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The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
Pronunciation [ˈɦɪndiː]
Native to India
Region Hindi Belt ( Western Uttar Pradesh, Delhi)
Total speakers L1: 350 million speakers of Hindi and various related languages who reported their language as 'Hindi' (2011 census) [1] [2]
L2: 260 million (2020) [2]
Early forms
Signed Hindi
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Central Hindi Directorate [8]
Language codes
ISO 639-1 hi
ISO 639-2 hin
ISO 639-3 hin
Glottolog hind1269
Distribution of L1 self-reported speakers of Hindi in India as per the 2011 Census

Modern Standard Hindi, (आधुनिक मानक हिन्दी, Ādhunik Mānak Hindī) [9] commonly referred to as Hindi, is the standardised variety of the Hindustani language written in Devanagari script. It is the official language of India alongside English and the lingua franca of North India. Hindi is considered a Sanskritised register [10] of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas. [11] [12] [13] It is an official language in nine states and three union territories and an additional official language in three other states. [14] [15] [16] [17] Hindi is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. [18]

Hindi is also spoken, to a lesser extent, in other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi). [14] [15] Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other nearby languages, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which has an official status in Fiji, [19] and Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Guyana. [20] [21] [22] [23] Apart from the script and formal vocabulary, standard Hindi is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani, as both Hindi and Urdu share a core vocabulary base derived from Prakrit (a descendant of Sanskrit). [24] [25] [26] [27]

Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English. [28] If counted together with the mutually intelligible Urdu, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English. [29] [30] According to reports of Ethnologue (2022, 25th edition) Hindi is the third most-spoken language in the world including first and second language speakers. [31]

Hindi is the fastest growing language of India, followed by Kashmiri in the second place, with Meitei (officially called Manipuri) as well as Gujarati, in the third place, and Bengali in the fourth place, according to the 2011 census of India. [32]


The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It was borrowed from Classical Persian هندی Hindī ( Iranian Persian pronunciation: Hendi), meaning "of or belonging to Hind (India)" (hence, "Indian"). [33]

Another name Hindavī (हिन्दवी) or Hinduī (हिन्दुई) (from Persian: هندوی "of or belonging to the Hindu/Indian people") was often used in the past, for example by Amir Khusrau in his poetry. [34] [35]

The terms "Hindi" and "Hindu" trace back to Old Persian which derived these names from the Sanskrit name Sindhu (सिन्धु), referring to the Indus River. The Greek cognates of the same terms are "Indus" (for the river) and "India" (for the land of the river). [36] [37]

The term Modern Standard Hindi is commonly used to specifically refer the modern literary Hindi language, as opposed to colloquial and regional varieties that are also referred to as Hindi in a wider sense. [38]


Middle Indo-Aryan to Hindi

Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Shauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit apabhraṃśa "corrupt"), which emerged in the 7th century CE. [39]

The sound changes that characterised the transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to Hindi are: [40]

  • Compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding geminate consonants, sometimes with spontaneous nasalisation: Skt. hasta "hand" > Pkt. hattha > hāth
  • Loss of all word-final vowels: rātri "night" > rattī > rāt
  • Formation of nasalised long vowels from nasal consonants (-VNC- > -V̄̃C-): bandha "bond" > bā̃dh
  • Loss of unaccented or unstressed short vowels (reflected in schwa deletion): susthira "firm" > sutthira > suthrā
  • Collapsing of adjacent vowels (including separated by a hiatus: apara "other" > avara > aur
  • Final -m to -ṽ: grāma "village" > gāma > gāṽ
  • Intervocalic -ḍ- to -ṛ- or -l-: taḍāga "pond" > talāv, naḍa "reed" > nal.
  • v > b: vivāha "marriage" > byāh


During the period of Delhi Sultanate, which covered most of today's north India, eastern Pakistan, southern Nepal and Bangladesh [41] and which resulted in the contact of Hindu and Muslim cultures, the Sanskrit and Prakrit base of Old Hindi became enriched with loanwords from Persian, evolving into the present form of Hindustani. [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] Hindi achieved prominence in India after it became the official language of the imperial court during the reign of Shah Jahan. [48] It is recorded that Emperor Aurangzeb spoke in Hindvi. [49] The Hindustani vernacular became an expression of Indian national unity during the Indian Independence movement, [50] [51] and continues to be spoken as the common language of the people of the northern Indian subcontinent, [52] which is reflected in the Hindustani vocabulary of Bollywood films and songs. [53] [54]

Standard Hindi is based on the Delhi dialect, [39] the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige languages such as Awadhi and Braj. It developed by extracting Persian and Arabic words from the Hindustani language and replacing with Sanskrit words,. [55] Modern Hindi became a literary language in the 18th century. Earliest examples could be found as Prēm Sāgar by Lallu Lal, Batiyāl Pachīsī of Sadal Misra, and Rānī Kētakī Kī Kahānī of Insha Allah Khan which were published in Devanagari script during the early 19th century. [56]

John Gilchrist was principally known for his study of the Hindustani language, which was adopted as the lingua franca of northern India (including what is now present-day Pakistan) by British colonists and indigenous people. He compiled and authored An English-Hindustani Dictionary, A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, The Oriental Linguist, and many more. His lexicon of Hindustani was published in the Perso-Arabic script, Nāgarī script, and in Roman transliteration.In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. [57] In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. [58] However, in 2014, Urdu was accorded second official language status in the state. [59]

Independent India

After independence, the Government of India instituted the following conventions:[ original research?]

  • Standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. [60]
  • Standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing the previous usage of Hindustani in the Perso-Arabic script in the British Indian Empire. [61] [62] [63] To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. [64] Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day. [65]

Official status


Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Union. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union have been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English:

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. [20]
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. [66]

Article 351 of the Indian constitution states:

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.

It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351), [67] with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies. [68]

Article 344 (2b) stipulates that the official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for the progressive use of Hindi language and impose restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government.

At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. [69] Hindi is an official language of Gujarat, along with Gujarati. [70] It acts as an additional official language of West Bengal in blocks and sub-divisions with more than 10% of the population speaking Hindi. [71] [72] [73] Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

Although there is no specification of a national language in the constitution, it is a widely held belief that Hindi is the national language of India. This is often a source of friction and contentious debate. [74] [75] [76] In 2010, the Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such. [77] [78] In 2021, in a Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act case involving Gangam Sudhir Kumar Reddy, the Bombay High Court claimed Hindi is the national language while refusing Reddy bail, after he argued against his statutory rights being read in Hindi, despite being a native Telugu speaker. Reddy has filed a Special Leave Petition before the Supreme Court, challenging the Bombay High Court's observation, and contended that it failed to appreciate that Hindi is not the national language in India. [79] [80] [81]

In 2018, The Supreme Court has stayed a judgment of Madhya Pradesh High Court that held that the Hindi version of enactment will prevail if there is a variation in its Hindi version and English version. The prominence thus attached to English over Hindi in the judgement underlines the social significance of English over Hindi. [82]


Outside Asia, the Awadhi language (an Eastern Hindi dialect) with influence from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian and English is spoken in Fiji. [83] [84] It is an official language in Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji, [85] where it referred to it as "Hindustani"; however, in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called " Fiji Hindi" as the official language. [86] It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji. [83]


Hindi is spoken as a first language by about 77,569 people in Nepal according to the 2011 Nepal census, and further by 1,225,950 people as a second language. [87] A Hindi proponent, Indian-born Paramananda Jha, was elected vice-president of Nepal. He took his oath of office in Hindi in July 2008. This created protests in the streets for 5 days; students burnt his effigies, and there was a general strike in 22 districts. Nepal Supreme Court ruled in 2009 that his oath in Hindi was invalid and he was kept "inactive" as vice-president. An "angry" Jha said, "I cannot be compelled to take the oath now in Nepali. I might rather take it in English." [88]

South Africa

Hindi is a protected language in South Africa. According to the Constitution of South Africa, the Pan South African Language Board must promote and ensure respect for Hindi along with other languages. [6] According to a doctoral dissertation by Rajend Mesthrie in 1985, although Hindi and other Indian languages have existed in South Africa for the last 125 years, there are no academic studies of any of them – of their use in South Africa, their evolution and current decline. [89]

United Arab Emirates

Hindi is adopted as the third official court language in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. [7] As a result of this status, the Indian workforce in UAE can file their complaints to the labour courts in the country in their own mother-tongue. [90]

Geographical distribution

Hindi is the lingua franca of northern India (which contains the Hindi Belt), as well as an official language of the Government of India, along with English. [66]

In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for the people living in Haflong, Assam who speak other languages natively. [91] In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively. [92]

Hindi is quite easy to understand for many Pakistanis, who speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is a standard register of the Hindustani language; additionally, Indian media are widely viewed in Pakistan. [93]

A sizeable population in Afghanistan, especially in Kabul, can also speak and understand Hindi-Urdu due to the popularity and influence of Bollywood films, songs and actors in the region. [94] [95]

Hindi is also spoken by a large population of Madheshis (people having roots in north-India but having migrated to Nepal over hundreds of years) of Nepal. Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi Belt" of India. A substantially large North Indian diaspora lives in countries like the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji and Mauritius, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outside India, Hindi speakers are 8 million in Nepal; 863,077 in the United States of America; [96] [97] 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji; [83] 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname; [98] 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in the United Kingdom; [99] 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago; [98] 3,000 in Singapore.

Comparison with Standard Urdu

Linguistically, Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligible. [100] Both Hindi and Urdu share a core vocabulary of native Prakrit and Sanskrit-derived words. [24] [101] [25] However, Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and contains more direct tatsama Sanskrit-derived words than Urdu, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian loanwords compared to Hindi. [102] Because of this, as well as the fact that the two registers share an identical grammar, [13] [24] [101] a consensus of linguists consider them to be two standardised forms of the same language, Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu. [100] [13] [24] [12] Hindi is the most commonly used scheduled language in India and is one of the two official languages of the union, [103] the other being English. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one of 22 scheduled languages of India, also having official status in Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Telangana, [104] Andhra Pradesh [105] and Bihar. [106]


Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right. Unlike Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa deletion in spoken Standard Hindi. [107]


The Government of India uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as IAST, ITRANS and ISO 15919.

Romanised Hindi, also called Hinglish, is the dominant form of Hindi online. In an analysis of YouTube comments, Palakodety et al., identified that 52% of comments were in Romanised Hindi, 46% in English, and 1% in Devanagari Hindi. [5]


IPA Examples Devanagari representation English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b बीस بیس bīs ब् cabbie
भालू بھالو bhālū भ् clubhouse
d [108] दाल دال dāl द् the
[108] धूप دھوپ dhūp ध् adhere (but dental)
जान جان jān ज् budging
dʒʱ झड़ना جھڑنا jhaṛnā झ् hedgehog
ɖ [108] डालना ڈالنا ālnā ड् American bird
ɖʱ [108] ढक्कन ڈھکّن ḍhakkan ढ् American birdhouse
f ख़िलाफ़ خلاف k͟hilāf फ़् fuss
ɡ गोल گول gol ग् ago
ɡʱ घर گھر ghar घ् loghouse
ʔ [109] एतबार اعتبار iʻtibār [a] The pause in "uh-oh!", butter "bu'er" ( t-glottalizing dialects)
ɣ [111] बाग़ باغ ġ ग़् Similar to the French R
ɦ हम ہم ham ह् ahead
हुक्म حکم ukm ह्
j याद یاد yād य् yuck
k कमज़ोर کمزور kamzor क् scab
खाल کھال khāl ख् cab
l लब لب lab ल् leaf
m मगर مگر magar म् much
n नहीं نہیں nahī̃ न् panther
ɳ [112] किरण کرن kira ण् American burn
ŋ रंग رن٘گ rag ङ् or bang
p पल پل pal प् spot
फल پھل phal फ् pot
q [111] क़रीब قریب qarīb ‌‌‌क़् somewhat like caught
r [113] रस رس ras र् Trilled ring
ज़र्रा ذرّہ zarra र्
ɾ [113] ज़रा ذرا zarā र् American atom
ɽ लड़ना لڑنا la ड़ American garter
ɽʱ पढ़ाई پڑھائی paṛhāī ढ़ no English equivalent
s सब سب sab स् sun
साफ़ صاف āf
साबित ثابت ābit
ʂ [112] नष्ट نشٹ na ष् shrew
ʃ काश کاش ś श् shoe
t [108] तालाब تالاب tālāb त् similar to outthink, Spanish tomar
लतीफ़ा لطیفہ laīfā
[108] थैला تھیلا thailā थ् tub (but dental)
चोर چور cor च् catch
tʃʰ छोड़ना چھوڑنا choṛnā छ् achoo
ʈ [108] टमाटर ٹماٹر amāar ‌‌‌ट् stub (but retroflex)
ʈʰ [108] ठंड ٹھنڈ ṭhanḍ ठ् tub (but retroflex)
ʋ [114] वर्ज़िश ورزش varziś व् vat
w [114] पकवान پكوان pakvān व् well
x [111] ख़राब خراب k͟harāb ख़् Scottish loch
z [111] काग़ज़ کاغذ kāġaz ज़् zoo
ʒ [111] अझ़दहा اژدہا aždahā झ़् pleasure
IPA Examples Devanagari representation English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
काम کام kām आ or ा father
जेब جیب jeb ए or े mail
ɛ [115] रहना رہنا rêhnā ऐ or ै pen
ɛː कैसा کیسا kai ऐ or ै fairy
ə कल کَل kal about
ɪ जितना جِتنا jitnā इ or ि sit
जीतना جیتنا jītnā ई or ी seat
बोलो بولو bolo ओ or ो grow
ɔː कौन کَون kaun औ or ौ job
ʊ उन اُن un उ or ु book
ऊन اُون ūn ऊ or ू moon
◌̃ हँस ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
मैं مَیں maī̃
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈbaːɦər] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)


Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:

  • Tatsam (तत्सम transl. "same as that") words: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi as in Sanskrit (except for the absence of final case inflections). [116] They include words inherited from Sanskrit via Prakrit which have survived without modification (e.g. Hindi नाम nām / Sanskrit नाम nāma, "name", [117] as well as forms borrowed directly from Sanskrit in more modern times (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā, "prayer"). [118] Pronunciation, however, conforms to Hindi norms and may differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit nominal declension.
  • Ardhatatsam (अर्धतत्सम transl. "semi-tatsama") words: Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi सूरज sūraj from Sanskrit सूर्य sūrya)
  • Tadbhav (तद्भव transl. "born of that") words: These are native Hindi words derived from Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules (e.g. Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed" becomes Shauraseni Prakrit कम्म kamma, and eventually Hindi काम kām, "work") and are spelled differently from Sanskrit. [116]
  • Deshaj (देशज transl. "of the country") words: These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local non- Indo-Aryan languages.
  • Videshī (विदेशी transl. "foreign") words: These include all loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source languages in this category are Persian, Arabic, English and Portuguese. Examples are क़िला qila "fort" from Persian, कमेटी kameṭī from English committee.

Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation ( calqueing) and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English. [119]


Hindi has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Shauraseni Prakrit, in the form of tadbhava words. [25] This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit tīkṣṇa > Prakrit tikkha > Hindi tīkhā.


Much of Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic and English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words, is called Śuddh Hindi (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.

Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist in Hindustani, causing difficulties in pronunciation. [120]

As a part of the process of Sanskritisation, new words are coined using Sanskrit components to be used as replacements for supposedly foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan "television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in formal Hindi in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and ṭīvī. [121]


Hindi also features significant Persian influence, standardised from spoken Hindustani. [102] [38][ page needed] Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th century, were specific to Islam (e.g. Muhammad, Islām) and so Persian was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, Persian became the primary administrative language in the Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life. Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat, were assimilated into Hindi. [122]

The status of Persian language then and thus its influence, is also visible in Hindi proverbs:

हाथ कंगन को आरसी क्या,
पढ़े लिखे को फ़ारसी क्या।

Hāth kaṅgan ko ārsī kyā,
Paṛhe likhe ko Fārsī kyā.

What is mirror to a hand with bangles,
What is Persian to a literate.

The emergence of Modern Standard Hindi in the 19th century went along with the Sanskritisation of its vocabulary, [123] leading to a marginalisation of Persian vocabulary in Hindi, which continued after Partition when the Indian government co-opted the policy of Sanskritisation. However, many Persian words (e.g. bas "enough", khud "self") have remained entrenched in Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in Urdu poetry written in the Devanagari script. Many words borrowed from Persian in turn were loanwords from Arabic (e.g. muśkil "difficult", havā "air", x(a)yāl "thought", kitāb "book").

Loanwords from Persian derived from Arabic [124][ better source needed]
Perso-Arabic word Hindi word Gloss
وقت waqt वक़्त vaqt time
قميص qamīṣ क़मीज़ qamīz shirt
كتاب kitāb किताब kitāb book
نصيب naṣīb नसीब nasīb destiny
كرسي kursiyy कुर्सी kursī chair
حساب ḥisāb हिसाब hisāb calculation
قانون qānūn क़ानून qānūn law
خبر ḵabar ख़बर xabar news
دنيا dunyā दुनिया duniyā world
  • क़ानून ultimately comes from the Greek κανών (kanōn).
  • क़मीज़ ultimately comes from the Latin "camisia" pronunciation reinforced by Portuguese "camisa".


Many Hindustani words were derived from Portuguese due to interaction with colonists and missionaries:

Hindi Meaning Portuguese
anānās (अनानास) pineapple ananás
pādrī (पाद्री) priest padre
bālṭī (बाल्टी) bucket balde
čābī (चाबी) key chave
girjā (गिर्जा) church igreja
almārī (अलमारी) cupboard armário
botal (बोतल) bottle botelha
aspatāl (अस्पताल) hospital Hospital
olandez (ओलंदेज़) Dutch holandês



Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern).

Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi, particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, but to a degree also in Delhavi, the basis for Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige dialect.

Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. [125] The person who brought realism in Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with educated people.[ citation needed]

The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing Standard Hindi in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.

In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.

Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.


Hindi literature, music, and film have all been disseminated via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in India prefer content in Hindi. [126] Many Hindi newspapers also offer digital editions.

Sample text

The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

Hindi in Devanagari Script
अनुच्छेद १(एक): सभी मनुष्य जन्म से स्वतन्त्र तथा मर्यादा और अधिकारों में समान होते हैं। वे तर्क और विवेक से सम्पन्न हैं तथा उन्हें भ्रातृत्व की भावना से परस्पर के प्रति कार्य करना चाहिए।
Transliteration ( ISO)
Anucchēd 1 (ēk): Sabhī manuṣya janma sē svatantra tathā maryādā aur adhikārō̃ mē̃ samān hōtē haĩ. Vē tark aur vivēk sē sampanna haĩ tathā unhē̃ bhrātr̥tva kī bhāvanā sē paraspar kē pratī kārya karnā cāhiē.
Transcription ( IPA)
[ənʊtːʃʰeːd eːk | səbʰiː mənʊʂjə dʒənmə seː sʋət̪ənt̪ɾə t̪ətʰaː məɾjaːd̪aː ɔːɾ əd̪ʰɪkaːɾõː mẽː səmaːn hoːteː hɛ̃ː‖ ʋeː t̪əɾk ɔːɾ ʋɪʋeːk seː səmpənːə hɛ̃ː t̪ətʰaː ʊnʰẽː bʰɾaːtɾɪt̪ʋə kiː bʰaːʋənaː seː pəɾəspəɾ keː pɾət̪iː kaːɾjə kəɾnaː tʃaːhɪeː‖]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1 (one) All humans birth from independent and dignity and rights in equal are. They logic and conscience from endowed are and they fraternity in the spirit of each other towards work should.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1 All humans are born independent and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with logic and conscience and they should work towards each other in the spirit of fraternity.

See also


  1. ^ Urdu transliteration. The Hindi variant is usually written as एतबार (etbār). Rekhta Dictionary transliterates this term as ए'तिबार (e'tibār) in Devanagari. [110]


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  109. ^ In a number of words, the ع and/or ء is sometimes pronounced as ʔ in Urdu, which is typically not represented or pronounced in Hindi, except when the Urdu variant is transliterated into Hindi.
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  112. ^ a b Mainly phonemes of Hindi. Urdu speakers usually replace [ɳ] and [ʂ] with [n] and [ʃ] respectively.
  113. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  114. ^ a b [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [ v], occurs otherwise.
  115. ^ [ɛ] occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.
  116. ^ a b Masica, p. 65
  117. ^ Masica, p. 66
  118. ^ Masica, p. 67
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  122. ^ Bhatia, Tej K.; Ritchie, William C. (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley and Sons. p.  789. ISBN  9780631227359.
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Further reading