List of current heads of state and government
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, there is only one leader being both head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state. In single-party systems, ruling party's leader (i.e. General Secretary) is usually the de facto top leader of the state, though sometimes this leader also holds presidency or premiership.
The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.
Member and observer states of the United Nations
Green cells indicate leaders whose offices constitutionally administer the executive of their respective state/government.
Blue cells indicate non–ceremonial heads of state with limited power (e.g. Bhutan) or de facto government leaders whose offices lack de jure constitutional power (e.g. Saudi Arabia).
- Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, interim, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
The following states are in free association with another UN member state.
|State||Associated with||Head of state||Head of government|
|Cook Islands||New Zealand||
King's Representative – Sir Tom Marsters
|Prime Minister – Mark Brown|
King's Representative – Dame Cindy Kiro [η]
|Premier – Dalton Tagelagi|
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
The following states control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
|State||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Artsakh||Azerbaijan||President – Arayik Harutyunyan|
|Somaliland||Somalia||President – Muse Bihi Abdi|
|Transnistria||Moldova||President – Vadim Krasnoselsky||Prime Minister – Aleksander Rozenberg|
These alternative governments are recognised as legitimate by at least one UN member state.
Sui generis entities
- President of the Republic
- List of countries by system of government
- List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office
- List of current monarchs of sovereign states
- List of current vice presidents and designated acting presidents
- List of current interior ministers
- List of current foreign ministers
- List of current finance ministers
- List of current defence ministers
- List of current presidents of legislatures
- List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government
- List of leaders of dependent territories
- List of oldest living state leaders
- List of national governments
- Lists of state leaders
- Lists of state leaders by century
- List of state leaders in the 21st century
- List of state leaders in 2022
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Charles III is separately and equally monarch of 15 sovereign states known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states (with the exception of the United Kingdom, where he permanently resides), he is represented at the national level by a governor-general.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
- In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Kyrgyzstani Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
- According to articles 89 to 91 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme Leader of Iran is the head of state, and the President is the head of government. The President is required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before Parliament, and the Supreme Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at any time.
- The constitution of Japan does not define a formal head of state, but the Emperor by unwritten constitutional convention fulfills the functions and duties of this role.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the King's Representative of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The Captain Regent representing the party with a plurality of seats in the legislature of San Marino, the Grand and General Council, exercises more legislative power than the Captain Regent belonging to the opposition.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- Charles III is head of state of the Cook Islands and Niue in his capacity as King in Right of New Zealand. He is represented in each of these states by a King's Representative.
- "San Marino: Freedom in the World 2021 Country Report".
- "Europese knoop ontward: Charles Michel wordt voorzitter van de Europese Raad". 2 July 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021.
- "Von der Leyen elected EU Commission head after MEPs vote". BBC News. 16 July 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022.
- CIDOB Foundation (in Spanish)—contextualised biographies of world political leaders
- EmilePhaneuf—an archived, partial list of official websites for heads of state
- Portale Storia (in Italian)—a list of current rulers by country
- Rulers—a list of rulers throughout time and places
- United Nations—a list of heads of state, heads of government, and foreign ministers