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Leaders of states in the U.S. which have significant mineral deposits often create a state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone to promote interest in their natural resources, history, tourism, etc. Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone and/or gemstone, however.

In the chart below, a year which is listed within parentheses represents the year during which that mineral, rock, stone or gemstone was officially adopted as a state symbol or emblem.

Table of minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones

State, federal district, territory Mineral Rock or stone Gemstone
Alabama [1]
A sparkling, metallic gray chunk of hematite on a blue background.
Hematite (1967)
A chunk of pure white marble lies on a dark background.
Marble (1969)
A bluish gray round cabochon of quartz showing a four rayed star effect under intense lighting.
Star blue quartz (1990)
Alaska [2] [3]
An irregularly shaped nugget of native gold.
Gold (1968)
An irregular chunk of celedon green jade.
Nephrite jade (1968)
Arizona [4] [5] [6] [7]
An irregular piece of native copper on a green background.
Wulfenite (2017)
An uncut nodule of brown matrix with a split face showing areas of turquoise.
Turquoise (1974)
Arkansas [8] [9] [10]
A cluster of clear, colorless quartz crystals.
Quartz (1967)
A slab of bauxite displaying brown orbicular formations which are approximately the size of the one cent coin which lies on top of the slab.
Bauxite (1967)
Star of Murfreesboro blue diamond from Arkansas
Diamond (1967)
California [A] [11] [12]
An irregularly shaped nugget of native gold ore.
Gold (1965); California's nickname is the Golden State
A rough chunk of dark green serpentine with lighter veining.
Serpentinite (1965)
A rough rock showing several intense, dark blue benitoite crystals emerging from white natrolite matrix.
Benitoite (1985)
Colorado [B] [13]
Intense, transparent, strawberry red crystals of rhodochrosite from Colorado's Sweet Home mine.
Rhodochrosite (2002)
Large blocks of partially worked white marble lie on the ground at Colorado's Marble Mill site with the National Historical marker in the background.
Yule marble (2004)
A light blue piece of aquamarine cutting rough.
Aquamarine (1971)
Connecticut [14]
A cluster of orange to red almandine garnet crystals.
Almandine garnet (1977)
Delaware [15] [16]
A long crystal of light purple sillimanite on a white background.
Sillimanite (1977)
Florida [C] [17]
A nodule of gray fossilized coral which has been sliced in half with the halves lying opposite each other and showing the hollow center.
Agatized Coral (1979)
A chunk of grayish yellow moonstone which shows fracture lines and a blue glow in some portions.
Moonstone (1970)
Georgia [18]
Intersecting twinned crystals of brown staurolite forming an abstract sculptural mass.
Staurolite (1976)
An oval cabochon of pink quartz
Quartz (1976)
Hawaiʻi [19] [20]
Black branches of coral, along which are arranged bright yellow polyps.
Black coral (1987)
Idaho [21]
A round cabochon of very dark red garnet which displays a six pointed star effect under intense lighting.
Star garnet (1967)
Illinois [22]
A cluster of purple fluorite crystals with a few crystals of iron pyrite attached.
Fluorite (1965)
Dolomite rock,CaMg(CO3)2
Dolostone (2022) [23]
Indiana [24]
A chunk of limestone showing yellowish and white banding.
Salem limestone (1971)
Iowa [25] [26]
Keokuk geode showing the exterior shell and interior. cavity
Geode (1967)
Kansas [27] [28] [29]
Galena (2018)
Greenhorn Limestone
Greenhorn Limestone, from which the Kansas Stone Posts were cut. (2018) [30]
Jelenite (amber)
Jelenite, a form of amber (2018)
Kentucky [31]
A chunk of black coal.
Coal (1998)
A smooth pebble of white agate with black and green dendrite formations.
Kentucky agate (2000)
A string of white pearls arranged in a twisted pile on a white background.
Freshwater pearl (1986)
Louisiana [32] [33]
A chunk of agate in grayish and golden colors with the split face showing internal fortification banding along with a black dendritic formation.
Agate (2011)
Louisiana state gemstone
Lapearlite ( Eastern oyster shell) (2011)
Maine [34] [35] [36] Granitic pegmatite (2023)
Dark bluish and green or black, rod-like tourmaline crystals emerging from clear quartz holding matrix.
Tourmaline (1971)
Maryland [37]
Peach reds and yellows with threadlike mossy and cell-like formations in semi-smooth tumbled agate pebbles.
Patuxent River stone agate (2004)
Massachusetts [D] [38]
Shiny black crystals of babingtonite on whitish matrix.
Babingtonite (1971)
Photo of a gray cliffside in Roxbury showing the conglomerate material.
Roxbury puddingstone (1983)
A rough chunk of rhodonite showing white and intense pink crystals.
Rhodonite (1979)
Michigan [39]
A polished brown pebble of petoskey stone showing the typically six-sided cellular structure from the fossilized coral.
Petoskey stone fossilized coral (1965)
A polished cabochon of green pumpellyite showing the desirable chatoyant, cell-like structure found in the Michigan material.
Chlorastrolite (aka Isle Royale greenstone) (1972)
Minnesota [40]
An oval cabochon of Lake Superior agate which displays the typical tight fortification banding in shades of reds, yellows and white.
Lake Superior agate (1969)
Mississippi [41] [42]
A child sitting on a broken section of a petrified wood log.
Petrified wood (1976)
Opal (2023)
Missouri [43]
Gray crystals of galena clustered on a gray matrix.
Galena (1967); Missouri's nickname is the Lead State
A slice of mozarkite with the face showing a swirling pattern of cream, pinks and yellows.
Mozarkite (1967)
Montana [44]
A custom shield cut sapphire from Rock Creek, Montana in deep blue with a slight green undertone or zoning.
Sapphire (1969)
A cloudy translucent white polished shield-shaped cabochon of Montana moss agate with puffy black dendrites arranged around a central area of golden fortifications.
Montana Agate (1969)
Nebraska [45]
Tumble polished translucent agate pebbles showing gold, red and white colors.
Prairie agate (1967)
A chunk of seam agate with the split face showing fortification banding in gray, blue and white colors.
Blue chalcedony (1967)
Nevada [46] [47]
An irregularly shaped specimen of native silver ore.
Metal: Silver (1977); Nevada's nickname is the Silver State
A rough chunk of sandstone with the face showing layering in shades of brown, black and white.
Sandstone (1987)
A freeform cabochon of black Virgin Valley wood replacement opal with red, blue and green fire showing against the dark base opal.
Precious Gemstone: Virgin Valley black fire opal (1987)

Three rough chunks of raw turquoise in brown matrix are at the top of the picture, below which are a range of thirteen finished cabochons showing various colors ranging from green to light turquoise blue, and a range of spiderweb matrix ranging from none to light yellow to deep brown.
Semiprecious Gemstone: Nevada turquoise (1987)
New Hampshire [48]
A yellowish white beryl crystal.
Beryl (1985)
The Old Man of the Mountain granite formation in New Hampshire's White Mountains.
Granite (1985); New Hampshire's nickname is the Granite State
A cluster of transparent and light brown quartz crystals.
Smoky quartz (1985)
New Jersey [49] Franklinite [50]
New Mexico [51]
A polished, freeform cabochon of turquoise blue with brown dots of matrix inclusions.
Turquoise (1967)
New York [52]
A round, faceted garnet gemstone in deep red with orange undertones.
Garnet (1969)
North Carolina [53]
An irregularly shaped nugget of native gold.
Gold (2011)
The polished face of a granite slab showing an even pattern of white, greenish and black crystals.
Granite (1979)
Translucent green emerald crystals in a cream-colored matrix.
Emerald (1973)
North Dakota [54]
Ohio [55]
A freeform cabochon of Ohio flint with a pattern of cream and ochre bands and a bluish black pattern at one end.
Ohio flint (1965)
Oklahoma [56] [57] [58]
Columnar crystal habit.
Crystal: Hourglass selenite (2005)
A rough, oval desert rose formation made up of barite crystals.
Barite Rose (1968)
Oregon [E] [59] [60] State Twin Minerals:
A nugget of oregonite with "josephinite" (= awaruite).
Oregonite (2013)
Awaruite is a nickel-iron alloy-bearing rock occurring as detritus in streams. This pebble/nugget weighs 13 grams.
Josephinite (2013)
A sliced thunderegg with the polished face showing a water level pattern in clear, blue and white chalcedony bands.
Thunderegg (1965)
Four faceted gemstones in various cuts showing some of the Oregon labradorite colors, including dichroic red green, red and yellow bicolor, clear with copper shiller streaking, and teal blue-green.
Oregon sunstone labradorite (1987)
Pennsylvania [61]
Rhode Island [62]
The face of a polished slab of bowenite serpentine with a wavy pattern in colors ranging from intense jade green to yellows.
Bowenite serpentine (1966)
Two rough chunks of cumberlandite showing reddish brown coloring with a few whitish streaks.
Cumberlandite (1966)
South Carolina [63]
A closeup of the polished face of a slab of granite showing grains of white, bluish gray and black.
Blue granite (1969)
A cluster of light purple to violet amethyst crystals.
Amethyst (1969)
South Dakota [64] [65]
Rose quartz
Rose quartz (1966)
A group of tumble polished agates showing banding in red, orange and white with crystal interiors.
Fairburn agate (1966)
State Jewelry: Black Hills Gold
Tennessee [66]
A round cabochon of Tennessee paint rock showing clear holding agate, white banding and a red mossy formation.
Agate (2009)
Closup view of an unpolished, gray limestone slab showing fossil shell and other inclusions.
Limestone (from 1979 to present)
and formerly
A round cabochon of Tennessee paint rock showing clear holding agate, white banding and a red mossy formation.
Tennessee agate (from 1969 until 2009)
A string of white pearls arranged in a twisted pile on a white background.
Tennessee River Pearl (1979)
Texas [67]
An irregularly shaped specimen of native silver ore.
Precious Metal: Silver (2007)
An oval palmwood cabochon in a buff color with dark dots formed when sclerenchyma structures in the wood was replaced by chalcedony.
Oligocene petrified palmwood (1969)
A light blue chunk of topaz cutting rough.
Gemstone: Texas blue topaz (1969)

A line drawing showing the five-pointed star feature in the pavilion of the Lone Star gemstone cut.
Gem Cut: "Lone Star Cut" (1977)
Utah [68]
An irregular piece of native copper on a green background.
Copper (1994)
A chunk of black coal.
Coal (1991)
A terminated raw, golden topaz crystal.
Topaz (1969)
Vermont [69] [70] [71]
A chunk of translucent white talc.
Talc (1991)
A buff-colored boulder of granite.
Granite (1992)
The white marble state capitol building in Montpelier.
Marble (1992)
An unpolished, irregular slab of gray slate.
Slate (1992)
A cluster of orange garnet crystals in a light gray matrix.
Grossular garnet (1991)
Virginia [72] [73]
A speckled rock specimen
Nelsonite (2016)
Washington [74]
A sliced section of a petrified wood log showing exterior fossilized bark and black, white, red and yellow agate in the interior.
Petrified wood (1975)
West Virginia [F] [75]
A chunk of black coal.
Bituminous coal (2009) [76]
A polished slab showing the cellular structure from the fossilized coral.
Mississippian Lithostrotionella fossil coral (1990)
Wisconsin [77]
Gray crystal of galena.
Galena (1971)
A rough chunk of granite showing grains of red, pink, white, gray and black.
Red granite (1971)
Wyoming [78]
A freeform triangular cabochon of olive-green Wyoming nephrite jade.
Wyoming nephrite jade (1967)

See also


  1. ^ In 1965, California became the first state to name an official state rock. A 2010 effort led by State Senator Gloria J. Romero, a Democrat from Los Angeles, sought to remove serpentine from its perch as the state's official stone. Organizations such as the Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization have supported the move as the olive green rock is a source of chrysotile, a form of asbestos that can cause mesothelioma and other forms of cancer. Geologists have rallied to oppose the bill, arguing that there is no way to be harmed from casual exposure to serpentine. [79] The bill did not reach a final vote and died in committee at the end of August 2010. In 1986, California named benitoite as its state gemstone, a form of the mineral barium titanium silicate that is unique to the Golden State and only found in gem quality in San Benito County. [80]
  2. ^ Colorado is the only state whose geological symbols reflect the national flag's colors: red (rhodochrosite), white (yule marble), and blue (aquamarine).
  3. ^ Florida's state gem, moonstone, was adopted to highlight Florida's role in the United States' Lunar program, which landed the first astronauts on the Moon. [81]
  4. ^ Since 1983, Massachusetts has had 3 other official state rocks: State Historical Rock ( Plymouth Rock), State Explorer Rock ( Dighton Rock), and State Building and Monument Stone ( Granite). In 2008, a State Glacial Rock (Rolling Rock) was designated as well. [82]
  5. ^ A measure passed the Oregon Senate in March 1965 naming the thunderegg as Oregon's state rock, in a move that was supported as a way to stimulate tourism in the state. The thunderegg, a nodule-like geological structure, similar to a geode, that is formed within a rhyolitic lava flow, were said by the Native Americans of Warm Springs to have been created by thunder spirits that lived in the craters of Mount Hood and Mount Jefferson. [83] [84]
  6. ^ In 2009, West Virginia named bituminous coal as its official state rock, in a resolution that noted that the coal industry plays an "integral part of the economic and social fabric of the state". West Virginia joined Kentucky and Utah, which also recognize coal as a state mineral or rock. The drive to name coal as an official state symbol was initiated by a high school student from Wharncliffe, West Virginia, who initiated her project at a school fair and collected 2,500 signatures on a petition that was submitted to legislators. [85]


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  3. ^ "Alaska Statutes 2019". Alaska State Legislature. Alaska Legislature. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
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  6. ^ "View Document". Retrieved 2020-01-29.
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  79. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer. "California May Drop Rock, and Geologists Feel the Pain", The New York Times, July 13, 2010. Accessed July 13, 2010.
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  85. ^ O'Caroll, Eoin. "West Virginia names coal as its official state rock", The Christian Science Monitor, June 12, 2009. Accessed July 13, 2010.

External links