Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge
|Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge|
|Location||New York City, United States|
Latitude and Longitude:
|Area||9,155 acres (37.05 km2)|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
|Website||Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge|
Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge is a wildlife refuge in New York City managed by the National Park Service as part of Gateway National Recreation Area. It is composed of the open water and intertidal salt marshes of Jamaica Bay. It lies entirely within the boundaries of New York City, divided between the boroughs of Brooklyn to the west and Queens to the east.
Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge consists of several islands in Jamaica Bay, located in both Brooklyn and Queens. The Queens portion is located near John F. Kennedy International Airport, which was built upon a portion of the wetlands in Jamaica Bay. In April 1942, the City of New York started placing hydraulic fill over the marshy tidelands of the area.  JFK International Airport is now the sixth busiest airport in the United States,  and the aviation traffic may pose some serious noise pollutant threats to the surrounding environment. 
The refuge provides habitat for a wide variety of flora and fauna, both marine and terrestrial. It is a prime location for viewing birds and bird migrations, diamondback terrapin egg-laying and horseshoe crab mating and egg laying. The primary diet of the diamondback terrapins include fish, snails, worms, clams, crabs and marsh plants, many of which are abundant in these particular marshlands.  Ospreys are currently being captured, tagged and studied in the Wildlife Refuge to help scientists better understand the birds' habits.  Small mammals such as eastern gray squirrels  and raccoon  are also present in the area. The recently increased raccoon population, however, has developed a taste for diamondback terrapin eggs, and many nests are often destroyed only 24 hours after being laid. 
The extent of the refuge is mostly open water, but includes upland shoreline and islands with salt marsh, dunes, brackish ponds, woodland and fields. It is the only "wildlife refuge" in the National Park System. Originally created and managed by New York City as a wildlife refuge, the term was retained by Gateway when the site was transferred in 1972. Usually, federal wildlife refuges are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Features created under city ownership include two large freshwater ponds. A visitor center with a parking lot provides free permits to walk the trails.  The two main trails go around the East Pond and the West Pond. The West Pond and its trail, however, were breached by Hurricane Sandy in 2012.
As a result of climate change, the Jamaica Bay area faces effects such as salt marsh erosion, rising sea levels, and flooding.  In 2012, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar authorized the creation of the Jamaica Bay-Rockaway Parks Conservancy, Inc. (JBRPC).  The public-private organization was officially established in 2013, partners with the National Park Service, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation and the New York State Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation, and is "dedicated to improving the 10,000 acres of public parkland throughout Jamaica Bay and the Rockaway peninsula for local residents and visitors alike."   Other organizations dedicated to the preservation of the bay include Jamaica Bay Ecowatchers and The American Littoral Society.  
In 2016, David Segal and David Hendrick released the documentary Saving Jamaica Bay, narrated by actress Susan Sarandon.  The film portrays the history of the national wildlife refuge and current efforts to preserve the natural landscape and wildlife. 
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- Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge New York Harbor Parks
- Kensinger, Nathan (2016-03-17). "Forecasting NYC's Climate Change Future in Jamaica Bay". Curbed NY. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
- "Who We Are". Jamaica Bay-Rockaway Parks Conservancy. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
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- Sigal, David (2016-03-17), Saving Jamaica Bay (Documentary), Susan Sarandon, Grounded Truth Productions, retrieved 2021-04-29
- Kern-Jedrychowska, Ewa (16 March 2016). "Susan Sarandon Narrates Documentary to Raise Awareness About Jamaica Bay". DNAinfo New York. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
- Black, Frederick R. (1981). "Jamaica Bay: A History. Gateway National Recreation Area, New York, New Jersey" ( PDF format). Cultural Resource Management Study No. 3. Denver, Colorado: National Park Service.
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