The assignment of these codes is governed by IATA Resolution 763, and it is administered by the IATA's headquarters in
Montreal, Canada. The codes are published semi-annually in the IATA Airline Coding Directory.
IATA provides codes for airport handling entities, and for certain railway stations.
Airport codes arose out of the convenience that the practice brought pilots for location identification in the 1930s. Initially, pilots in the United States used the two-letter code from the
National Weather Service (NWS) for identifying cities. This system became unmanageable for cities and towns without an NWS identifier, and the use of two letters allowed only a few hundred combinations; a three-letter system of airport codes was implemented. This system allowed for 17,576 permutations, assuming all letters can be used in conjunction with each other.
IATA codes should not be confused with the
FAA identifiers of US airports. Most FAA identifiers agree with the corresponding IATA codes, but some do not, such as
Saipan whose FAA identifier is GSN and its IATA code is SPN, and some coincide with IATA codes of non-US airports.
Canada's unusual codes–which bear little to no similarity with any conventional abbreviation to the city's name–such as
Edmonton, originated from the two-letter codes used to identify weather reporting stations in the 1930s. The letters preceding the two-letter code follow the following format:
"Y" – Indicating “yes”, this letter was used when the station shared its location with an airport.
"W" – When the weather-reporting station shared its location with no airport, this letter hinted at “Without”.
"X" – Suggesting that the last two letters of a code were in use by a Canadian airport, this letter was put in place.
"Z" – This letter indicated that an airport code had been used for the identification of an airport in the US.
Most large airports in Canada have codes that begin with the letter "Y",[unreliable source?] although not all "Y" codes are Canadian (for example, YUM for
Yuma, Arizona, and YNT for
Yantai, China), and not all Canadian airports start with the letter "Y" (for example ZBF for
Bathurst, New Brunswick). Many Canadian airports have a code that starts with W, X or Z, but none of these are major airports. When the Canadian transcontinental railways were built, each station was assigned its own two-letter Morse code. VR stands for Vancouver, TZ Toronto, QB
Quebec, WG Winnipeg, SJ Saint John, YC Calgary, OW Ottawa, EG Edmonton, etc. When the Canadian government established airports, it used the existing railway codes for them as well. If the airport had a weather station, authorities added a "Y" to the front of the code, meaning "Yes" to indicate it had a weather station or some other letter to indicate it did not. When international codes were created in cooperation with the United States, because "Y" was seldom used in the US, Canada simply used the weather station codes for its airports, changing the "Y" to a "Z" if it conflicted with an airport code already in use. The result is that most major Canadian airport codes start with "Y" followed by two letters in the city's name:
Vancouver, whereas other Canadian airports append the two-letter code of the radio beacons that were the closest to the actual airport, such as
Four of the ten provincial capital airports in Canada have ended up with codes beginning with YY, including YYZ for Toronto, Ontario, YYJ for Victoria, British Columbia, YYT for St. John's, Newfoundland, and YYG for Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Canada's largest airport is YYZ  for
Toronto–Pearson (As YTZ was already allocated to Toronto City Airport, the airport was given the station code of
Malton, Mississauga, where it is located.) YUL is used for
Montréal–Trudeau (UL was the ID code for beacon in the city of Kirkland, now the location of Montréal–Trudeau). While these codes make it difficult for the public to associate them with a particular Canadian city, some codes have become popular in usage despite their cryptic nature, particularly at the largest airports. Toronto's code has entered pop culture in the form of
"YYZ", a song by the rock band
Rush which utilizes the Morse code signal as a musical motif. Some airports have started using their IATA codes as
brand names, such as
Calgary International Airport (YYC) and
Vancouver International Airport (YVR).
Numerous New Zealand airports use codes that contain the letter Z, to distinguish them from similar airport names in other countries. Examples include
Sometimes the airport code reflects pronunciation, rather than spelling, such as
NAN, which reflects the pronunciation of "Nadi" as [ˈnandi] in
Fijian, where "d" is realized as the
In large metropolitan areas, airport codes are often named after the airport itself instead of the city it serves, while another code is reserved which refers to the city itself which can be used to search for flights to any of its airports. For instance:
Berlin (BER) –
Self-named (BER). The city also previously had three airports,
Schönefeld (SXF) and
Tegel (TXL), with THF and TXL both now closed. The former Berlin Schönefeld Airport was absorbed into Berlin Brandenburg Airport, with the old Schönefeld terminal becoming Terminal 5.
Sometimes, a new airport is built, replacing the old one, leaving the city's new "major" airport (or the only remaining airport) code to no longer correspond with the city's name. The original airport in Nashville, Tennessee, was built in 1936 as part of the Works Progress Administration and called Berry Field with the designation, BNA. A new facility known as Nashville International Airport was built in 1987 but still uses BNA. This is in conjunction to rules aimed to avoid confusion that seem to apply in the United States, which state that "the first and second letters or second and third letters of an identifier may not be duplicated with less than 200
nautical miles separation." Thus, Washington, D.C. area's three airports all have radically different codes: IAD for
Washington–Dulles, DCA for
Washington–Reagan (District of Columbia Airport), and BWI for
Baltimore (Baltimore–Washington International, formerly BAL). Since HOU is used for
William P. Hobby Airport, the new
Houston–Intercontinental became IAH. The code BKK was originally assigned to
Bangkok–Don Mueang and was later transferred to
Suvarnabhumi Airport, while the former adopted DMK. The code ISK was originally assigned to
Gandhinagar Airport (Nashik's old airport) and later on transferred to
Ozar Airport (Nashik's current airport).
Shanghai–Hongqiao retained the code SHA, while the newer
Shanghai–Pudong adopted PVG. The opposite was true for
Berlin: the airport
Berlin–Tegel used the code TXL, while its smaller counterpart
Berlin–Schönefeld used SXF; the
Berlin Brandenburg Airport has the airport code BER, which is also part of its branding. The airports of
Hamburg (HAM) and
Hannover (HAJ) are less than 100 nautical miles (190 km) apart and therefore share the same first and middle letters, indicating that this rule might be followed only in Germany.
Cities or airports changing names
Many cities retain historical names in their airport codes, even after having undergone an official name/spelling/transliteration change:
Orlando International Airport was founded as Orlando Army Air Field #2 but uses MCO for having been renamed
McCoy Air Force Base in 1959 in honor of a wing commander who crashed at the field in 1958. It was converted in the early 1960s to joint civilian/military use and renamed Orlando Jetport at McCoy, then renamed Orlando International Airport in the early 1980s.
Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport was originally named Moisant Field after daredevil aviator
John Moisant, who died in 1910 in an airplane crash on agricultural land where the airport is now located. Its IATA code MSY was derived from Moisant Stock Yards, as Lakefront Airport retained the code NEW.
Other airport codes are of obscure origin, and each has its own peculiarities:
BNA for its former name as Berry Field, henceforth Berry Nashville Airport
Louisville Muhammad Ali International Airport is
SDF for Standiford Field, its original name (Dr. Elisha David Standiford who, as a businessman and legislator, played an important role in Louisville transportation history and owned part of the land on which the airport was built.)
Some European cities have a different name in their respective language than in English, yet the airport code represents only the English name. Examples include:
CGN – Cologne/Köln (Germany)
CPH – Copenhagen/København (Denmark)
FLR – Florence/Firenze (Italy)
GVA – Geneva/Genève (Switzerland)
OPO – Oporto/Porto (Portugal)
PRG – Prague/Praha (Czechia)
VCE – Venice/Venezia (Italy)
VIE – Vienna/Wien (Austria)
Lack of codes
There are several airports with scheduled service that have not been assigned ICAO codes that do have IATA codes. For example, several airports in Alaska have scheduled commercial service, such as
Nanwalek, which use
FAA codes instead. There are also airports with scheduled service for which there are ICAO codes but not IATA codes, such as Nkhotakota Airport/Tangole Airport in
Chōfu Airport in Tokyo, Japan. There are also several minor airports in
Omsukchan Airport) which instead use
internal Russian codes for booking. Flights to these airports cannot be booked through the international air booking systems or have international luggage transferred there, and thus, they are booked instead through the airline or a domestic booking system. Thus, neither system completely includes all airports with scheduled service. Several
heliports in Greenland have 3-letter codes used internally which might be IATA codes for airports in faraway countries.
Use in colloquial speech
Some airports are identified even in the colloquial speech by their airport code. The most notable examples are LAX, DFW and JFK.