour network focusing exclusively on Mandarin-language programmes, while its Tamil programming was assumed by Prime 12—a relaunch of Channel 12 which focused on multilingual programming. TV12 also launched a spin-off channel known as Premiere 12, which featured arts, culture, documentaries, children's, and sports programmes. On 29 September 1995, Channel 5 expanded into a 24-hour network.

In October 1995, TV12 was originally asked by the Singapore Broadcasting Authority to launch another classical music station in response to changes in RCS' 92.4, but later turned down due to the lack of funding from the authorities. [161]

TCS viewed Channel 5 and Premiere 12 as practising "complementary programming" as much as possible, as Channel 5 was positioned as a mass appeal channel while TV12 catered to the special interest audience, with the latter promising to not appeal to the lowest common denominator. [159] However, the separation of TCS and TV12 had caused the channels of both companies competing each other with similar programming at the same time slot, causing viewers to have less choice. [162] Local programming production on TV12, especially Prime 12, is 60% coming from production houses while 40% comes from TV12 itself, using personnel from Vision Production. [130]

On the occasion of TCS' third anniversary, its executive Daniel Yun said that its two channels, Channel 5 and Channel 8 will become more Singaporean with increasing local productions and its viewers become increasingly bilingual. Yun pointed out that they are not just channels for the "English-educated yuppie" and "the HDB heartlander" respectively. [163]

In March 1998, George Yeo announced at the Parliament that RCS would launch three new radio stations later in the year – NewsRadio 93.8, Inter FM and an unnamed financial radio station. [164] On 1 March 1999, TCS launched Channel NewsAsia (CNA), a local news channel. [165] TCS launched its own film production studio Raintree Pictures on 1 August 1998.

1999–2015: Media Corporation of Singapore

Mediacorp logo (2001–2015)
Radio Singapore International logo

On 15 June 1999, the Singapore International Media group of companies restructured as the Media Corporation of Singapore (MediaCorp). [166]

On 30 January 2000, Prime 12 and Premiere 12 were relaunched as Suria and Central respectively; Suria would be a Malay-language channel, while Central would be divided into three dayparted blocks under the brands "Kids Central" (children's programming), "Vasantham Central" (Tamil-language programming), and "Arts Central". SportsCity, a sports channel, was also launched the same year. [167] [168] In September 2000, CNA launched an international feed, intending to expand the service into a pan-Asian network. [169] On 10 November, Today was launched as a free newspaper to compete with Singapore Press Holdings' Streats. The newspaper was owned by MediaCorp, Singtel, and SMRT, with DelGro pulling out two days earlier. [170] [171]

Ernest Wong was appointed CEO of MediaCorp on 1 October 2000. He had worked with the corporation since 1994, when he joined the Audit Committee of what would become Singapore International Media. Among his accolades in the group were the start of its news channel and its international expansion, as well as the investment in the internet and theatrical businesses. [172] At the time, the government planned to list MediaCorp on the stock market by the end of 2000 or the start of 2001. [173]

On 12 February 2001, the Television Corporation of Singapore, Radio Corporation of Singapore and Singapore Television Twelve were renamed to Mediacorp TV, Mediacorp Radio, Mediacorp TV12 respectively as part of a new management plan following their dissolution. [174]

MediaCorp's monopoly on free-to-air television was broken in May 2001, when the Singapore government granted new free-to-air licenses to SPH MediaWorks, a subsidiary of publisher Singapore Press Holdings. The company launched two channels in English and Chinese respectively, TVWorks (later Channel i) and Channel U. In late-2004, citing financial issues, SPH announced an agreement to merge its television business with that of Mediacorp; SPH would transfer Channel i and U to MediaCorp, take a 20% stake in MediaCorp TV, and a 40% stake in Today, while discontinuing its competing Streats; [175] [176]

Channel i was shut down on 1 January 2005 as it was not considered to be economically viable, while Channel U continued as a complementary service to Channel 8. [177] Alongside the takeover, Channel 8 slightly changed its Chinese name from Dì bā bō dào ( Chinese: 第八波道) to Bā píndào ( Chinese: 八频道) to match the notation that had been used by Channel U ( Chinese: 优频道; pinyin: Yōu píndào); MediaCorp explained that the subtle change was meant to reflect the integration of SPH and its ideas into the company. [178]

On 21 October 2004, Mediacorp hosted the first Singapore Radio Awards with nominations only open to its radio stations. [179] On 11 November 2007, Mediacorp launched HD5, the first high definition television channel in Singapore. [180]

In 2007, in effort to establish a new generation of actresses, MediaCorp identified and grouped the seven most promising upcoming actresses from Singapore in the 2000s, namely Jesseca Liu, Jeanette Aw, Rui En, Fiona Xie, Joanne Peh, Felicia Chin and Dawn Yeoh, then all in their twenties, and referred to them collectively as "Seven Princesses of MediaCorp" (新传媒七公主). [181] [182] [183] A similar grouping of its male artistes for similar reasons was carried out in 2014, grouping eight promising upcoming Mediacorp actors from Singapore in the 2010s, namely Zhang Zhenhuan, Romeo Tan, Desmond Tan, Jeffrey Xu, Xu Bin, Ian Fang, Aloysius Pang and Shane Pow, and were collectively known as the "8 Dukes of Caldecott Hill". [184] [185] [186]

All Mediacorp radio stations converted to 24/7 broadcasting from 1 January 2008. At the time, the only stations that still closed down were Capital 95.8, Ria 89.7, Symphony 92.4, 938LIVE and 96.3 The International Channel (renamed XFM later in 2008). [187]

In March 2008, it was announced that Central would be split into two separate channels, with Vasantham Central being spun-off as a full-time channel serving the Tamil community, and children's and arts programming moving to a new channel. [188] The changes took effect in 19 October of that year, with the launch of the new Vasantham and Okto channels. [189] [188] In August 2008, MediaCorp also launched MOBTV, an online television service. [190]

Owing to the diminished effectiveness of a shortwave radio service over time with changing technology and media consumption habits, RSI was dissolved on 31 October 2008. [191]

2015–present: New headquarters, transition to digital

The current Mediacorp logo used since 2015. [192]

On 8 December 2015, Mediacorp officially opened a new headquarters at one-north's Mediapolis development. The 12-storey complex was designed by DP Architects and Maki and Associates and features a "fenceless" design with four studios, a 1,500-seat "broadcast-ready" theatre, and an integrated multi-platform newsroom. The company expected to complete the migration from its previous Caldecott Hill facilities by July 2016. Alongside the new headquarters, Mediacorp also unveiled a new logo, which was designed to reflect the broadcaster's "vibrancy" and "multiplicity", acting as an "a window to the world and a reflection of life". [193]

In April 2017, Mediacorp began to phase out print publication of Today by discontinuing its weekend editions. The weekday editions were then discontinued in September 2017, leaving Today as a digital publication. [194] SPH would concurrently divest its stakes in Mediacorp for S$18 million. [195] In September 2018, magazines 8 Days and i-Weekly ceased print publications and went solely on their digital platforms. [196] i-Weekly would later merge with Channel 8 News to form 8world for Chinese news, entertainment and lifestyle contents.

Analogue broadcasting of Mediacorp channels ended at midnight on 2 January 2019, transitioning exclusively to digital television. [197]

On 1 May 2019, Okto was discontinued as a standalone channel, with its children's programming becoming a daytime block on Channel 5 under the Okto on 5 branding. Okto's sports programming was moved primarily to other Mediacorp outlets. [198] Channel 8 similarly rebranded its existing children's block as Okto尽在8 (lit. Okto on 8)

On 30 January 2020, Mediacorp rebranded its digital media platforms Toggle, MeRadio and MeClub as meWatch, meListen and meRewards respectively. The rebranding came as part of the broadcaster's "Made for You" initiative to build multi-platform services "designed around consumers' preferences and consumption habits". [199]

On 16 January 2023, Mediacorp announced a rebranding of nearly all of its properties, which officially took effect on 1 February. The properties adopted a unified branding scheme based around flat design, with logos prefixed by an encircled Mediacorp insignia. [200]

Services

Television

Mediacorp operates six free-to-air terrestrial channels broadcast in the four official languages of the country ( Malay, Singapore English, Singaporean Mandarin and Tamil). The company holds a monopoly on terrestrial television within the country.

Channel Frequency Name LCN Language Picture format Type Broadcast area Transmitter site 24-hours Multiplex Opening date
29 538 MHz Channel 5 2 HD English HDTV ( 1080i 16:9) General entertainment Singapore
Johor Bahru/ Johor Bahru District ( Malaysia)
Batam/ Batam Islands, Riau Islands ( Indonesia)
Bukit Batok Transmission Centre Yes MUX1 Mediacorp Bukit Batok Transmission Centre 15 February 1963; 61 years ago (15 February 1963) (as TV Singapura)
2 April 1963; 61 years ago (2 April 1963) (as TV Singapura Channel 5)
Suria 4 HD Malay No 31 January 1984; 40 years ago (31 January 1984)
31 554 MHz Channel 8 3 HD Chinese Yes MUX2 Mediacorp Bukit Batok Transmission Centre 31 August 1963; 60 years ago (31 August 1963) (Test transmissions)
23 November 1963; 60 years ago (23 November 1963) (Official)
Vasantham [a] 5 HD Tamil No 19 October 2008; 15 years ago (19 October 2008)
33 570 MHz CNA 6 HD English 24-hour news and current affairs Yes MUX3 Mediacorp Bukit Batok Transmission Centre 1 March 1999; 25 years ago (1 March 1999)
Channel U 7 HD Chinese Youth general entertainment No 6 May 2001; 22 years ago (6 May 2001)

Radio

Mediacorp operates twelve FM radio stations, with eleven domestic stations, as well as a relay of the BBC World Service. [201] The company's digital audio broadcasting service was discontinued on 1 December 2011. [202]

Frequency (FM) TRP (kW) Station RDS Language Genre Broadcast area Transmitter site Opening date
88.9 MHz 5 BBC World Service BBC_WS__ English News/ Talk Singapore
Johor Bahru/ Johor Bahru District ( Malaysia)
Batam/ Batam Islands, Riau Islands ( Indonesia)
Bukit Batok Transmission Centre 19 December 1932; 91 years ago (19 December 1932) as the BBC Empire Service
89.7 MHz 6 RIA 897 RIA_897_ Malay CHR ( Malay) 1 December 1990; 33 years ago (1 December 1990)
90.5 MHz 6 GOLD 905 GOLD_905 English Classic hits 1 March 1937; 87 years ago (1 March 1937) as ZHLRadio Singapore and English Service (under British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation)
92.4 MHz 10 SYMPHONY 924 SYM_924_ English Classical 18 July 1969; 54 years ago (18 July 1969) as FM Stereo
93.3 MHz 6 YES 933 YES_933_ Mandarin Chinese CHR ( Mandopop/ K-pop) 1 January 1990; 34 years ago (1 January 1990)
93.8 MHz 6 CNA938 CNA938 English News/ Talk 2 October 1998; 25 years ago (2 October 1998) as NewsRadio 938
94.2 MHz 10 WARNA 942 WARNA942 Malay Adult contemporary ( Malay)
Drama
News/ Talk/ Islamic
1 March 1937; 87 years ago (1 March 1937) as Radio Singapore and Malay Service (under British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation)
95.0 MHz 6 CLASS 95 CLASS_95 English Soft adult contemporary 1 April 1990; 34 years ago (1 April 1990)
95.8 MHz 10 CAPITAL 958 CAPTL958 Mandarin Chinese Classic hits ( C-pop) 1 March 1937; 87 years ago (1 March 1937) as Radio Singapore and Chinese Service (under British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation)
96.8 MHz 10 OLI 968 OLI_968_ Tamil Adult contemporary ( Tamil) 1 March 1937; 87 years ago (1 March 1937) as Radio Singapore and Tamil Service (under British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation)
97.2 MHz 6 LOVE 972 LOVE_972 Mandarin Chinese Adult contemporary ( Mandopop) 23 September 1994; 29 years ago (23 September 1994)
98.7 MHz 6 987 987FM___ English Top 40 (CHR) 1 January 1989; 35 years ago (1 January 1989) as Perfect Ten 98.7FM

Digital platforms

mewatch

mewatch [182] (formerly Toggle) was launched on 1 February 2013 as an OTT service. On 1 April 2015, xinmsn was merged with Toggle. [203] [204] [205] It is Mediacorp's digital video service that redefines TV viewing, bringing Toggle Originals, catch-up content, live coverage of key national events, news, entertainment, and behind-the-scene exclusives to viewers across multiple devices – computers, tablets, smartphones, smart television sets, and digital media players.

melisten

Current melisten logo

melisten [182] (formerly MeRadio) is an audio digital platform focusing on live audio streaming of Mediacorp's eleven radio stations as well as audio podcasts. [206] This platform is also where they offered their online radio stations, such as IndieGo for independent music and urban adult contemporary. [207]

Mediacorp Partner Network

In 2018, Mediacorp launched the Mediacorp Partner Network. Under the MPN, Mediacorp signed agreements with brands like:

  • ESPN on 6 August 2018, where Mediacorp will be the exclusive representative for all ad sales in Singapore for ESPN.com, while ESPN will launch a dedicated Singapore edition of the ESPN site to deliver a mix of local sports news and features in addition to coverage of global sports. [208]
  • 99.co on 29 August 2018 to create property related news and information for consumers. [209]
  • Edipresse in November 2018 to co-develop content across digital editorial platforms, TV, live radio and events. Such content will be made available on both Mediacorp and Edipresse Media platforms, utilising the regional reach and influence of both companies. [210]
  • VICE on 23 April 2019 to bring original VICE digital and TV content to a new Singapore audience via Mediacorp's multi-platform reach. [211]

Flagship programmes

Some of Mediacorp's flagship programmes include:

  • Star Awards – Mediacorp's Chinese awards event
  • 118 – long-form Channel 8 drama. 255-episode 118 I aired from 2014 – 2015, 218-episode 118 II ran from 2016 – 2017, and a special 23-episode 118 Reunion aired in 2018.
  • Tanglin – long-form Channel 5 daily drama that centred on the lives of multiracial and multigenerational families in a middle-income neighbourhood, in the Holland Village, Tanglin. The 823-episode show ran from 2015 to 2018.
  • KIN – long-form Channel 5 weekends drama launched in 2018 (after Tanglin's conclusion).
  • Getai Challenge – singing talent search competition that aimed to promote the Getai culture and discover aspiring Getai singers. Season 1 was shown on Channel 8 in 2015, and Season 2 in 2018.
  • SPOP SING! – an initiative launched by Mediacorp in 2018 to showcase and curate local music compositions.
  • Abang Teksi (Taxi Brother) – Suria only Malay sitcom aired season 1 from 2017 and season 2 from 2019.
  • Forensik (Forensics) – Suria drama and spin-off to English counterpart "Code of Law" launched in 2020.

Production

In 2000, MediaCorp Studios was created to produce content for MediaCorp TV channels, such as Channel 5, Channel U and Channel 8. [212] In 2001, EagleVision was created to produce content for Suria and Vasantham. [213] They co-produce programmes with regional broadcasters and production houses such as Media Prima Malaysia, [214] Radio Televisyen Malaysia, [215] Radio Television Brunei, [216] Eightgeman Taiwan and Taiwan Television. [217]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ replacing Vasantham Central formerly by Central

References

  1. ^ "MediaCorp's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding, Acquisitions & News". Owler. Retrieved 12 April 2024.
  2. ^ "LETTERS TO THE EDITOR". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Weekly). 11 March 1925. Retrieved 3 April 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  3. ^ "Listening-In". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 April 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  4. ^ "Wireless in Malaya". The Straits Times. 8 April 1925. Retrieved 3 April 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  5. ^ "Singapore Broadcasting". The Straits Times. 25 June 1925. Retrieved 3 April 2021 – via NewspaperSG.
  6. ^ Repa, Jan (25 October 2005). "Analysis: BBC's voice in Europe". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Historic moments from the 1930s". BBC World Service. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  8. ^ Transcribed from recording on World Service 75th Anniversary DVD; full extract transmitted as part of opening program – the Reith Global Debate – of the 'Free to Speak' 75th anniversary season
  9. ^ "Why Kill ZHI?". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 18 December 1936. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  10. ^ "MONOPOLY GRANTED TO B-M-B-C-". The Straits Times. 19 December 1936. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  11. ^ "BROADCASTING STATION IN SINGAPORE". The Straits Times. 12 April 1935. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  12. ^ Adrian Petersen (3 June 2021). "Radio Malaysia Celebrates 75 Years". radioheritage.com.
  13. ^ "Radio Station Delay". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 21 August 1935. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  14. ^ "Malayan B. B. C. 's Building On Hill Off Thomson Road". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 31 May 1936. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  15. ^ "CHINESE MUSIC ON THE AIR". The Straits Times. 9 June 1936. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  16. ^ "Auditions For Local Radio Stars". The Straits Times. 11 November 1936. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  17. ^ a b "Radio broadcasting in Singapore (1924–46)".
  18. ^ a b c d "Broadcasts, Dramas and Dreams… Caldecott Hill in 80 Years". Remember Singapore. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2023. The new entity received complaints that its acronym SBC was easily confused with the Singapore Bus Service (SBS). Others sarcastically mocked that SBC stood for "si bei cham" (damn terrible in Hokkien).
  19. ^ "OPENING BY GOVERNOR ON MARCH 1". The Straits Times. 21 February 1937. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  20. ^ "RADIO ZHL INAUGURATION TO-DAY". Morning Tribune. 1 March 1937. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  21. ^ "SIR SHENTON THOMAS OPENS SINGAPORE'S NEW BROADCASTER". The Straits Times. 2 March 1937. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  22. ^ "Corporation's Attempt To Balance Budget". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 28 June 1937. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  23. ^ "SHORT-WAVE BROADCAST TO COVER MALAYA B. M. B. C. POLICY OUTLINED". Malaya Tribune. 2 July 1937. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  24. ^ "B.M.B.C. RUNNING AT A LOSS". Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle. 3 September 1937. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  25. ^ "SHORT-WAVE RADIO STATION SOON". The Straits Times. 3 October 1937. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  26. ^ "B. M. B. C. Subsidy To Cease". Morning Tribune. 29 January 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  27. ^ "B.M.B.C. SHOWS $275 PROFIT". Malaya Tribune. 2 May 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Radio Listeners Increase". The Straits Budget. 5 May 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  29. ^ "ALL MALAYA WILL SOON HEAR SINGAPORE". Malaya Tribune. 1 June 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  30. ^ "P. For Progress". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 20 July 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  31. ^ "MORE SPORT BROADCASTS". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 28 July 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  32. ^ "New B.M.B.C. Short Wave Transmission". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942). 28 September 1938. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  33. ^ "B.M.B.C. TO GET MORE AID FROM GOVERNMENT". The Straits Times. 19 February 1939. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  34. ^ "B. M. B. C. ANNUAL REPORT". Malaya Tribune. 22 June 1939. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  35. ^ "SINGAPORE PLAN FOR MORE BROADCASTING". The Straits Times. 29 June 1939. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  36. ^ "INCREASED POWER FOR B.M.B.C. TRANSMITTER Work Being Completed On The Short-Wave Unit". The Straits Budget. 25 January 1940. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  37. ^ "NEW MALAYAN RADIO POLICY Government To Buy B.M.B.C." The Straits Budget. 29 February 1940. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  38. ^ "French Broadcasts From Singapore". The Straits Times. 14 September 1940. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  39. ^ "Enhanced Native Broadcasts From Singapore". Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle. 14 September 1940. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  40. ^ "TO-DAY'S RADIO". Malaya Tribune. 15 October 1940. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  41. ^ "Where To Listen In To-Day". Sunday Tribune. 6 April 1941. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  42. ^ "Syonan Radio Station Rebuilt From Ruins". Shonan Times. 10 March 1943. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
  43. ^ "LOCAL BROADCASTS FROM TO-MORROW". Shonan Times. 28 March 1942. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  44. ^ "ラヂオ ニュース". Shonan Times. 6 June 1942. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
  45. ^ "Nippon-Go Radio Courses For Syonan Schools". Shonan Times. 18 June 1942. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
  46. ^ "NEW RADIO SCHEDULES Begin TODAY". Sunday Tribune. 23 December 1945. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  47. ^ "B.B.C. TO CONTROL S'PORE STATION". The Straits Times. 11 June 1947. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  48. ^ "B.B.C. TO OPEN HERE AUG. 8". The Singapore Free Press. 31 July 1948. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  49. ^ "The Changes". The Straits Times. 8 December 1948. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  50. ^ "RADIO PROGRAMME CHANGES". The Straits Times. 8 December 1948. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  51. ^ "CHINESE GET OWN RADIO". The Straits Times. 12 December 1950. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  52. ^ "RADIO MALAYA FADES OUT OF CATHAY". The Straits Times. 1 November 1951. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  53. ^ "BROADCASTS TO LAST LONGER". The Straits Times. 3 January 1952. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  54. ^ "Diary of a Nation (SBC 1988) - 4 January 1959: Radio Singapura". YouTube.
  55. ^ a b "Singapore radio to give shortwave broadcasts". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 9 February 1960. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  56. ^ "TEST TRANSMISSIONS BY RADIO S'PORE". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 29 December 1960. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  57. ^ "SPECIAL BROADCASTS ON RADIO SINGAPORE FOR NATIONAL DAY PLANS". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 3 June 1961. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  58. ^ "Radio broadcasting in Singapore (1946–65)".
  59. ^ "AND MORE PROGRAMMES FOR VERNACULAR SECTIONS, TOO". The Straits Times. 2 March 1964. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  60. ^ "More daily news broadcasts for Singapore from today". The Straits Times. 2 March 1964. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  61. ^ Lim Ann Qi, Angela (14 February 1963). "PROGRAMME FOR TV PILOT SERVICE". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  62. ^ Lim Ann Qi, Angela (2 April 1963). "Television Singapura The Straits Times". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  63. ^ "Television Singapura to mark Solidarity Day". The Straits Times. 31 August 1963. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  64. ^ "S'PORE TV ON TWO CHANNELS FROM TODAY". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 23 November 1963. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  65. ^ "Commercial TV inauguration". The Straits Times. 10 January 1964. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  66. ^ "New era of service for the viewers". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 26 August 1966. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
  67. ^ "Radio Singapura to have F.M. service". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 12 January 1967. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  68. ^ "Latest public amenities for people in Republic". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 23 June 1967. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  69. ^ "FM stereo test runs". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 23 June 1967. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  70. ^ "Regular FM service on Radio S'pura". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 17 July 1969. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  71. ^ "NEW TIMES FOR TV SCREENING FROM FRIDAY". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 27 March 1973. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  72. ^ "Prize winning SBC film on Ch 3". The Straits Times. 15 March 1983. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  73. ^ "RTS buys two colour TV transmitters costing $700,000". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 27 January 1974. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  74. ^ "Colour TV films go on test from today". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 2 May 1974. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  75. ^ Lim Ann Qi, Angela (7 July 1974). "Singapore Colour Live Telecast on FIFA World Cup Via Satellite Transmission". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  76. ^ Lim Ann Qi, Angela (9 August 1974). "Singapore First Colour Television". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  77. ^ "TV newsreels in colour from Nov 11". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 27 October 1974. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  78. ^ "Pemenang peraduan cipta logo RTS terima cek $250". Berita Harian (retrieved from NLB). 5 August 1975. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  79. ^ "Longer hours for stereo listeners". The Straits Times. 25 February 1978. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  80. ^ "Radio frequencies to be changed". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 3 October 1978. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  81. ^ "RTS may go statutory to raise its standards". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 8 September 1979. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  82. ^ "HEIR TO RTS". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 13 September 1979. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  83. ^ "SBC act approved". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 12 January 1980. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  84. ^ "$5,000 PRIZE FOR SBC LOGO". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 17 January 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  85. ^ "Singapore Broadcasting Corporation is established - Singapore History". eresources.nlb.gov.sg.
  86. ^ "New SBC plays it low key". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 3 February 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  87. ^ "4.042 logo diterima". Berita Harian (retrieved from NLB). 26 February 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  88. ^ "SBC logo competition draws 4000 entries". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 21 February 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  89. ^ "SBC's NEW LOGO". Berita Harian (retrieved from NLB). 19 May 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  90. ^ "TV-radio time to be extended". Berita Harian (retrieved from NLB). 19 May 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  91. ^ "Entertainment is SBC's main weakness says Soo Khoon". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 26 March 1981. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  92. ^ "BEHIND THE CAMERA with Kannan Chandran". The Straits Times. 6 March 1982. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  93. ^ "SBC time clock may earn $1m". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 21 February 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  94. ^ a b "Here's to good news". The Straits Times. 24 July 1980. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  95. ^ "'Siaran Parti Politik' ke udara malam ini". Berita Harian (Singapore). 17 December 1980. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  96. ^ a b "4 parti tak dapat muncul di TV?". Berita Harian (Singapore). 6 December 1980. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  97. ^ a b "Goodbye, SBC — many memorable moments, but a mixed legacy". The Straits Times. 25 September 1994. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  98. ^ "SPORTING LANGUAGE". The Straits Times. 10 February 1981. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  99. ^ "Distasteful to have repeat telecast?". The Straits Times. 17 May 1981. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  100. ^ "New Year gift: New-sound radio". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 16 December 1981. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
  101. ^ "TV series to help kids speak better". The Straits Times. 30 March 1982. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  102. ^ "It all ads up: Two is best, five is the limit". The Straits Times. 23 January 1983. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  103. ^ a b c "New look for TV news". The Straits Times. 2 February 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  104. ^ a b c d e "Kannan Chandran describes SBC's first attempt at serious journalism for children". The Straits Times. 15 January 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  105. ^ "Newswatch debut shows it has much potential". The Straits Times. 3 February 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  106. ^ a b "'Here is news' on TV for children". The Straits Times. 14 January 1983. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  107. ^ "New host, new look for News 5". Today. 30 April 2001. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  108. ^ "Radio news by the hour". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 28 April 1983. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  109. ^ "TV news to include commercial breaks". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 13 January 1984. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  110. ^ "SBC serials to be dubbed in Cantonese". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 30 January 1984. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  111. ^ "Move on, Renmington Steele". The Straits Times. 2 March 1985. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  112. ^ "More air time for local dramas". The Straits Times. 7 February 1985. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  113. ^ a b "New-style SBC ads get on viewers' nerves". The Straits Times. 11 May 1986. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  114. ^ "SBC financial news on short-wave too". The Straits Times. 30 July 1987. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  115. ^ "SBC news takes on a more glamorous look". The Straits Times. 19 November 1988. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  116. ^ "SBC to stop Late News service from Jan 2". The Straits Times. 9 December 1988. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  117. ^ a b "SBC to launch new English and Mandarin radio channels". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 8 December 1989. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  118. ^ "Making music in the midnight hour". The Straits Times. 19 October 1989. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  119. ^ "'Classy' SBC radio station goes on air today". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 1 April 1990. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  120. ^ "As the dial turns". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 4 March 1990. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  121. ^ "Welcome addition but 'format and hours leave room for improvement'". The Straits Times. 9 January 1990. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  122. ^ "SBC to broadcast in stereo from August". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 22 February 1990. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  123. ^ "Countdown to N-Day is SBC's first stereo effort". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 27 July 1990. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  124. ^ "SBC to invest $5 m more towards stereo programmes". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 14 October 1990. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  125. ^ "SBC 12 goes stereo". The Business Times (retrieved from NLB). 1 December 1990. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  126. ^ "SBC to spend $700m on new projects". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 2 November 1990. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  127. ^ "BG Yeo: SBC to be privatised in 2 years' time". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 19 December 1991. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  128. ^ "Good-night, good-bye". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 22 September 1991. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  129. ^ "New names for four SBC radio stations". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 4 November 1991. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  130. ^ a b "It's a real train for escape scene". The Straits Times. 12 February 1998. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  131. ^ "Case for live telecast". Business Times. 2 June 1992. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  132. ^ a b "Surprises on the small screen". The Straits Times. 22 November 1992. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  133. ^ "S'pore to beam TV shows to Asia". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 11 November 1993. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  134. ^ "Windfall from SBC". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 5 September 1993. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  135. ^ "Longer hours on SBC next year". The Business Times (retrieved from NLB). 4 September 1993. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  136. ^ "She could not get through; but SBC did". The Straits Times. 14 March 1993.
  137. ^ "Sell-a-vision: Has SBC sold out?". The Straits Times. 6 March 1994. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  138. ^ "Page 24 Advertisements Column 1". The Straits Times. 28 August 1994. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  139. ^ "MW band cut with no warning". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 8 January 1994. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  140. ^ a b RSI about
  141. ^ a b "New regional radio service starts today". The Straits Times. 1 February 1994. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
  142. ^ a b "Can't sleep at 3 am? Call the radio deeiay". The Straits Times. 14 May 1994. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  143. ^ "Six new deejays for SBC's City Sounds". The Straits Times. 7 July 1994. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  144. ^ "Third Mandarin radio station starts up today". The Straits Times. 23 September 1994. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  145. ^ "SBC to go private in two years". The Business Times (retrieved from NLB). 19 December 1991. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  146. ^ "SBC's likely privatisation delayed one year to end-'94". The Business Times (retrieved from NLB). 18 March 1993. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  147. ^ "Quirkiness lives too". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 27 August 1994. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  148. ^ "Fourth TV channel will feature cultural shows". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 27 August 1994. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  149. ^ "CHANNEL 5 OFFICIALLY NEW LOOK". The Straits Times. 1 January 1994. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  150. ^ "Jan 1 launch for SIF's satellite TV broadcasts". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 23 December 1993. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  151. ^ "CHANNEL 12 OFFICIALLY NEW LOOK". The Straits Times. 30 January 1994. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  152. ^ "CHANNEL 8 OFFICIALLY NEW LOOK". The Straits Times. 29 May 1994. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  153. ^ a b "Can't sleep at 3 am? Call the radio deeiay". The Straits Times. 14 May 1994. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  154. ^ "Six new deejays for SBC's City Sounds". The Straits Times. 7 July 1994. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  155. ^ "Third Mandarin radio station starts up today". The Straits Times. 23 September 1994. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  156. ^ "A NEW ERA DAWNS IN SINGAPORE BROADCASTING". The Straits Times. 1 October 1994. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  157. ^ "A NEW ERA DAWNS IN SINGAPORE BROADCASTING". The Straits Times. 1 October 1994. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  158. ^ "TCS, RCS AND TV12 OFFICIALLY VERY FIRST RADIO AND TELEVISION SCHEDULE". The Straits Times. 1 October 1994. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
  159. ^ a b c "More Malay, Indian programmes plus arts, sports". The Straits Times. 2 August 1995. Retrieved 9 February 2024.
  160. ^ "TV delivers audiences to advertisers, entertainment and news come second". The Straits Times. No. 23 April 1995. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  161. ^ "92.4 FM steps up volume on classicals". The Straits Times. 21 October 1995. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  162. ^ "Psychic link or unsporting conduct?". The Straits Times. 5 May 1996. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  163. ^ "Channels 5 and 8 will become very S'porean". The Straits Times. 19 October 1997. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  164. ^ "One FM goes for news and gold". The Straits Times. 22 April 1998. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  165. ^ "Launch of Channel NewsAsia". NAS. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  166. ^ Teo, P. L. (16 June 1999). "SIMple change of name for media group.(p. 3)". The Straits Times. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  167. ^ "Programme Ratings for STV12 Channels Soared on Debut!". MediaCorp Group. February 2000. Archived from the original on 27 June 2001. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  168. ^ "STV12 to Increase Programming Hours on Central". MediaCorp Group. February 2000. Archived from the original on 10 April 2001. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  169. ^ "Asian launch of Channel NewsAsia". NAS. 28 September 2000. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  170. ^ Abdul Rahim, Zackaria (10 November 2000). "TODAY is here". Today (retrieved from NLB). Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  171. ^ "DelGro pulls out of new newspaper". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 9 November 2000. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  172. ^ "CHAIRMAN STATEMENT ON THE APPOINTMENT OF MR ERNEST WONG AS MEDIACORP GROUP CEO - DELIVERED AT A MEDIA CONFERENCE HELD ON 29 SEP 2000". MediaCorp Group. 29 September 2000. Archived from the original on 10 April 2001. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  173. ^ "MediaCorp may be listed late this year". The Business Times (retrieved from NLB). 29 September 2000. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  174. ^ "MediaCorp Group New Management Team at MediaCorp & New Business/Collabrotions/Program Acquisition". MediaCorp. 12 February 2001. Archived from the original on 22 December 2001. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  175. ^ "Media rivals strike deal to curb losses". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). 18 September 2004. Retrieved 14 September 2023.
  176. ^ "DETAILS OF THE DEAL:". Today (retrieved from NLB). 18 September 2004. Retrieved 14 September 2023.
  177. ^ Koh, Joyce (8 December 2004). "SPH, MediaCorp to retrench 204 staff, absorb 297". The Business Times.
  178. ^ "It will be Pin Dao from Jan 1". Today (retrieved from NLB). 22 December 2004. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
  179. ^ "Radio awards". The Straits Times. 30 September 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  180. ^ "MediaCorp's HD channel – HD5 – lifts off". MediaCorp. 13 October 2007. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  181. ^ "娱乐吃瓜:15年过后 "七公主"都过得如何了? | 早报". www.zaobao.com.sg (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  182. ^ a b c Farveen, Farzanah (4 November 2019). "Mediacorp revamps Toggle, MeRadio and MeClub". Marketing Interactive. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  183. ^ 洪, 铭铧 (28 February 2007). "新传媒七公主 谁是未来阿姐?". Lianhe Zaobao. 新传媒力捧新生代女艺人上位,目前第一阶段行动已见成果,号称七公主的新生代一字排开,包括20岁的姚懿珊,23岁的陈凤玲,24岁的白薇秀,25岁的芮恩,25岁的谢宛谕,27岁的刘芷绚和28岁的欧萱。" "MediaCorp strives to promote the new generation of female artists, and the first phase of action has seen results. The new generation known as the Seven Princesses line-up, including 20-year-old Dawn Yeoh, 23-year-old Felicia Chin, 24-year-old Joanne Peh, 25-year-old Rui En, 25-year-old Fiona Xie, 27-year-old Jesseca Liu and 28-year-old Jeanette Aw.
  184. ^ "All hail the 8 Dukes: Who will reign supreme? - Toggle". Toggle. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  185. ^ "Up-and-coming actors not among Star Awards Top 10 Most Popular Male Artistes nominees". AsiaOne. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  186. ^ Seah, May (7 May 2014). "Dawn of the Dukes". TODAYonline. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  187. ^ "Radio all day and all night". Today (retrieved from NLB). 28 December 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  188. ^ a b Wong, Alicia (1 March 2008). "Dedicated Indian and kids TV channels". Today (retrieved from NLB). Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  189. ^ "Two more to savour". Today (retrieved from NLB). 21 October 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  190. ^ Sharma, Ravi S. (31 October 2011), Understanding the Interactive Digital Media Marketplace: Frameworks, Platforms, Communities and Issues: Frameworks, Platforms, Communities and Issues, IGI Global, pp. 121–, ISBN  978-1-61350-148-1
  191. ^ "Radio Singapore International to stop transmission". MediaCorp. 3 June 2008. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  192. ^ "Mediacorp moves to One North, unveils new logo". 9 December 2015.
  193. ^ "New logo a 'window to the world' as Mediacorp opens new campus". TODAYonline. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  194. ^ "'Three-year plan' sees Today digital-only in buyback deal". www.gxpress.net. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  195. ^ "SPH completes sale of Mediacorp stakes". The Straits Times. 30 September 2017. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  196. ^ "8 Days and i-Weekly magazines to go digital-only, last print editions in September | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  197. ^ "5 things to know about digital TV before analogue TV transmissions cease from Jan 2". The Straits Times. 21 December 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  198. ^ "Mediacorp integrates English-language channels Channel 5 and okto". Channel NewsAsia. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  199. ^ "Singapore's Mediacorp aligns digital services; Toggle, MeRadio poofed from Jan 2020 as "me" takes over". ContentAsia. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  200. ^ "Mediacorp strengthens brand presence with launch of refreshed logos as part of vibrant new visual identity". Mediacorp (Press release). 16 January 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  201. ^ "MediaCorp: Radio". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  202. ^ "Digital radio from MediaCorp to cease". Channel NewsAsia. 1 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  203. ^ Shah, Kyle Malinda (1 April 2015). "Goodbye Xinmsn, Hello Toggle: Microsoft & MediaCorp Disband Entertainment Site". Yahoo. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  204. ^ "TOGGLE". Mediacorp. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  205. ^ Lawler, Ryan (28 January 2013). "MediaCorp Taps Tvinci To Launch Toggle, Its Virtual Cable Service in Singapore". TechCrunch. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  206. ^ "Mediacorp's revamped MeRadio app and website now offer more interactive features". CNA Lifestyle. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  207. ^ "Mediacorp Goes Indie with indiego – the Latest Offering from Singapore's Largest Digital Radio Network". Mediacorp (Press release). 16 December 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  208. ^ Farzanah Farveen (7 August 2018). "Mediacorp Partner Network brings on board ESPN in multi-year agreement". Marketing Interactive. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  209. ^ "Mediacorp Partner Network and 99.co tie up". Marketing Interactive. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  210. ^ "Mediacorp and Edipresse Media Singapore join hands to deliver luxury content". Asia Radio Today. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  211. ^ "Mediacorp Partner Network and 99.co tie up". Channel NewsAsia. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  212. ^ "Mediacorp Studios Pte Ltd". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  213. ^ Eaglevision: MediaCorp Studios. MediaCorp. 2002.
  214. ^ "Media Prima Bhd: Media Prima and MediaCorp to jointly produce Kasih Berbisik TV Drama". Market Screener. 25 February 2014.
  215. ^ "Mediacorp, Radio Television Malaysia present 13th edition of Muzika Ekstravaganza". YouTube. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021.
  216. ^ "Strengthening Brunei-Singapore Relations Through A New Joint Production, AKSI! (or Action!)". Ministry of Communications and Information. 7 September 2018.
  217. ^ "Epic Singapore-Taiwan Suspense Series Slated for 2019". Mediacorp. 5 December 2018. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2018.

External links