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Lushootseed
dxʷləšucid, txʷəlšucid, xʷəlšucid
Native to United States
RegionNorth Western Washington, around the Puget Sound
Ethnicity Skagit, Sauk-Suiattle, Swinomish, Stillaguamish, Snohomish, Suquamish, Sammamish, Snoqualmie, Duwamish, Puyallup, Nisqually, Sahewamish, Squaxin
Extinctno fully fluent native speakers as of 2008, [1] some second-language speakers. Revitalization efforts underway
Salishan
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
lut – Lushootseed
slh – Southern Puget Sound Salish
ska – Skagit (covered by [lut])
sno – Snohomish (covered by [lut])
Glottolog lush1251
ELP Lushootseed
Lushootseed is classified as Critically Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Lushootseed, [a] formerly known as Puget Salish, Puget Sound Salish, or Skagit-Nisqually, is a Central Coast Salish language of the Salishan language family. Lushootseed is the general name for the dialect continuum composed of two main dialects, Northern Lushootseed and Southern Lushootseed, which are further separated into smaller sub-dialects.

Lushootseed was historically spoken across southern and western Puget Sound roughly between modern-day Bellingham and Olympia by a large number of Indigenous peoples, numbering 12,000 at its peak. [2] [3] Today, however, it is primarily a ceremonial language, spoken for heritage or symbolic purposes. It is classified as Critically Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. Despite this, many Lushootseed-speaking tribes are attempting to revitalize their language in daily use, with several language programs and classes offered across the region. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

The name comes from ləš, an archaic name for Puget Sound, and dxʷ-...=ucid, meaning 'language,' roughly translating to "Puget Sound language" The affix dxʷ- also means 'filled with' or 'throughout', and is common in Lushootseed names.[ citation needed] The southern pronunciation txʷəlsucid is derived from the original by de-voicing d into t and switching the position of l and ə. [3] [9]

Phonology

Lushootseed has a complex consonantal phonology and 4 vowel phonemes. Along with more common voicing and labialization contrasts, Lushootseed has a plain-glottalic contrast, which is realized as laryngealized with sonorants, ejective with voiceless stops or fricatives.

Consonants

Lushootseed consonants [10] [11]
Labial Alveolar (Alveolo-)
palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain sibilant plain lab. plain labio.
Stop voiced b d dz ɡ ɡʷ
voiceless p t ts k q ʔ
ejective tsʼ tʃʼ kʷʼ qʷʼ
lateral ejective tɬʼ
Fricative ɬ s ʃ χ χʷ h
Approximant plain l j w
laryngealized

Lushootseed has no phonemic nasals. However, the nasals [m], [m̰], [n], and [n̰] may appear in some speech styles and words as variants of /b/ and /d/. [10]

Vowels

Lushootseed vowels [11] [12]
Front Central Back
High i ~ e u ~ o
Mid ə
Low æ ~ ɑ

Syntax

Lushootseed can be considered a relatively agglutinating language, given its high number of morphemes, including a large number of lexical suffixes. Word order is fairly flexible, although it is generally considered to be verb-subject-object (VSO). [13]

Lushootseed is capable of creating grammatically correct sentences that contain only a verb, with no subject or object. All information beyond the action is to be understood by context. This can be demonstrated in ʔuʔəy’dub '[someone] managed to find [someone/something]'. [14] Sentences which contain no verb at all are also common, as Lushootseed has no copula. An example of such a sentence is stab əw̓ə tiʔiɫ 'What [is] that?'. [15]

Despite its general status as VSO, Lushootseed can be rearranged to be subject-verb-object (SVO) and verb-object-subject (VOS). Doing so does not modify the words themselves, but requires the particle ʔə to mark the change. The exact nature of this particle is the subject of some debate.

Prepositions in Lushootseed are almost entirely handled by one word, ʔal, which can mean 'on, above, in, beside, around' among a number of potential other meanings. They come before the object they reference, much like in English. Examples of this can be found in the following sentences:

  1. stab əw̓ə tiʔiɫ ʔal tə stuləkʷ 'What is that in the river?'
  2. ʔuyayus ti dbad ʔal tudiʔ 'My father is working over there.'
  3. šəqabac ʔal ti piit 'On top of the bed.' (this example is interesting as šəqabac actually means 'on top of a large/bulky object' on its own, but still contains the ʔal preposition)

Pronouns

Lushootseed has four subject pronouns: čəd 'I' (first-person singular), čəɬ 'we' (first-person plural), čəxʷ 'you' (second-person singular), and čələp 'you' (second-person plural). It does not generally refer to the third person in any way.

Pronouns of Lushootseed
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular čəd čəxʷ
Plural čəɬ čələp

The subject pronoun always comes in the second position in the sentence:

dxʷləbiʔ čəxʷ ʔu 'Are you Lummi?' xʷiʔ čəd lədxʷləbiʔ 'I am not Lummi.'

Here, negation takes the first position, the subject pronoun takes the second, and 'Lummi' is pushed to the end of the sentence. [14]

Negation

Negation in Lushootseed takes the form of an adverb xʷiʔ 'no, none, nothing' which always comes at the beginning of the sentence that is to be negated. It is constructed in two possible ways, one for negatives of existence, and one for negatives of identity. If taking the form of a negative of identity, a proclitic lə- must be added to the sentence on the next adverb. If there are no further adverbs in the sentence, the proclitic attaches to the head word of the predicate, as in the sentence xʷiʔ čəxʷ sixʷ ləbakʷɬ 'Don't get hurt again'. [14]

Morphology and verbs

Verb prefixes

Almost all instances of a verb in Lushootseed (excluding the zero copula) carry a prefix indicating their tense and/or aspect. Below is a (non-exhaustive) list of these prefixes, along with their meanings and applications.

Prefix Usage
ʔəs- Imperfective present
lə- Imperfective present
ʔu- Completed telic actions
tu- Past
ɬu- Future
ƛ̕u- Habitual
gʷ(ə)- Subjunctive/future

The prefix ʔəs- is one of the most common. It indicates an imperfective aspect-present tense (similar to English '-ing') for verbs that do not involve motion. More specifically, a verb may use ʔəs- if it does not result in a change of position for its subject. It is commonly known as a "state of being":

ʔəsƛ̕ubil čəd. 'I am feeling fine.' or 'I am in good health.'

If a verb does involve motion, the ʔəs- prefix is replaced with -:

ƛ̕a čəd ʔálʔal. 'I'm going home.'

Completed or telic actions use the prefix ʔu-. Most verbs without ʔəs- or - will use ʔu-. Some verbs also exhibit a contrast in meaning between - and ʔu-, and only one of them is correct:

ʔusaxʷəb čəxʷ. 'You jump(ed).'

The verb saxʷəb literally means 'to jump, leap, or run, especially in a short burst of energy', and is correctly used with ʔu-. In contrast, the verb təlawil, which means 'to jump or run for an extended period of time', is used with -:

təlawil čəxʷ. 'You are jumping.'

Possession

There are five possessive affixes, derived from the pronouns:

Possessive Suffixes
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular d- ad- -s
Plural -čəɬ -ləp (none)

The third person singular -s is considered marginal and does not work with an actual lexical possessor.

Related languages and current status

Lushootseed, like its neighbors Twana, Nooksack, Klallam, and the North Straits Salish languages, are in the Central Coast Salish subgroup of the Salishan family of languages. [16] The language is spoken by many peoples in the Puget Sound region, including the Duwamish, Suquamish, Squaxin, Muckleshoot, Snoqualmie, Nisqually, and Puyallup in the south and the Snohomish, Stillaguamish, Upper Skagit, and Swinomish in the north.

Bust of Chief Seattle with accompanying text in Lushootseed: ti šišəgʷł gʷəl al tiʔəʔəxʷ sgʷaʔčəł səxʷəsłałlilčəł siʔał dəgʷi gʷəl liiiiləxʷ dʔiišəd cəłul̕ul̕ cəł ʔəslax̌ədxʷ ti gʷaalapu

Ethnologue quotes a source published in 1990 (and therefore presumably reflecting the situation in the late 1980s), according to which there were 60 fluent speakers of Lushootseed, evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. [17] On the other hand, the Ethnologue list of United States languages also lists, alongside Lushootseed's 60 speakers, 100 speakers for Skagit, 107 for Southern Puget Sound Salish, and 10 for Snohomish (a dialect on the boundary between the northern and southern varieties). [17] Some sources given for these figures, however, go back to the 1970s when the language was less critically endangered. Linguist Marianne Mithun has collected more recent data on the number of speakers of various Native American languages, and could document that by the end of the 1990s there were only a handful of elders left who spoke Lushootseed fluently. The language was extensively documented and studied by linguists with the aid of tribal elder Vi Hilbert, d. 2008, who was the last speaker with a full native command of Lushootseed. [1] There are efforts at reviving the language, and instructional materials have been published.

Language revitalization

As of 2013, the Tulalip Tribes' Lushootseed Language Department teaches classes in Lushootseed, [4] [5] and its website has Lushootseed phrases with audio. [18] The Tulalip Montessori School also teaches Lushootseed to young children. [6] Tulalip Lushootseed language teachers also teach at the Tulalip Early Learning Academy, Quil Ceda-Tulalip Elementary in the Marysville School District, Totem Middle School, and Marysville-Getchell, Marysville-Pilchuck and Heritage High Schools. Since 1996, the Tulalip Lushootseed Department has hosted the annual dxʷləšucid sʔəsqaləkʷ ʔə ti wiw̓suʔ, a summer language camp for children. Teachers also offer family classes in the evening every year, making Lushootseed a family experience.[ citation needed]

Wa He Lut Indian School teaches Lushootseed to Native elementary school children in their Native Language and Culture program.[ citation needed]

As of 2013, an annual Lushootseed conference is held at Seattle University. [8] A course in Lushootseed language and literature has been offered at Evergreen State College. [19] Lushootseed has also been used as a part of environmental history courses at Pacific Lutheran University. [1] It has been spoken during the annual Tribal Canoe Journey ( Tribal Journeys) that take place throughout the Salish Sea.

There are also efforts within the Puyallup Tribe. Their website and social media, aimed at anyone interested in learning the language, are updated often. [7]

To facilitate the use of Lushootseed in electronic files, in 2008 the tribe contracted type designer Juliet Shen to create Unicode-compliant typefaces that met the needs of the language. Drawing upon traditional Lushootseed carvings and artwork, she developed two typefaces: Lushootseed School and Lushootseed Sulad. [20] [21]

In the summer of 2016, the first ever adult immersion program in Lushootseed was offered at the University of Washington's Tacoma campus. It was sponsored by The Puyallup Tribal Language Program in partnership with University of Washington Tacoma and its School of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences. [22] A similar program is scheduled to be offered in August 2019, with the instructors Danica Sterud Miller, Assistant Professor of American Indian Studies at the University of Washington Tacoma, and Zalmai Zahir, a PhD student of theoretical linguistics at the University of Oregon. [23]

Dialects

Historical extent of Lushootseed dialects

Lushootseed consists of two main dialect groups, Northern Lushootseed (dxʷləšucid) and Southern Lushootseed (txʷəlšucid~xʷəlšucid). Both of these dialects can then be broken down into further subdialects: [24]

There is no consensus on whether the Skykomish dialect should be grouped in the Northern or Southern dialect group. [24] [25]

Dialects differ in several ways. Pronunciation between dialects is different. In Northern dialects, the stress of the word generally falls on the first non-schwa of the root, whereas in the Southern dialects, stress usually is placed on the penultimate syllable. Some words do not fit the pattern, but generally, pronunciation is consistent in those ways. Northern Lushootseed also was affected by progressive dissimilation targeting palatal fricatives and affricates, whereas Southern Lushootseed was not, leading to some words like čəgʷəš ("wife") being pronounced čəgʷas in Northern dialects. [24]

Differences in stress in Northern and Southern Lushootseed. (Stress is marked with an acute accent.) [24]
Northern Lushootseed Southern Lushootseed English
bədáʔ bə́dəʔ child
sc̓əlíč sc̓ə́lič backbone
č̓ƛ̕áʔ č̓ə́ƛ̕əʔ rock
dəč̓úʔ də́čuʔ one
k̓ədáyu k̓ádəyu rat
kʷədád kʷə́dəd take/hold something
təyíl táyil go upstream
ʔəcá ʔə́cə I, me

Different dialects often use completely different words. For example, the word for "raccoon" is x̌aʔx̌əlus in Northern Lushootseed, whereas bəlups is used in Southern Lushootseed. [24]

Morphology also differs between Northern and Southern Lushootseed. Northern Lushootseed and Southern Lushootseed have related, but different determiner systems. There are also several differences in utilizing the prefix for marking "place where" or "reason for," in subordinate clauses, with Northern Lushootseed using dəxʷ- and Southern Lushootseed using sxʷ-. [24]

See Determiners for more information on this dialectical variation.

Orthography

According to work published by Vi Hilbert and other Lushootseed-language specialists, Lushootseed uses a morphophonemic writing system meaning that it is a phonemic alphabet which does not change to reflect the pronunciation such as when an affix is introduced. The chart below is based on the Lushootseed Dictionary. Typographic variations such as ⟨p'⟩ and ⟨pʼ⟩ do not indicate phonemic distinctions. Capital letters are not used in Lushootseed. [26]

Some older works based on the Dictionary of Puget Salish distinguishes between schwas that are part of the root word and those inserted through agglutination which are written in superscript. [27]

The Tulalip Tribes of Washington's Lushootseed Language Department created a display with nearly all the letters in the Lushootseed alphabet, sans the letter b̓, which is a rare sound which no words begin with.

Letter Letter Name IPA Notes
ʔ Glottal stop / ʔ/
a / ɑ/
b / b/
Glottalized b / ɓ/ Rare, non-initial
c / t͡s/
Glottalized c / t͡sʼ/
č c-wedge / t͡ʃ/
č̓ Glottalized c-wedge / t͡ʃʼ/
d / d/
dᶻ d-raised-z / d͡z/
ə Schwa / ə/
g / ɡ/
g-raised-w / ɡʷ/ Labialized counterpart of /ɡ/
h / h/
i / i~ e/ [12] Pronounced either as in the English "bee" or "bay." [28]
ǰ j-wedge / d͡ʒ/
k / k/
Glottalized k / /
k-raised-w / / Labialized counterpart of /k/
k̓ʷ Glottalized k-raised-w / kʷʼ/ Labialized counterpart of /kʼ/
l / l/
Glottalized/Strictured l / /
ɫ/ɬ/ł Barred/Belted l / ɬ/ Though they represent the same sound, all three variations of the letter are seen. [28] [29] [12]
ƛ̓ Glottalized barred-lambda / t͜ɬʼ/
m / m/ Rare due to phonetic evolution. [30]
Glottalized/Strictured m / / Rare due to phonetic evolution. [30] Laryngealized bilabial nasal
n / n/ Rare due to phonetic evolution [30]
Glottalized/Strictured n / / Rare due to phonetic evolution. [30] Laryngealized alveolar nasal
p / p/
Glottalized p / /
q / q/
Glottalized q / /
q-raised-w / / Labialized counterpart of /q/
q̓ʷ Glottalized q-raised-w / qʷʼ/ Labialized counterpart of /qʼ/
s / s/
š s-wedge / ʃ/
t / t/
Glottalized t / /
u / u~ o/ [12] Pronounced either as in the English "boot" or "boat." [28]
w / w~ ʋ/
Glottalized/Strictured w / / Laryngealized high back rounded glide
x-w/x-raised-w / / Labialized counterpart of /x/
x-wedge / χ/
x̌ʷ Rounded x-wedge / χʷ/ Labialized counterpart of /χ/
y / j/
Glottalized/Strictured y / / Laryngealized high front unrounded glide

See the external links below for resources.

Vocabulary

The Lushootseed language originates from the coastal region of Northwest Washington State and the Southwest coast of Canada. There are words in the Lushootseed language which are related to the environment and the fishing economy that surrounded the Salish tribes. The following tables show different words from different Lushootseed dialects relating to the salmon fishing and coastal economies.

Southern Lushootseed Salmonoid Vocabulary
sčədadx a word that covers all Pacific salmon and some species of trout.
sac̓əb Chinook or King
c̓uwad Sockeye salmon
skʷǝxʷic coho salmon
ƛ̓xʷay̓ chum salmon
hədu the pink salmon
skʷawǝl̓ Steelhead
pədkʷəxʷic coho season
sc̓ay̓ay̓ gills
ɫičaʔa nets
ɫičaʔalikʷ net fishing
ʔalil tiʔiɫ ƛ̓usq̓íl spawning season
skʷǝɫt tailfin
t̓altəd fillet knife
sq̓ʷəlus kippered dried salmon
səlusqid fish heads
qəlx̌ dried salmon eggs
ƛ̓ǝbƛ̓əbqʷ fresh eggs
sɫuʔb dried chum
sxʷudᶻəʔdaliɫəd fish with a large amount of body fat
xʷšabus Lightly smoked
Northern Lushootseed/Snohomish Salmonoid Vocabulary [31]
sʔuladxʷ a word that covers all Pacific salmon and some species of trout.
yubəč Chinook or King
scəqiʔ sockeye salmon
ƛ̓xʷayʔ chum salmon
skʷəxʷic silver salmon
Northern Lushootseed/Snohomish Aquatic Vocabulary [31]
qal̓qaləx̌ič orca/killer whale
č(ə)xʷəluʔ grey whale
sq̓aƛ̓ otter
sup̓qs harbor seal
st̓əqxʷ beaver
sqibk̕ʷ octopus
ʔaləšək turtle
waq̓waq̓ frog
sk̕ʷic̕i sea urchin
təǰabac sea cucumber
q̓ʷəlačiʔ star fish
bəsqʷ crab
t̓aɬiɡʷs rock cod
p̓uay̓ flounder
kəlapx̌ʷəlč jelly fish
sʔax̌ʷuʔ clam
tulqʷ mussel
ƛ̓ux̌ʷƛ̓ux̌ʷ native oyster
c̕ubc̕ub barnacle
sx̌aʔaʔ little neck steam clams
xʷč̓iɬqs large native oyster
ɡʷidəq geoduck
stxʷub butter clam
sx̌əp̓ab cockle clam
haʔəc horse clam
č̓ič̓əlpyaqid / puʔps periwinkle
sč̓awəyʔ any seashell
ʔuk̕ʷs large chiton
x̌ald small chiton

Example text

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Lushootseed:

  • ʔəsdiɬdiɬgʷəs ti sdᶻəw̓il ʔi ti staltalx̌ ʔə ti sbək̓ʷaʔkʷbixʷ tul̕ʔal ti sgʷəcs. ʔəstalx̌ əlgʷəʔ kʷi gʷəsx̌əčbids gʷəl ɬutabab ti bək̓ʷaʔkʷbixʷ x̌əɬ ti tə təɬ syəyaʔyaʔ.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in English:

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Notes

  1. ^ Northern Lushootseed: dxʷləšucid
    Southern Lushootseed: txʷəlšucid
    Muckleshoot and Snoqualmie dialects: xʷəlšucid

References

  1. ^ a b c Brown, Drew (2003). "History professor helps keep local Native American language alive". Scene - Life of the Mind, Pacific Lutheran University. Archived from the original on 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  2. ^ "About dxʷləšucid Lushootseed". Lushootseed. 2014-12-05. Retrieved 2022-11-28.
  3. ^ a b "What is Lushootseed?". The Lushootseed Language. 2016-06-07. Retrieved 2022-11-28.
  4. ^ a b "Tulalip Lushootseed". Tualip Tribes. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  5. ^ a b Fiege, Gale (2013-03-31). "For students, Tulalip Tribes' native language a connection to the past". HeraldNet.com. Everett, WA. Archived from the original on 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  6. ^ a b Gauld, Ben (June 24, 2015). "Voices of Youth Keep Lushootseed Language Alive". 94.9 FM - Seattle News & Information. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  7. ^ a b "haʔł sləx̌il txʷəl gʷəlapu. ʔəsx̌id čəxʷ siʔiʔab. - Puyallup Tribal Language".
  8. ^ a b "dxʷləšucid, Lushootseed Research". Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  9. ^ Zahir, Zalmai (2009). "Foreward". A Lushootseed Analysis of a 1877 Dictionary by George Gibbs.
  10. ^ a b Bates, Dawn; Hess, Thom; Vi, Hilbert (1994). Lushootseed Dictionary. University of Washington Press. ISBN  9780295973234. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  11. ^ a b Beck, David. "Words and prosodic phrasing in Lushootseed narrative*" (PDF). University of Toronto. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d Zahir, Zalmai (December 2018). Elements of Lushootseed Grammar in Discourse Perspective (Thesis). Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  13. ^ Bates, Dawn E; Hess, Thom; Hilbert, Vi (1994). Lushootseed dictionary. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN  0295973234. OCLC  29877333.
  14. ^ a b c Hess, Thom, 1936-2009. (1995). Lushootseed reader with introductory grammar. [Place of publication not identified]: Tulalip Tribes. ISBN  1879763117. OCLC  79169469.{{ cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list ( link)
  15. ^ Hess, Thom; Hilbert, Vi (1995). Lushootseed Grammar Book 1. Lushootseed Press. pp. 2–4. Archived from the original on 2021-02-25. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  16. ^ Kroeber, P. D. (1999). The Salish Language Familhy Reconstructing Syntax. University of Nebraska Press. p. 3.
  17. ^ a b "Lushootseed". Ethnologue.
  18. ^ "Lushootseed". Tulalip Tribes. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
  19. ^ Lushootseed_Syllabus_06.pdf (PDF), retrieved 2013-04-04
  20. ^ Anderson, Hans (2020-06-20). "Lushootseed, the endangered oral language of the coast Salish peoples, gets its own font". KNKX Public Radio. Retrieved 2023-03-07.
  21. ^ Shen, Juliet (Autumn 2010). "Aesthetic Innovation in Indigenous Typefaces: Designing a Lushootseed Font". Glimpse | the Art + Science of Seeing (7).
  22. ^ UWT to offer Lushootseed immersion program this summer Archived 2016-04-17 at the Wayback Machine, Puyallup Tribal News, April 7, 2016 (retrieved April 25, 2016)
  23. ^ "LUSHOOTSEED LANGUAGE INSTITUTE". University of Washington Tacoma.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Hess, Thom (1977). "Lushootseed Dialects". Anthropological Linguistics. 19 (9): 403–419 – via JSTOR.
  25. ^ Hollenbeck, Jan L.; Moss, Madonna (1987). A Cultural Resource Overview: Prehistory, Ethnography and History: Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. United States Forest Service. p. 162. OCLC 892024380.
  26. ^ Hayward, Amber (2021-05-19). Twulshootseed Advisory Notice (PDF) (Report). Tacoma, Washington: Puyallup Tribal Language Program. Retrieved 2023-04-02.
  27. ^ Bates, Dawn; Hess, Thom; Vi, Hilbert (1994). Lushootseed Dictionary (PDF). pp. xi.
  28. ^ a b c "sƛ̓əladiʔ – Alphabet/Sounds". Tulalip Lushootseed. 27 December 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  29. ^ "The Alphabet". Puyallup Tribal Language. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  30. ^ a b c d Kroeber, P. D. (1999). The Salish Language Familhy Reconstructing Syntax. University of Nebraska Press. p. 8.
  31. ^ a b "tiʔiʔiɬ kʷi ʔišil aquatic". Lushootseed. Tulalip Tribes. 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2023-03-09.

Language learning materials

  • Bates, D., Hess, T., & Hilbert, V. (1994). Lushootseed dictionary. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN  9780295973234
  • Beck, David. "Transitivity and causation in Lushootseed morphology." Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle 13 (1996): 11–20.
  • Browner, Tara (2009). Music of the First Nations: Tradition and Innovation in Native North America. University of Illinois Press. pp. 35–36.
  • Indiana University, Bloomington (1996). Lushootseed texts: an introduction to Puget Salish narrative aesthetics. Studies in the anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington. ISBN  0803212623.
  • Chamberlain, Rebecca, Lushootseed Language & Literature: Program reader. (Lushootseed language, cultural, and storytelling traditions.)
  • Hess, Thom (1995). Lushootseed reader. University of Montana occasional papers in linguistics. S.l.: Tulalip Tribes. ISBN  1879763141.
  • Hess, Thom and Vi Hilbert. Lushootseed Book 1; The language of the Skagit, Nisqually, and other tribes of Puget Sound. An Introduction. Lushootseed Press 1995
  • Hess, Thom and Vi Hilbert. Lushootseed Book 2 (Advanced Lushootseed). Lushootseed Press, 1995
  • Hess, Thom (1995). Lushootseed Reader with Introductory Grammar. Missoula: University of Montana. ISBN  1879763117.
  • Hilbert, Vi. Haboo: Native American Stories from Puget Sound. Seattle: University of Washington, 1985
  • Hilbert, Vi, Crisca Bierwest, Thom Hess. Way of the Lushootseed People; Ceremonies & Traditions of North Puget Sound's First People. Third Edition, Lushootseed Press, 2001
  • dxʷlešucid xʷgʷədgʷatəd tul̓ʔal taqʷšəblu; Some Lushootseed Vocabulary from taqʷšəblu. Lushootseed Press, 1993

External links