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Link light rail
Clockwise from top: the 1 Line near Northgate station, the T Line at Convention Center station, and the 1 Line at Othello station in Seattle
Overview
Owner Sound Transit
Locale Seattle, Washington, U.S.
Transit type Light rail
Number of lines2
Number of stations31
Daily ridership78,600 (weekdays, Q4 2023) [1]
Annual ridership27,338,200 (2023) [2]
Website soundtransit.org
Operation
Began operationAugust 22, 2003 (2003-08-22)
Operator(s) Sound Transit, King County Metro
Number of vehicles217
Technical
System length30 mi (48.28 km)
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification Overhead line;

Link light rail is a light rail rapid transit system serving the Seattle metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Washington. It is managed by Sound Transit in partnership with local transit providers, and consists of two non-connected lines: the 1 Line (formerly Central Link) in King County, which travels for 26 miles (42 km) between Seattle and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport; and the T Line (formerly Tacoma Link) in Pierce County, which runs for 4 miles (6.4 km) between Downtown Tacoma and Tacoma Dome Station. In 2023, the system had a ridership of 23.9 million, or about 78,600 per weekday as of the fourth quarter of 2023, primarily on the 1 Line. Trains run at frequencies of 6 to 24 minutes.

The Link light rail system was originally conceived in the 1980s following several earlier proposals for a heavy rail system that were rejected by voters. Sound Transit was created in 1993 and placed a ballot measure to fund and build the system, which was passed on a second attempt in 1996. Tacoma Link began construction first in 2000 and opened on August 22, 2003, at a cost of $80 million. Central Link construction was delayed because of funding issues and routing disputes, but began in November 2003 and was completed on July 18, 2009, for $2.4 billion. Central Link trains initially ran from Downtown Seattle to Tukwila International Boulevard station before being extended south to the airport in December 2009, north to the University of Washington in March 2016, and further south to Angle Lake station in September 2016. An extension to Northgate station opened on October 2, 2021.

Sound Transit plans to expand the Link light rail network to 116 miles (187 km) and 70 stations by 2044, using funding approved by voters in 2008 and 2016 ballot measures. Suburban extensions to Bellevue, Redmond, Lynnwood, and Federal Way are scheduled to open between 2024 and 2026 after construction delays. Later projects will expand the system to cover the metropolitan area from Everett to Tacoma, along with branches to Kirkland, Issaquah, and the Seattle neighborhoods of Ballard and West Seattle.

History

The first public transit networks in the Puget Sound region were various streetcar, cable cars, and interurbans constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which spurred the development of streetcar suburbs. Some of these systems were consolidated into the Seattle Municipal Street Railway, a city-owned network established in 1918, while others remained under the operation of their private owners. [3] [4] Unsuccessful proposals for a rapid transit system to connect Seattle's neighborhoods, and later other cities in the region, also emerged during the peak and later decline of streetcar and interurban service, both of which were dismantled by 1941. [4]

Following the 1968 and 1970 rejection of the Forward Thrust ballot measure to build a rapid transit system, voters in King County approved the creation of a new countywide bus system under the management of Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, an existing water treatment and sewage agency. [5] The system began operating in 1973 and later included the construction of the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel in the late 1980s to relieve bus congestion on downtown streets. [6] Metro and the Puget Sound Council of Governments also began planning a regional transit system at that time; a joint 1981 study named light rail as the preferred mode that would be able to operate on streets in some areas but generally follow freeway corridors to regional centers. [7] [8] A non-binding advisory ballot measure on further development of a light rail system approved by voters in 1988. [9] Metro's transit tunnel opened for buses in September 1990 and included tracks and electrical systems that would be compatible for future conversion to light rail. [10]

In 1993, the state legislature formed a new agency, the Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority (now Sound Transit), to oversee development of an inter-county transit system that would include light rail, commuter rail, and express buses in King, Pierce, and Snohomish counties. A ballot measure to fund a $6.7 billion plan (equivalent to $12.2 billion in 2023 dollars) [11] with a 70-mile (110 km) light rail network, which would connect Seattle to Lynnwood, Bellevue, and Tacoma, was rejected by 53 percent of voters on March 14, 1995. [12] [13] A revised plan announced the following year cut the light rail line to 25 miles (40 km) between Seattle–Tacoma International Airport and University District in Seattle and a section connecting Downtown Tacoma to the Tacoma Dome. [14] The new package, estimated to cost $3.9 billion (equivalent to $7 billion in 2023 dollars) [11] with funding from a sales tax and motor vehicle excise tax, was approved by voters on November 5, 1996. [15] In August 1997, Sound Transit adopted "Link" as the name for the light rail system along with Sounder for commuter rail and Regional Express for buses. [16] [17]

The Downtown Tacoma line, named Tacoma Link, was preceded by a shuttle bus from the new Tacoma Dome multimodal station built by Pierce Transit in 1997. The project was anticipated to revitalize the city's downtown and serve the new University of Washington Tacoma campus. [18] The line's 1.6-mile (2.6 km) route—primarily on Commerce Street and Pacific Avenue—was approved in 1999 and construction officially began on October 18, 2000. [19] [20] Tacoma Link opened on August 22, 2003, with five stations, and cost $80.4 million (equivalent to $128 million in 2023 dollars) [11] to construct. [21] The line had no fares and exceeded its 2010 ridership projections by early 2003, carrying its 500,000th passenger in April of the year. [22]

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, debates raged over various issues surrounding the Central Link line, which would connect Sea-Tac to Seattle. In the late nineties and early 2000s, Sound Transit underwent a series of financial and political difficulties. The cost of the line rose significantly, [23] and the federal government threatened to withhold necessary grants. [24] In 2001, Sound Transit was forced to shorten the line from the original proposal, and growing enthusiasm for the proposed monorail brought rising opposition to the light rail from Seattle-area residents. [25]

On November 8, 2003, a groundbreaking ceremony was held for the Central Link light rail line. Central Link opened between Westlake Station and Tukwila on July 18, 2009, at a cost of $2.4 billion (equivalent to $3.31 billion in 2023 dollars). [11] [26] [27] It was extended 1.7 miles (2.7 km) to SeaTac/Airport on December 19, 2009. [28]

In November 2006, the U.S. Federal Transit Administration approved Sound Transit's plan for University Link, a project to extend light rail 3.1 miles (5 km) north to the University of Washington after completion of an Environmental Impact Study. A grant was approved in November 2008, which allowed University Link to begin construction in December 2008. The line opened, including the University Link Tunnel, on March 19, 2016. [29]

In September 2019, Sound Transit renamed Central Link to the Red Line and Tacoma Link to the Orange Line as part of their update to transit branding. [30] Two months later, the agency announced that it would consider a new name for the Red Line after complaints because of the similarity of the "Red Line" with redlining as well as confusion over King County Metro's RapidRide system (which utilizes red bullets for its service routes). [31] A new naming scheme came into effect in 2021, using the "1 Line" (green) for the existing line in Seattle, the "2 Line" (blue) for East Link, and the "T Line" (orange) for Tacoma Link. Future light rail extensions will use the "3 Line" (magenta) and the "4 Line" (purple), alongside new names for Sounder and bus rapid transit services. [32] [33]

Lines

A geographic map of the Link light rail system with both active lines: the 1 Line in green and the T Line in orange

1 Line (Northgate–Angle Lake)

The 1 Line, formerly Central Link, is a light rail line serving 19 stations in Seattle, SeaTac, and Tukwila, using trains of three to four cars that each have a normal capacity of 194 passengers with up to 74 seats. [34] [35] It connects Northgate, the University of Washington, and Downtown Seattle to the Rainier Valley and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, using tunnels, elevated guideways, and surface-running sections. [36] Trains run every 8 minutes during peak periods and 10–15 minutes at other times with trips from 4:00 a.m. to 1:30 a.m. on weekdays and Saturdays, and from 5:00 a.m. to 12:30 a.m. on Sundays. [37] [38] In 2019, the 1 Line carried over 25 million passengers and averaged nearly 80,000 on weekdays, making it the busiest transit route in the Seattle region. [39]

The initial 13.9-mile (22.4 km) segment of Central Link was opened on July 18, 2009, between Westlake and Tukwila International Boulevard stations. [28] The northernmost four stations, in the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel, were shared with buses until they were rerouted in 2019. [40] The line was extended six months after opening to SeaTac/Airport station, a 1.7-mile (2.7 km) project that began construction in 2006 due to delays in planning. [41] [42] A northern extension to the University of Washington campus with two stations in a 3.15-mile (5.07 km) tunnel opened on March 19, 2016. [43] A one-stop extension to Angle Lake station to the south opened in September of that year. [44] The latest extension, to Northgate with two intermediate stations, opened on October 2, 2021, bringing the line to over 24 miles (39 km). [34]

T Line (Tacoma Dome–St. Joseph)

The T Line, formerly Tacoma Link, is a streetcar line that connects Downtown Tacoma and nearby neighborhoods to Tacoma Dome Station, a regional hub for buses and Sounder commuter rail. The line is 4 miles (6.4 km) long [45] and has twelve stations that serve the University of Washington's Tacoma campus, museums, hospitals, and other facilities. [46] [47] It runs primarily in traffic lanes, sharing the Commerce Street transit mall with buses, and uses a mix of single and double-tracked sections. [46] [48] Service on the original 1.6-mile (2.6 km) section between Tacoma Dome Station and Downtown Tacoma began on August 26, 2003, [49] and was expanded with the opening of an infill station at Commerce Street/South 11th Street in 2011. [50] An extension to the Hilltop neighborhood with 2.4 miles (3.9 km) of track and seven new stations opened on September 16, 2023. [51]

Trains on the line typically run every 12 minutes on weekdays and Saturdays and every 20 minutes on Sundays and holidays. The T Line has service from 4:30 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. on weekdays and reduced hours on other days, [52] but operating hours are extended for major evening events at the Tacoma Dome. [37] [53] In 2019, the line carried approximately 935,000 passengers and averaged 3,100 riders on weekdays. [39] Patronage peaked in 2012 at over 1 million passengers, but has declined since then. [54] Fares were not collected until the 2023 opening of the Hilltop Extension; unlike the rest of the Link network, the T Line uses a flat fare rather than a distance-based fare. [55] [56]

Stations

As of 2023, the Link light rail system has 31 stations—nineteen on the 1 Line and twelve on the T Line. [37] [57] The two lines use different types of station designs but share several features, including weather canopies, signage, information kiosks, ticket vending machines, seating, electronic information displays, bicycle parking, and public artwork. [58] [59] The system also uses proof-of-payment for fare validation with paid fare zones in lieu of faregates. [60] To comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), all Link stations include accessible seating, signage with Braille lettering, pathways, level boarding, and tactile paving on the edge of platforms. [61]

Platforms for both lines have a minimum width of 12 feet (3.7 m) each for a pair of side platforms and 20 feet (6.1 m) for an at-grade center platform. [62] The majority of the 1 Line's stations are at-grade, especially in the Rainier Valley and SODO, with a mix of elevated and underground stations in other areas. [63] These stations have platforms that are 380 feet (120 m) long to accommodate four-car trainsets and are connected to entrance structures at street level by stairs, elevators, and escalators. [64] [65] T Line platforms are typically 90 feet (27 m) long and at-grade with exits to adjacent sidewalks. [66] Some stations also feature parking lots, public restrooms, retail spaces, and designated busking areas. [58] [67]

Fares

Link uses a proof-of-payment system, requiring valid payment before boarding and lacking a turnstile barrier at stations. Fares can be purchased as paper tickets at ticket vending machines at stations, credit or passes loaded on an ORCA card, or through a mobile ticketing app. [68] [69] Fare ambassadors employed by Sound Transit check for valid fares while aboard trains or in the fare-paid zone of stations. [70] Passengers who do not present a valid ticket or validated ORCA card are offered warnings, fined one of two citation amounts, or receive a civil infraction. [71] Until 2021, fare inspectors and transit police officers on the 1 Line checked fares and issued warnings or a $124 citation to passengers who did not present a valid form of payment. [72] [73] The penalties for non-paying riders were suspended due to racial disparities and late replaced in 2022 with a new program of fare ambassadors. [74] [75]

Fares on the 1 Line and 2 Line are calculated based on distance traveled, ranging from $2.25 to $3.50 for adults. [56] ORCA card users are required to tap a reader before and after riding a train to calculate the fare on the 1 Line and 2 Line. [76] On the T Line, fares are $2 for adults and do not change based on distance. [56] Reduced fares are available to elderly passengers, persons with disabilities, and low-income passengers enrolled in ORCA Lift. [56] [77] Transfers from other modes, including buses, water taxis, and streetcars, are only accepted using ORCA cards. [78] Since September 2022, fares for passengers under the age of 19 have been free as part of a statewide transit grant. [79] A flat fare of $3 for adult riders is planned to take effect in late 2024 after the opening of the Lynnwood Link Extension. [80] A daily charge for parking at stations is also under consideration. [81]

Infrastructure

1 Line trains are operated and maintained by King County Metro, who also run paratransit service along the corridor. The Central Operations and Maintenance Facility (OMF) in SODO is used to store, maintain, and clean trains during off-peak and overnight hours. [37] [82] The facility covers 26 acres (10.5 ha) and is located between SODO and Beacon Hill stations. It opened in 2007 and has a capacity of 105 light rail vehicles, including nine bays inside the 162,000-square-foot (15,100 m2) maintenance building that can hold 16 vehicles. [83] [84] [85] An additional maintenance facility in Bellevue is planned to open with the 2 Line with a capacity of 96 vehicles. [86] T Line trains are directly operated by Sound Transit and maintained at a facility in Tacoma. [37]

Rolling stock

As of 2021, the Link light rail system uses a total of 102 low-floor light rail vehicles—99 for the 1 Line and 3 for the T Line. [37] The 1 Line fleet comprises two models, the Series 1 by KinkisharyoMitsui and the Series 2 by Siemens Mobility, that are both 95 feet (29 m) long with a pair of operator cabs and an articulated center. [87] Both models are able to run in four-car consists but do not have cross-compatibility. [35] [88] All Link vehicles allow for level boarding and feature accessible seating areas that can be folded up for wheelchair users. [61] A form of positive train control is used to prevent trains from exceeding the set speed limit for a given area. [89] By 2025, the Link fleet will have 214 total vehicles for use on the 1 Line and 2 Line as well as five for the T Line. [90] [91]

The Series 1 fleet of 62 cars, manufactured in Osaka and assembled in Everett, was divided into three orders beginning with a contract signed in 2003. [92] [93] The first vehicle was delivered in November 2006 for the Central Link project and was followed by deliveries for the SeaTac/Airport and University Link extensions that concluded in 2011; each unit was valued at $4.2 million in 2014. [94] [95] Each car has 74 seats and a capacity of 194 passengers during normal loads, with a maximum " crush load" of 252 people; [35] the layout is 70 percent low floor with raised sections at each end that are accessed via stairs. Railcars include four doors on each side, a wheelchair area, and two bicycle hooks above luggage storage areas. [96] [97] The trains have a top speed of 58 miles per hour (93 km/h), but typically operate at 35 mph (56 km/h) on surface sections and 55 mph (89 km/h) on elevated and tunneled sections. [98] [99]

The Series 2 fleet, retroactively designated the Siemens S700, [100] was commissioned in 2016 as part of a $642 million order to support the ST2 expansion program. The vehicles were manufactured in Sacramento, California, and are the same length and width as the Series 1 fleet, but feature a wider aisle in the articulated section, improved passenger information displays, and larger windows. [88] [101] The first vehicle was delivered in June 2019 and entered service in May 2021; [88] the final car in the full 152-car order is planned to be delivered by 2024. [101] [102]

In 2022, Sound Transit began planning specifications for a Series 3 that would have approximately 100 vehicles. It is expected to begin delivery in 2029 and be complete in 2032 for the first batch of ST3 projects. [103]

The T Line fleet consists of three low-floor articulated Škoda 10 T streetcars that were manufactured in the Czech Republic by Škoda Transportation. [104] They are 66 feet (20.12 m) long, 8 feet (2.44 m) wide, and have two articulation joints, between which is a low-floor section. [105] Each vehicle has 30 seats and can carry an additional 85 standing passengers at crush loads. [106] The Škoda fleet will be supplemented in 2023 by a set of five Brookville Liberty streetcars, which were ordered in 2017. [107] The Brookville Liberty streetcars each have 26 seats and can carry a total of 100 passengers; they were delivered in 2022. [91] [108]

Electricity

Trains are supplied electricity through an overhead catenary that is energized at 1,500 volts direct current for the 1 Line and 700 volts for the T Line. The current is converted to three-phase alternating current through on-board inverters. The 1 Line's use of 1,500 V allowed for a reduced number of electrical substations, which are spaced approximately one mile (1.6 km) apart. [96] [109]

Since December 2020, the Link light rail system has been running fully on carbon emissions-free renewable energy through Puget Sound Energy's wind electricity purchase program and Seattle City Light's fully carbon-neutral power supply. [110]

Signals and controls

Link light rail uses some form of Positive train control and train-to-wayside communications. [111]

Future expansion

Map of routes and stations in operation and under construction as of 2023
Redmond Technology station on the 2 Line under construction in 2019

The Link light rail system is planned to be expanded to 116 miles (187 km) with five lines and 70 stations by 2044 that are forecast to carry 750,000 daily passengers. [112] [113] The future system is anticipated to serve 750,000 daily passengers at full build-out and cost up to $131 billion. [112] The expansions are primarily funded through local taxes passed by voters in a pair of multimodal transit ballot measures. The Sound Transit 2 (ST2) package, passed in 2008, funded several extensions to be finished by 2025, including three that opened between 2016 and 2021. [114] [115] Sound Transit 3 (ST3) was approved in 2016 and funded new extensions of Link that will open between 2024 and 2046, including projects in Pierce and Snohomish counties. [114] Several deferred or truncated projects from ST2 were also funded and accelerated by the ST3 plan. [116]

Since 2016, the original timelines for both expansion packages have been modified due to the COVID-19 pandemic, labor shortages, and construction issues. Sound Transit adopted a "realignment plan" in 2021 that delayed most projects by two to five years, primarily to address a $6.5 billion shortfall in projected revenue that would be needed to avoid reaching a state-imposed debt limit by 2029. [112] The cost estimate for the largest project in the ST3 package, the West Seattle/Ballard Link Extension, increased by 50 percent between 2019 and 2021, reaching $12 billion due to higher property values and lower revenue amid the pandemic. [117] [118] A set of new delays, mainly affecting Sound Transit 2 projects, was announced in 2022 following a four-month regional strike by concrete truck drivers, as well as unexpected conditions discovered during work. [114]

All five lines are planned to connect at various hubs and interline in some areas to increase frequency in high-demand corridors. Upon completion of several planned extensions in the 2020s and 2030s, the 1 Line would run from Tacoma Dome Station to Downtown Seattle, where it would use a new tunnel, and continue northwest to Ballard. The 2 Line and 3 Line would interline from the existing Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel on the existing 1 Line corridor to Snohomish County, sharing tracks as far north as Mariner in southern Everett. The 3 Line would continue south to West Seattle and north to Downtown Everett, while the 2 Line serves Bellevue and Redmond. [119] [120] The 4 Line, connecting Kirkland to Issaquah, would interline with the 2 Line in Downtown Bellevue. [121] In addition to the new lines, three infill stations in Seattle are planned to be built by 2031 at Boeing Access Road, Graham, and Northeast 130th Street. [122]

In 2023, the Seattle Department of Transportation published its 20-year city transportation plan that included proposals for additional Link light rail lines. These include an east–west connection between Ballard and the University District; a northern extension from Ballard to Northgate and Lake City; a line serving Aurora Avenue North; a line serving Denny Way; a line that follows 23rd Avenue; and additional connections from Tukwila International Boulevard station to West Seattle and SoDo. [123]

2 Line (Mariner–Redmond)

The 2 Line is planned to be the third Link light rail line, connecting Seattle to the Eastside suburbs of Mercer Island, Bellevue, and Redmond. Construction began in 2016 and the $3.7 billion line was planned to open in two phases—the first including a connection to Seattle. A series of construction issues with the Interstate 90 section has caused the line to be split into two different phases, beginning with an initial segment opening in April 2024 from South Bellevue station to Redmond Technology station in Overlake; and the full line in 2025 from Seattle to Downtown Redmond station. [124] [125] The 2 Line would continue north from Seattle to Lynnwood and southern Everett by sharing tracks with the 1 Line (and later the 3 Line). [121] [126] The western half of the East Link Extension is being built in the median of Interstate 90, including a section on a floating bridge that would be first railway of its kind in the world. [127]

3 Line (Everett–West Seattle)

The 3 Line is planned to open in 2032 with the completion of the West Seattle Link Extension, which would connect West Seattle to an interim terminus at SODO station. The line would be extended north to replace the 1 Line following the completion of the Ballard Link Extension in 2037, which would include a new 3.3-mile (5.3 km) tunnel in Downtown Seattle for trains arriving from the Rainier Valley. [119] [128] The final terminus of the 3 Line is planned to be Everett Station, a multimodal hub in Downtown Everett, upon completion of the Everett Link Extension in 2037 or 2041 depending on funding. [129] [130]

4 Line (South Kirkland–Issaquah)

The 4 Line, the fifth Link light rail line, is scheduled to open in 2041 or 2044 depending on funding availability and would only serve the Eastside. The line is planned to run from the South Kirkland park-and-ride towards Downtown Bellevue, where it would interline with the 2 Line, and continue along Interstate 90 to Issaquah. [131] [132] It is planned to include four new stations and total 11.8 miles (19.0 km) in length; [131] an earlier proposal for the line continued on the Cross Kirkland Corridor to a terminus in Downtown Kirkland but was not included in the ST3 plan due to opposition from local residents. [133] [134]

Future segments

Some figures and dates are provisional due to quality control, geological risk, and labor issues that have caused delays in some projects. [114] [135]

List of Link light rail expansion projects
Project [136] Line(s) [121] Status [137] Termini [121] Length [136] New stations [121] Expected opening [114] [138]
East Link Starter Line 2 Line Under construction South Bellevue Redmond Technology 6.3 miles (10.1 km) [139] 8 April 27, 2024 [124]
Lynnwood Link Extension 1 Line
2 Line
Under construction Northgate Lynnwood City Center 8.5 miles (13.7 km) 4 August 30, 2024 [140]
East Link Extension 2 Line Under construction International District/Chinatown South Bellevue 4 miles (6.4 km) 4 2025 [125]
Downtown Redmond Link Extension 2 Line Under construction Redmond Technology Downtown Redmond 3.7 miles (6.0 km) [141] 2 2025 [125]
Federal Way Link Extension 1 Line Under construction Angle Lake Federal Way Downtown 7.8 miles (12.6 km) 3 2026 [142]
West Seattle Link Extension 3 Line Environmental review SODO Alaska Junction 4.7 miles (7.6 km) 3 2032
Tacoma Dome Link Extension 1 Line Environmental review Federal Way Downtown Tacoma Dome 9.7 miles (15.6 km) 4 2035 [143]
Ballard Link Extension 1 Line Environmental review International District/Chinatown Ballard 7.1 miles (11.4 km) 8 2037 to 2039
Everett Link Extension 3 Line Planned Lynnwood City Center Everett 16.3 miles (26.2 km) 6–7 2037 to 2041
TCC Tacoma Link Extension T Line Planned St. Joseph Tacoma Community College 3.5 miles (5.6 km) [144] 6 2039 or 2041
South Kirkland–Issaquah Link Extension 4 Line Planned South Kirkland Issaquah 11.8 miles (19.0 km) [131] 4 2041 or 2044

Land-use impacts

An expressed purpose in building the Link light rail system has been to support a "smart growth" approach to handling the region's population growth and development. [145] [146] By concentrating new development along light rail lines (a practice known as " transit-oriented development"), more people can live more densely without the increases in automotive commuting traffic that might otherwise be expected. [147] In addition, the concentration of residents near stations helps maintain ridership and revenue. Climate change activists also point out that compact development around light rail lines has been shown to result in reductions in residents' CO2 emissions, compared to more conventional suburban automotive commutes. [148]

Environmentalists, transportation groups and some affordable housing advocates have sought greater government regulatory support for transit-oriented development along Link light rail, and in 2009 a bill was introduced in the Washington State Legislature that would have raised allowable densities (as well as lowering parking requirements and easing some other regulations on development) in station areas. As part of Sound Transit 3 in 2016, the Washington State Legislature mandated that Sound Transit reserve at least 80% of the surplus land surrounding light rail stations for affordable housing developments. [149]

See also

References

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