Healthcare in New York City

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Healthcare in New York City describe the health care services available in New York City, the largest US city with a population of over eight million. [1] In 2020 approximately 50,000 physicians were working in the city. [2]

Insurance

The US health system does not provide health care to the country's entire population. [3] Instead, most citizens are covered by a combination of private insurance and various federal and state programs. [4] As of 2017, health insurance was most commonly acquired through a group plan tied to an employer. [5]

NY State of Health is the health insurance marketplace for city residents aimed at lowering costs. [6] [7] NYC Health + Hospitals has the MetroPlus health insurance plans for lower-income residents, and NYC Care for no- or low-cost services for residents who do not qualify for or cannot afford health insurance. [8]

Health infrastructure

Hospitals

Government

The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is the primary local government body and one of the largest local public health organizations in the world. [9] The State Department of Financial Services regulates health insurance. NYC Health + Hospitals is a public benefit corporation that operates hospitals and clinics and serves over one million residents annually. [10]

Medical schools

Medical schools in New York City include:

History

Many health care systems in place in New York developed from nonprofit charitable organizations. [11]

COVID-19

The first case of the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed in March 2020. [12] [13] By April, the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City had more confirmed coronavirus cases than China, the U.K., or Iran, and by May, had more cases than any other individual country. This created a scarcity of hospital beds and available intensive care unit space. NYC instituted emergency measures, including the deployment of the hospital ship USNS Comfort, and the creation of temporary field hospitals, although these were little used. [14] [15] [16] The ongoing pandemic is the deadliest disaster by death toll in the city's history. [17] [18]

Health and healthcare disparities

In 2010, the health department began a program to document health disparities. The first report focused on disparities in life expectancy and death, and stated that death rates were 30% higher in the poorest New York City neighborhoods than the wealthiest. [19] A 2011 report examining breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer stated that while breast cancer diagnoses were highest among high-income white women, low-income Black women had the highest rate of death. [19]

Emergency care

In 2000, a report from The Commonwealth Fund found that nearly three-quarters of emergency room visits in New York City were for non-emergent healthcare needs or could have been treated in a primary care setting. The report concluded that reducing strain on hospital emergency departments, the city's primary care system required significant expansion and barriers to care for low-income patients and those without health insurance needed to be reduced. [20]

Access

Access to healthcare continues to be an issue. The cost of living in the city has forced many New Yorkers to opt out of insurance because of the high costs.[ citation needed] New Yorkers living in low-income communities or who are unemployed have limited access to quality healthcare. [20] The NYC Health + Hospitals program attempts to improve healthcare availability for these residents. [21]

COVID-19

Early pandemic

The pandemic exposed health care disparities. Prior to the pandemic, the Upper East Side of Manhattan had 27 times more primary care providers than Elmhurst and Corona, or eight times the city average. The same Queens communities had a COVID-19 infection rate four times that of Manhattan's East Side and a death rate six times higher. [22] Multiple reports showed that minority communities in New York City were severely affected by COVID-19, partially due to higher population density in minority-dominated neighborhoods and a higher rate of comorbidities. [23] [24]

COVID-19 testing

A 2020 study found that COVID-19 testing in New York City was more egalitarian than income distribution. However, the same study found significant disparity in test results across income levels. Comparing the poorest ZIP codes to the wealthiest revealed a 38 to 65 percent difference in negative tests. [25]

Vaccination

Early distribution of COVID-19 vaccines faced logistical obstacles including supply issues. [26] In some cases, concerns over eligibility led vaccine doses to be discarded. In early January 2021, New York State responded by expanding its eligibility criteria. [27] Despite this, short supply, extended wait times, and difficulties with eligibility and registration remained obstacles. [28] In addition, early data showed demographic disparities in vaccine distribution. As of January 31, 2021, 48% of people receiving vaccine doses were reported as white, compared with 11%, 15%, and 15% of Black, Asian, and Latinx individuals respectively, though 40% of vaccine recipients at the time had not had demographic data collected. [29] Vaccine hesitancy has been an issue, especially in low-income neighborhoods. Many Black New Yorkers cited fear and suspicion of the government entities advocating vaccination. [30] Vaccination rates improved significantly with city and state mandates. [31]

See also

References

  1. ^ "New York City, New York Population 2021". World Population Review. Retrieved 2021-12-21.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link)
  2. ^ "Active physicians New York number by specialty 2020". Statista. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  3. ^ Institute of Medicine. Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance (January 13, 2004). Insuring America's health: principles and recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. p.  25. ISBN  978-0-309-52826-9.
  4. ^ Access to health care in America. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Monitoring Access to Personal Health Care Services. Millman M, editor. Washington: National Academies Press; 1993.
  5. ^ Blumenthal, David (2017). "The Decline of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance". commonwealthfund.org. doi: 10.26099/dnqz-4g48. Retrieved 2018-11-25.
  6. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". New York State of Health. Retrieved 2021-12-21.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link)
  7. ^ "NY State of Health Awarded $1.1 Million to Help More New Yorkers Access Affordable Health Coverage". New York State Department of Health. 2021-09-17.
  8. ^ Shi, L.; Stevens, G.D. (2021). "Current Strategies to Serve Vulnerable Populations". Vulnerable Populations in the United States. Wiley. p. 190. ISBN  9781119627647. LCCN  2021000699.
  9. ^ "About the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene". NYC.gov. Retrieved 2021-12-21.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link)
  10. ^ "About NYC Health + Hospitals". NYC Health + Hospitals. Retrieved 2021-12-21.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link)
  11. ^ Rosner, David (1982). A once charitable enterprise : hospitals and health care in Brooklyn and New York, 1885-1915. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN  0521242177.
  12. ^ Goldstein, Joseph; McKinley, Jesse (2020-03-02). "Coronavirus in N.Y.: Manhattan Woman Is First Confirmed Case in State". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  13. ^ Hansen, Sarah. "Coronavirus Crisis Has Cost NYC Up To $10 Billion: 'Basic Services' At Risk As De Blasio Pleads For More Federal Aid". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  14. ^ "Coronavirus live updates: USNS Comfort arrives in New York City; Anthony Fauci defends social distancing; US death toll tops 3,100". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  15. ^ Myers, Meghann (2020-03-27). "The Army Corps of Engineers has two or three weeks to get thousands of new hospital beds up and running". Military Times. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  16. ^ "Central Park And Home Of Tennis' U.S. Open To House Hospital Beds For New York". NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  17. ^ "COVID-19: Data Main - NYC Health". www1.nyc.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  18. ^ "The Flu Epidemic of 1918". NYC Department of Records & Information Services. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  19. ^ a b "Health Disparities". www1.nyc.gov. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  20. ^ a b Billings, J; Parikh, N; Mijanovich, T (Nov 2000). "Emergency department use in New York City: a substitute for primary care?". Issue Brief (Commonwealth Fund) (433): 1–5. PMID  11665698.
  21. ^ "NYC Care Expands to Manhattan and Queens, Guaranteeing Health Care to All New Yorkers". NYC Care. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2021-12-21.{{ cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status ( link)
  22. ^ "Covid-19 sharpens focus on health disparities in New York". Crain's New York Business. 2020-11-18. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  23. ^ Renelus, Benjamin; Khoury, Neil; Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Bekele, Ezana; Briggs, William; Ivanov, Alexander; Mohanty, Smruti; Jamorabo, Daniel (2020-09-18). "Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Hospitalization and In-hospital Mortality at the Height of the New York City Pandemic". Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 8 (5): 1161–1167. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00872-x. PMC  7500250. PMID  32946070.
  24. ^ Arasteh, Kamyar (2021). "Prevalence of Comorbidities and Risks Associated with COVID-19 Among Black and Hispanic Populations in New York City: an Examination of the 2018 New York City Community Health Survey". Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 8 (4): 863–869. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00844-1. PMC  7425794. PMID  32794024.
  25. ^ Schmitt-Grohé, Stephanie; Teoh, Ken; Uribe, Martín (April 2020). "Covid-19: Testing Inequality in New York City". {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= ( help)
  26. ^ News, Eyewitness (2021-01-25). "COVID vaccination pace slows as New York awaits more supply". ABC7 New York. Retrieved 2021-02-06. {{ cite web}}: |last= has generic name ( help)
  27. ^ Rubinstein, Dana (2021-01-10). "After Unused Vaccines Are Thrown in Trash, Cuomo Loosens Rules". The New York Times. ISSN  0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  28. ^ "'We had hope': Misinformation frenzy reveals NYC vaccine distribution challenges". NBC News. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  29. ^ Honan, Deanna Paul and Katie (2021-01-31). "Covid-19 Vaccine Distribution in New York City Skews Across Racial Lines". Wall Street Journal. ISSN  0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  30. ^ Goldstein, Joseph; Sedacca, Matthew (2021-08-12). "Why Only 28 Percent of Young Black New Yorkers Are Vaccinated". The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  31. ^ "Vax Rate Increased Since 'Key to NYC' Mandate Went Into Effect Last Month: de Blasio". NBC New York. 2021-10-13. Retrieved 2021-12-21.

External links