Reconciliation of general relativity with the laws of
quantum physics remains a problem, however, as there is a lack of a self-consistent theory of
quantum gravity. It is not yet known how gravity can be
unified with the three non-gravitational forces:
strong,
weak and
electromagnetic.
Widely acknowledged as a theory of extraordinary
beauty, general relativity has often been described as the most beautiful of all existing physical theories.^{
[2]}
Henri Poincaré's 1905 theory of the dynamics of the electron was a relativistic theory which he applied to all forces, including gravity. While others thought that gravity was instantaneous or of electromagnetic origin, he suggested that relativity was "something due to our methods of measurement". In his theory, he showed that
gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light.^{
[3]} Soon afterwards, Einstein started thinking about how to incorporate
gravity into his relativistic framework. In 1907, beginning with a simple
thought experiment involving an observer in free fall (FFO), he embarked on what would be an eight-year search for a relativistic theory of gravity. After numerous detours and false starts, his work culminated in the presentation to the
Prussian Academy of Science in November 1915 of what are now known as the Einstein field equations, which form the core of Einstein's general theory of relativity.^{
[4]} These equations specify how the geometry of space and time is influenced by whatever matter and radiation are present.^{
[5]} A version of
non-Euclidean geometry, called
Riemannian geometry, enabled Einstein to develop general relativity by providing the key mathematical framework on which he fit his physical ideas of gravity.^{
[6]} This idea was pointed out by mathematician
Marcel Grossmann and published by Grossmann and Einstein in 1913.^{
[7]}
The Einstein field equations are
nonlinear and considered difficult to solve. Einstein used approximation methods in working out initial predictions of the theory. But in 1916, the astrophysicist
Karl Schwarzschild found the first non-trivial exact solution to the Einstein field equations, the
Schwarzschild metric. This solution laid the groundwork for the description of the final stages of gravitational collapse, and the objects known today as black holes. In the same year, the first steps towards generalizing Schwarzschild's solution to
electrically charged objects were taken, eventually resulting in the
Reissner–Nordström solution, which is now associated with
electrically charged black holes.^{
[8]} In 1917, Einstein applied his theory to the
universe as a whole, initiating the field of relativistic cosmology. In line with contemporary thinking, he assumed a static universe, adding a new parameter to his original field equations—the
cosmological constant—to match that observational presumption.^{
[9]} By 1929, however, the work of
Hubble and others had shown that our universe is expanding. This is readily described by the expanding cosmological solutions found by
Friedmann in 1922, which do not require a cosmological constant.
Lemaître used these solutions to formulate the earliest version of the
Big Bang models, in which our universe has evolved from an extremely hot and dense earlier state.^{
[10]} Einstein later declared the cosmological constant the biggest blunder of his life.^{
[11]}
During that period, general relativity remained something of a curiosity among physical theories. It was clearly superior to
Newtonian gravity, being consistent with special relativity and accounting for several effects unexplained by the Newtonian theory. Einstein showed in 1915 how his theory explained the
anomalous perihelion advance of the planet
Mercury without any arbitrary parameters ("
fudge factors"),^{
[12]} and in 1919 an expedition led by
Eddington confirmed general relativity's prediction for the deflection of starlight by the Sun during the total
solar eclipse of 29 May 1919,^{
[13]} instantly making Einstein famous.^{
[14]} Yet the theory remained outside the mainstream of
theoretical physics and astrophysics until developments between approximately 1960 and 1975, now known as the
golden age of general relativity.^{
[15]} Physicists began to understand the concept of a black hole, and to identify
quasars as one of these objects' astrophysical manifestations.^{
[16]} Ever more precise solar system tests confirmed the theory's predictive power,^{
[17]} and relativistic cosmology also became amenable to direct observational tests.^{
[18]}
General relativity has acquired a reputation as a theory of extraordinary beauty.^{
[2]}^{
[19]}^{
[20]}Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar has noted that at multiple levels, general relativity exhibits what
Francis Bacon has termed a "strangeness in the proportion" (i.e. elements that excite wonderment and surprise). It juxtaposes fundamental concepts (space and time versus matter and motion) which had previously been considered as entirely independent. Chandrasekhar also noted that Einstein's only guides in his search for an exact theory were the principle of equivalence and his sense that a proper description of gravity should be geometrical at its basis, so that there was an "element of revelation" in the manner in which Einstein arrived at his theory.^{
[21]} Other elements of beauty associated with the general theory of relativity are its simplicity and symmetry, the manner in which it incorporates invariance and unification, and its perfect logical consistency.^{
[22]}
In the preface to
Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, Einstein said "The present book is intended, as far as possible, to give an exact insight into the theory of Relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics. The work presumes a standard of education corresponding to that of a university matriculation examination, and, despite the shortness of the book, a fair amount of patience and force of will on the part of the reader. The author has spared himself no pains in his endeavour to present the main ideas in the simplest and most intelligible form, and on the whole, in the sequence and connection in which they actually originated."^{
[23]}
From classical mechanics to general relativity
General relativity can be understood by examining its similarities with and departures from classical physics. The first step is the realization that classical mechanics and Newton's law of gravity admit a geometric description. The combination of this description with the laws of special relativity results in a
heuristic derivation of general relativity.^{
[24]}^{
[25]}
Geometry of Newtonian gravity
At the base of
classical mechanics is the notion that a
body's motion can be described as a combination of free (or
inertial) motion, and deviations from this free motion. Such deviations are caused by external forces acting on a body in accordance with Newton's second
law of motion, which states that the net
force acting on a body is equal to that body's (inertial)
mass multiplied by its
acceleration.^{
[26]} The preferred inertial motions are related to the geometry of space and time: in the standard
reference frames of classical mechanics, objects in free motion move along straight lines at constant speed. In modern parlance, their paths are
geodesics, straight
world lines in curved spacetime.^{
[27]}
Conversely, one might expect that inertial motions, once identified by observing the actual motions of bodies and making allowances for the external forces (such as
electromagnetism or
friction), can be used to define the geometry of space, as well as a time
coordinate. However, there is an ambiguity once gravity comes into play. According to Newton's law of gravity, and independently verified by experiments such as that of
Eötvös and its successors (see
Eötvös experiment), there is a universality of free fall (also known as the weak
equivalence principle, or the universal equality of inertial and passive-gravitational mass): the trajectory of a
test body in free fall depends only on its position and initial speed, but not on any of its material properties.^{
[28]} A simplified version of this is embodied in Einstein's elevator experiment, illustrated in the figure on the right: for an observer in an enclosed room, it is impossible to decide, by mapping the trajectory of bodies such as a dropped ball, whether the room is stationary in a gravitational field and the ball accelerating, or in free space aboard a rocket that is accelerating at a rate equal to that of the gravitational field versus the ball which upon release has nil acceleration.^{
[29]}
Given the universality of free fall, there is no observable distinction between inertial motion and motion under the influence of the gravitational force. This suggests the definition of a new class of inertial motion, namely that of objects in free fall under the influence of gravity. This new class of preferred motions, too, defines a geometry of space and time—in mathematical terms, it is the geodesic motion associated with a specific
connection which depends on the
gradient of the
gravitational potential. Space, in this construction, still has the ordinary
Euclidean geometry. However, spacetime as a whole is more complicated. As can be shown using simple thought experiments following the free-fall trajectories of different test particles, the result of transporting spacetime vectors that can denote a particle's velocity (time-like vectors) will vary with the particle's trajectory; mathematically speaking, the Newtonian connection is not
integrable. From this, one can deduce that spacetime is curved. The resulting
Newton–Cartan theory is a geometric formulation of Newtonian gravity using only
covariant concepts, i.e. a description which is valid in any desired coordinate system.^{
[30]} In this geometric description,
tidal effects—the relative acceleration of bodies in free fall—are related to the derivative of the connection, showing how the modified geometry is caused by the presence of mass.^{
[31]}
Relativistic generalization
As intriguing as geometric Newtonian gravity may be, its basis, classical mechanics, is merely a
limiting case of (special) relativistic mechanics.^{
[32]} In the language of
symmetry: where gravity can be neglected, physics is
Lorentz invariant as in special relativity rather than
Galilei invariant as in classical mechanics. (The defining symmetry of special relativity is the
Poincaré group, which includes translations, rotations, boosts and reflections.) The differences between the two become significant when dealing with speeds approaching the
speed of light, and with high-energy phenomena.^{
[33]}
With Lorentz symmetry, additional structures come into play. They are defined by the set of light cones (see image). The light-cones define a causal structure: for each
eventA, there is a set of events that can, in principle, either influence or be influenced by A via signals or interactions that do not need to travel faster than light (such as event B in the image), and a set of events for which such an influence is impossible (such as event C in the image). These sets are
observer-independent.^{
[34]} In conjunction with the world-lines of freely falling particles, the light-cones can be used to reconstruct the spacetime's semi-Riemannian metric, at least up to a positive scalar factor. In mathematical terms, this defines a
conformal structure^{
[35]} or conformal geometry.
Special relativity is defined in the absence of gravity. For practical applications, it is a suitable model whenever gravity can be neglected. Bringing gravity into play, and assuming the universality of free fall motion, an analogous reasoning as in the previous section applies: there are no global
inertial frames. Instead there are approximate inertial frames moving alongside freely falling particles. Translated into the language of spacetime: the straight
time-like lines that define a gravity-free inertial frame are deformed to lines that are curved relative to each other, suggesting that the inclusion of gravity necessitates a change in spacetime geometry.^{
[36]}
A priori, it is not clear whether the new local frames in free fall coincide with the reference frames in which the laws of special relativity hold—that theory is based on the propagation of light, and thus on electromagnetism, which could have a different set of
preferred frames. But using different assumptions about the special-relativistic frames (such as their being earth-fixed, or in free fall), one can derive different predictions for the gravitational redshift, that is, the way in which the frequency of light shifts as the light propagates through a gravitational field (cf.
below). The actual measurements show that free-falling frames are the ones in which light propagates as it does in special relativity.^{
[37]} The generalization of this statement, namely that the laws of special relativity hold to good approximation in freely falling (and non-rotating) reference frames, is known as the
Einstein equivalence principle, a crucial guiding principle for generalizing special-relativistic physics to include gravity.^{
[38]}
The same experimental data shows that time as measured by clocks in a gravitational field—
proper time, to give the technical term—does not follow the rules of special relativity. In the language of spacetime geometry, it is not measured by the
Minkowski metric. As in the Newtonian case, this is suggestive of a more general geometry. At small scales, all reference frames that are in free fall are equivalent, and approximately Minkowskian. Consequently, we are now dealing with a curved generalization of Minkowski space. The
metric tensor that defines the geometry—in particular, how lengths and angles are measured—is not the Minkowski metric of special relativity, it is a generalization known as a semi- or
pseudo-Riemannian metric. Furthermore, each Riemannian metric is naturally associated with one particular kind of connection, the
Levi-Civita connection, and this is, in fact, the connection that satisfies the equivalence principle and makes space locally Minkowskian (that is, in suitable
locally inertial coordinates, the metric is Minkowskian, and its first partial derivatives and the connection coefficients vanish).^{
[39]}
Having formulated the relativistic, geometric version of the effects of gravity, the question of gravity's source remains. In Newtonian gravity, the source is mass. In special relativity, mass turns out to be part of a more general quantity called the
energy–momentum tensor, which includes both
energy and momentum
densities as well as
stress:
pressure and shear.^{
[40]} Using the equivalence principle, this tensor is readily generalized to curved spacetime. Drawing further upon the analogy with geometric Newtonian gravity, it is natural to assume that the
field equation for gravity relates this tensor and the
Ricci tensor, which describes a particular class of tidal effects: the change in volume for a small cloud of test particles that are initially at rest, and then fall freely. In special relativity,
conservation of energy–momentum corresponds to the statement that the energy–momentum tensor is
divergence-free. This formula, too, is readily generalized to curved spacetime by replacing partial derivatives with their curved-
manifold counterparts,
covariant derivatives studied in differential geometry. With this additional condition—the covariant divergence of the energy–momentum tensor, and hence of whatever is on the other side of the equation, is zero—the simplest nontrivial set of equations are what are called Einstein's (field) equations:
On the left-hand side is the
Einstein tensor, $G_{\mu \nu }$, which is symmetric and a specific divergence-free combination of the Ricci tensor $R_{\mu \nu }$ and the metric. In particular,
$R=g^{\mu \nu }R_{\mu \nu }$
is the curvature scalar. The Ricci tensor itself is related to the more general
Riemann curvature tensor as
$R_{\mu \nu }={R^{\alpha }}_{\mu \alpha \nu }.$
On the right-hand side, $\kappa$ is a constant and $T_{\mu \nu }$ is the energy–momentum tensor. All tensors are written in
abstract index notation.^{
[41]} Matching the theory's prediction to observational results for
planetaryorbits or, equivalently, assuring that the weak-gravity, low-speed limit is Newtonian mechanics, the proportionality constant $\kappa$ is found to be ${\textstyle \kappa ={\frac {8\pi G}{c^{4}}}}$, where $G$ is the
Newtonian constant of gravitation and $c$ the speed of light in vacuum.^{
[42]} When there is no matter present, so that the energy–momentum tensor vanishes, the results are the vacuum Einstein equations,
$R_{\mu \nu }=0.$
In general relativity, the
world line of a particle free from all external, non-gravitational force is a particular type of geodesic in curved spacetime. In other words, a freely moving or falling particle always moves along a geodesic.
where $s$ is a scalar parameter of motion (e.g. the
proper time), and $\Gamma ^{\mu }{}_{\alpha \beta }$ are
Christoffel symbols (sometimes called the
affine connection coefficients or
Levi-Civita connection coefficients) which is symmetric in the two lower indices. Greek indices may take the values: 0, 1, 2, 3 and the
summation convention is used for repeated indices $\alpha$ and $\beta$. The quantity on the left-hand-side of this equation is the acceleration of a particle, and so this equation is analogous to
Newton's laws of motion which likewise provide formulae for the acceleration of a particle. This equation of motion employs the
Einstein notation, meaning that repeated indices are summed (i.e. from zero to three). The Christoffel symbols are functions of the four spacetime coordinates, and so are independent of the velocity or acceleration or other characteristics of a
test particle whose motion is described by the geodesic equation.
In general relativity, the effective
gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m revolving around a massive central body M is given by^{
[43]}^{
[44]}
where L is the
angular momentum. The first term represents the
force of Newtonian gravity, which is described by the inverse-square law. The second term represents the
centrifugal force in the circular motion. The third term represents the relativistic effect.
The derivation outlined in the previous section contains all the information needed to define general relativity, describe its key properties, and address a question of crucial importance in physics, namely how the theory can be used for model-building.
Definition and basic properties
General relativity is a
metric theory of gravitation. At its core are
Einstein's equations, which describe the relation between the geometry of a four-dimensional
pseudo-Riemannian manifold representing spacetime, and the
energy–momentum contained in that spacetime.^{
[46]} Phenomena that in classical mechanics are ascribed to the action of the force of gravity (such as
free-fall, orbital motion, and
spacecrafttrajectories), correspond to inertial motion within a curved geometry of spacetime in general relativity; there is no gravitational force deflecting objects from their natural, straight paths. Instead, gravity corresponds to changes in the properties of space and time, which in turn changes the straightest-possible paths that objects will naturally follow.^{
[47]} The curvature is, in turn, caused by the energy–momentum of matter. Paraphrasing the relativist
John Archibald Wheeler, spacetime tells matter how to move; matter tells spacetime how to curve.^{
[48]}
While general relativity replaces the
scalar gravitational potential of classical physics by a symmetric
rank-two
tensor, the latter reduces to the former in certain
limiting cases. For
weak gravitational fields and
slow speed relative to the speed of light, the theory's predictions converge on those of Newton's law of universal gravitation.^{
[49]}
As it is constructed using tensors, general relativity exhibits
general covariance: its laws—and further laws formulated within the general relativistic framework—take on the same form in all
coordinate systems.^{
[50]} Furthermore, the theory does not contain any invariant geometric background structures, i.e. it is
background independent. It thus satisfies a more stringent
general principle of relativity, namely that the
laws of physics are the same for all observers.^{
[51]}Locally, as expressed in the equivalence principle, spacetime is
Minkowskian, and the laws of physics exhibit
local Lorentz invariance.^{
[52]}
Model-building
The core concept of general-relativistic model-building is that of a
solution of Einstein's equations. Given both Einstein's equations and suitable equations for the properties of matter, such a solution consists of a specific semi-
Riemannian manifold (usually defined by giving the metric in specific coordinates), and specific matter fields defined on that manifold. Matter and geometry must satisfy Einstein's equations, so in particular, the matter's energy–momentum tensor must be divergence-free. The matter must, of course, also satisfy whatever additional equations were imposed on its properties. In short, such a solution is a model universe that satisfies the laws of general relativity, and possibly additional laws governing whatever matter might be present.^{
[53]}
Einstein's equations are nonlinear partial differential equations and, as such, difficult to solve exactly.^{
[54]} Nevertheless, a number of
exact solutions are known, although only a few have direct physical applications.^{
[55]} The best-known exact solutions, and also those most interesting from a physics point of view, are the
Schwarzschild solution, the
Reissner–Nordström solution and the
Kerr metric, each corresponding to a certain type of black hole in an otherwise empty universe,^{
[56]} and the
Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker and
de Sitter universes, each describing an expanding cosmos.^{
[57]} Exact solutions of great theoretical interest include the
Gödel universe (which opens up the intriguing possibility of
time travel in curved spacetimes), the
Taub–NUT solution (a model universe that is
homogeneous, but
anisotropic), and
anti-de Sitter space (which has recently come to prominence in the context of what is called the
Maldacena conjecture).^{
[58]}
Given the difficulty of finding exact solutions, Einstein's field equations are also solved frequently by
numerical integration on a computer, or by considering small perturbations of exact solutions. In the field of
numerical relativity, powerful computers are employed to simulate the geometry of spacetime and to solve Einstein's equations for interesting situations such as two colliding black holes.^{
[59]} In principle, such methods may be applied to any system, given sufficient computer resources, and may address fundamental questions such as
naked singularities. Approximate solutions may also be found by
perturbation theories such as
linearized gravity^{
[60]} and its generalization, the
post-Newtonian expansion, both of which were developed by Einstein. The latter provides a systematic approach to solving for the geometry of a spacetime that contains a distribution of matter that moves slowly compared with the speed of light. The expansion involves a series of terms; the first terms represent Newtonian gravity, whereas the later terms represent ever smaller corrections to Newton's theory due to general relativity.^{
[61]} An extension of this expansion is the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism, which allows quantitative comparisons between the predictions of general relativity and alternative theories.^{
[62]}
Consequences of Einstein's theory
General relativity has a number of physical consequences. Some follow directly from the theory's axioms, whereas others have become clear only in the course of many years of research that followed Einstein's initial publication.
Assuming that the equivalence principle holds,^{
[63]} gravity influences the passage of time. Light sent down into a
gravity well is
blueshifted, whereas light sent in the opposite direction (i.e., climbing out of the gravity well) is
redshifted; collectively, these two effects are known as the gravitational frequency shift. More generally, processes close to a massive body run more slowly when compared with processes taking place farther away; this effect is known as gravitational time dilation.^{
[64]}
Gravitational redshift has been measured in the laboratory^{
[65]} and using astronomical observations.^{
[66]} Gravitational time dilation in the Earth's gravitational field has been measured numerous times using
atomic clocks,^{
[67]} while ongoing validation is provided as a side effect of the operation of the
Global Positioning System (GPS).^{
[68]} Tests in stronger gravitational fields are provided by the observation of
binary pulsars.^{
[69]} All results are in agreement with general relativity.^{
[70]} However, at the current level of accuracy, these observations cannot distinguish between general relativity and other theories in which the equivalence principle is valid.^{
[71]}
General relativity predicts that the path of light will follow the curvature of spacetime as it passes near a star. This effect was initially confirmed by observing the light of stars or distant quasars being deflected as it passes the
Sun.^{
[72]}
This and related predictions follow from the fact that light follows what is called a light-like or
null geodesic—a generalization of the straight lines along which light travels in classical physics. Such geodesics are the generalization of the
invariance of lightspeed in special relativity.^{
[73]} As one examines suitable model spacetimes (either the exterior Schwarzschild solution or, for more than a single mass, the post-Newtonian expansion),^{
[74]} several effects of gravity on light propagation emerge. Although the bending of light can also be derived by extending the universality of free fall to light,^{
[75]} the angle of deflection resulting from such calculations is only half the value given by general relativity.^{
[76]}
Closely related to light deflection is the Shapiro Time Delay, the phenomenon that light signals take longer to move through a gravitational field than they would in the absence of that field. There have been numerous successful tests of this prediction.^{
[77]} In the
parameterized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN), measurements of both the deflection of light and the gravitational time delay determine a parameter called γ, which encodes the influence of gravity on the geometry of space.^{
[78]}
Predicted in 1916^{
[79]}^{
[80]} by Albert Einstein, there are gravitational waves: ripples in the metric of spacetime that propagate at the speed of light. These are one of several analogies between weak-field gravity and electromagnetism in that, they are analogous to
electromagnetic waves. On 11 February 2016, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had
directly detected gravitational waves from a
pair of black holes
merging.^{
[81]}^{
[82]}^{
[83]}
The simplest type of such a wave can be visualized by its action on a ring of freely floating particles. A sine wave propagating through such a ring towards the reader distorts the ring in a characteristic, rhythmic fashion (animated image to the right).^{
[84]} Since Einstein's equations are
non-linear, arbitrarily strong gravitational waves do not obey
linear superposition, making their description difficult. However, linear approximations of gravitational waves are sufficiently accurate to describe the exceedingly weak waves that are expected to arrive here on Earth from far-off cosmic events, which typically result in relative distances increasing and decreasing by $10^{-21}$ or less. Data analysis methods routinely make use of the fact that these linearized waves can be
Fourier decomposed.^{
[85]}
Some exact solutions describe gravitational waves without any approximation, e.g., a wave train traveling through empty space^{
[86]} or
Gowdy universes, varieties of an expanding cosmos filled with gravitational waves.^{
[87]} But for gravitational waves produced in astrophysically relevant situations, such as the merger of two black holes, numerical methods are presently the only way to construct appropriate models.^{
[88]}
General relativity differs from classical mechanics in a number of predictions concerning orbiting bodies. It predicts an overall rotation (
precession) of planetary orbits, as well as orbital decay caused by the emission of gravitational waves and effects related to the relativity of direction.
In general relativity, the
apsides of any orbit (the point of the orbiting body's closest approach to the system's
center of mass) will
precess; the orbit is not an
ellipse, but akin to an ellipse that rotates on its focus, resulting in a
rose curve-like shape (see image). Einstein first derived this result by using an approximate metric representing the Newtonian limit and treating the orbiting body as a
test particle. For him, the fact that his theory gave a straightforward explanation of Mercury's anomalous perihelion shift, discovered earlier by
Urbain Le Verrier in 1859, was important evidence that he had at last identified the correct form of the gravitational field equations.^{
[89]}
The effect can also be derived by using either the exact Schwarzschild metric (describing spacetime around a spherical mass)^{
[90]} or the much more general
post-Newtonian formalism.^{
[91]} It is due to the influence of gravity on the geometry of space and to the contribution of
self-energy to a body's gravity (encoded in the
nonlinearity of Einstein's equations).^{
[92]} Relativistic precession has been observed for all planets that allow for accurate precession measurements (Mercury, Venus, and Earth),^{
[93]} as well as in binary pulsar systems, where it is larger by five
orders of magnitude.^{
[94]}
In general relativity the perihelion shift $\sigma$, expressed in radians per revolution, is approximately given by^{
[95]}
According to general relativity, a
binary system will emit gravitational waves, thereby losing energy. Due to this loss, the distance between the two orbiting bodies decreases, and so does their orbital period. Within the
Solar System or for ordinary
double stars, the effect is too small to be observable. This is not the case for a close binary pulsar, a system of two orbiting
neutron stars, one of which is a
pulsar: from the pulsar, observers on Earth receive a regular series of radio pulses that can serve as a highly accurate clock, which allows precise measurements of the orbital period. Because neutron stars are immensely compact, significant amounts of energy are emitted in the form of gravitational radiation.^{
[97]}
The first observation of a decrease in orbital period due to the emission of gravitational waves was made by
Hulse and
Taylor, using the binary pulsar
PSR1913+16 they had discovered in 1974. This was the first detection of gravitational waves, albeit indirect, for which they were awarded the 1993
Nobel Prize in physics.^{
[98]} Since then, several other binary pulsars have been found, in particular the double pulsar
PSR J0737−3039, where both stars are pulsars^{
[99]} and which was last reported to also be in agreement with general relativity in 2021 after 16 years of observations.^{
[96]}
Several relativistic effects are directly related to the relativity of direction.^{
[100]} One is
geodetic precession: the axis direction of a
gyroscope in free fall in curved spacetime will change when compared, for instance, with the direction of light received from distant stars—even though such a gyroscope represents the way of keeping a direction as stable as possible ("
parallel transport").^{
[101]} For the Moon–Earth system, this effect has been measured with the help of
lunar laser ranging.^{
[102]} More recently, it has been measured for test masses aboard the satellite
Gravity Probe B to a precision of better than 0.3%.^{
[103]}^{
[104]}
Near a rotating mass, there are gravitomagnetic or
frame-dragging effects. A distant observer will determine that objects close to the mass get "dragged around". This is most extreme for
rotating black holes where, for any object entering a zone known as the
ergosphere, rotation is inevitable.^{
[105]} Such effects can again be tested through their influence on the orientation of gyroscopes in free fall.^{
[106]} Somewhat controversial tests have been performed using the
LAGEOS satellites, confirming the relativistic prediction.^{
[107]} Also the
Mars Global Surveyor probe around Mars has been used.^{
[108]}
Interpretations
Neo-Lorentzian Interpretation
Examples of physicists who support neo-Lorentzian explanations of general relativity are
Franco Selleri and
Antony Valentini.^{
[109]}
The deflection of light by gravity is responsible for a new class of astronomical phenomena. If a massive object is situated between the astronomer and a distant target object with appropriate mass and relative distances, the astronomer will see multiple distorted images of the target. Such effects are known as gravitational lensing.^{
[110]} Depending on the configuration, scale, and mass distribution, there can be two or more images, a bright ring known as an
Einstein ring, or partial rings called arcs.^{
[111]}
The
earliest example was discovered in 1979;^{
[112]} since then, more than a hundred gravitational lenses have been observed.^{
[113]} Even if the multiple images are too close to each other to be resolved, the effect can still be measured, e.g., as an overall brightening of the target object; a number of such "
microlensing events" have been observed.^{
[114]}
Gravitational lensing has developed into a tool of
observational astronomy. It is used to detect the presence and distribution of
dark matter, provide a "natural telescope" for observing distant galaxies, and to obtain an independent estimate of the
Hubble constant. Statistical evaluations of lensing data provide valuable insight into the structural evolution of
galaxies.^{
[115]}
Observations of binary pulsars provide strong indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational waves (see
Orbital decay, above). Detection of these waves is a major goal of current relativity-related research.^{
[116]} Several land-based
gravitational wave detectors are currently in operation, most notably the
interferometric detectorsGEO 600,
LIGO (two detectors),
TAMA 300 and
VIRGO.^{
[117]} Various
pulsar timing arrays are using
millisecond pulsars to detect gravitational waves in the 10^{−9} to 10^{−6}hertz frequency range, which originate from binary supermassive blackholes.^{
[118]} A European space-based detector,
eLISA / NGO, is currently under development,^{
[119]} with a precursor mission (
LISA Pathfinder) having launched in December 2015.^{
[120]}
Observations of gravitational waves promise to complement observations in the
electromagnetic spectrum.^{
[121]} They are expected to yield information about black holes and other dense objects such as neutron stars and white dwarfs, about certain kinds of
supernova implosions, and about processes in the very early universe, including the signature of certain types of hypothetical
cosmic string.^{
[122]} In February 2016, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had detected gravitational waves from a black hole merger.^{
[81]}^{
[82]}^{
[83]}
Whenever the ratio of an object's mass to its radius becomes sufficiently large, general relativity predicts the formation of a black hole, a region of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape. In the currently accepted models of
stellar evolution, neutron stars of around 1.4
solar masses, and stellar black holes with a few to a few dozen solar masses, are thought to be the final state for the evolution of massive stars.^{
[123]} Usually a galaxy has one supermassive black hole with a few million to a few
billion solar masses in its center,^{
[124]} and its presence is thought to have played an important role in the formation of the galaxy and larger cosmic structures.^{
[125]}
Astronomically, the most important property of compact objects is that they provide a supremely efficient mechanism for converting gravitational energy into electromagnetic radiation.^{
[126]}Accretion, the falling of dust or gaseous matter onto stellar or supermassive black holes, is thought to be responsible for some spectacularly luminous astronomical objects, notably diverse kinds of active galactic nuclei on galactic scales and stellar-size objects such as microquasars.^{
[127]} In particular, accretion can lead to
relativistic jets, focused beams of highly energetic particles that are being flung into space at almost light speed.^{
[128]}
General relativity plays a central role in modelling all these phenomena,^{
[129]} and observations provide strong evidence for the existence of black holes with the properties predicted by the theory.^{
[130]}
Black holes are also sought-after targets in the search for gravitational waves (cf.
Gravitational waves, above). Merging
black hole binaries should lead to some of the strongest gravitational wave signals reaching detectors here on Earth, and the phase directly before the merger ("chirp") could be used as a "
standard candle" to deduce the distance to the merger events–and hence serve as a probe of cosmic expansion at large distances.^{
[131]} The gravitational waves produced as a stellar black hole plunges into a supermassive one should provide direct information about the supermassive black hole's geometry.^{
[132]}
The current models of cosmology are based on
Einstein's field equations, which include the cosmological constant $\Lambda$ since it has important influence on the large-scale dynamics of the cosmos,
where $g_{\mu \nu }$ is the spacetime metric.^{
[133]}Isotropic and homogeneous solutions of these enhanced equations, the
Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker solutions,^{
[134]} allow physicists to model a universe that has evolved over the past 14
billion years from a hot, early Big Bang phase.^{
[135]} Once a small number of parameters (for example the universe's mean matter density) have been fixed by astronomical observation,^{
[136]} further observational data can be used to put the models to the test.^{
[137]} Predictions, all successful, include the initial abundance of chemical elements formed in a period of
primordial nucleosynthesis,^{
[138]} the large-scale structure of the universe,^{
[139]} and the existence and properties of a "
thermal echo" from the early cosmos, the
cosmic background radiation.^{
[140]}
Astronomical observations of the cosmological expansion rate allow the total amount of matter in the universe to be estimated, although the nature of that matter remains mysterious in part. About 90% of all matter appears to be dark matter, which has mass (or, equivalently, gravitational influence), but does not interact electromagnetically and, hence, cannot be observed directly.^{
[141]} There is no generally accepted description of this new kind of matter, within the framework of known
particle physics^{
[142]} or otherwise.^{
[143]} Observational evidence from redshift surveys of distant supernovae and measurements of the cosmic background radiation also show that the evolution of our universe is significantly influenced by a cosmological constant resulting in an acceleration of cosmic expansion or, equivalently, by a form of energy with an unusual
equation of state, known as
dark energy, the nature of which remains unclear.^{
[144]}
An
inflationary phase,^{
[145]} an additional phase of strongly accelerated expansion at cosmic times of around 10^{−33} seconds, was hypothesized in 1980 to account for several puzzling observations that were unexplained by classical cosmological models, such as the nearly perfect homogeneity of the cosmic background radiation.^{
[146]} Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation have resulted in the first evidence for this scenario.^{
[147]} However, there is a bewildering variety of possible inflationary scenarios, which cannot be restricted by current observations.^{
[148]} An even larger question is the physics of the earliest universe, prior to the inflationary phase and close to where the classical models predict the big bang
singularity. An authoritative answer would require a complete theory of quantum gravity, which has not yet been developed^{
[149]} (cf. the section on
quantum gravity, below).
Exotic solutions: time travel, warp drives
Kurt Gödel showed^{
[150]} that solutions to Einstein's equations exist that contain
closed timelike curves (CTCs), which allow for loops in time. The solutions require extreme physical conditions unlikely ever to occur in practice, and it remains an open question whether further laws of physics will eliminate them completely. Since then, other—similarly impractical—GR solutions containing CTCs have been found, such as the
Tipler cylinder and
traversable wormholes.
Stephen Hawking introduced
chronology protection conjecture, which is an assumption beyond those of standard general relativity to prevent
time travel.
The spacetime symmetry group for
special relativity is the
Poincaré group, which is a ten-dimensional group of three Lorentz boosts, three rotations, and four spacetime translations. It is logical to ask what symmetries if any might apply in General Relativity. A tractable case might be to consider the symmetries of spacetime as seen by observers located far away from all sources of the gravitational field. The naive expectation for asymptotically flat spacetime symmetries might be simply to extend and reproduce the symmetries of flat spacetime of special relativity, viz., the Poincaré group.
In 1962
Hermann Bondi, M. G. van der Burg, A. W. Metzner^{
[152]} and
Rainer K. Sachs^{
[153]} addressed this
asymptotic symmetry problem in order to investigate the flow of energy at infinity due to propagating
gravitational waves. Their first step was to decide on some physically sensible boundary conditions to place on the gravitational field at light-like infinity to characterize what it means to say a metric is asymptotically flat, making no a priori assumptions about the nature of the asymptotic symmetry group—not even the assumption that such a group exists. Then after designing what they considered to be the most sensible boundary conditions, they investigated the nature of the resulting asymptotic symmetry transformations that leave invariant the form of the boundary conditions appropriate for asymptotically flat gravitational fields. What they found was that the asymptotic symmetry transformations actually do form a group and the structure of this group does not depend on the particular gravitational field that happens to be present. This means that, as expected, one can separate the kinematics of spacetime from the dynamics of the gravitational field at least at spatial infinity. The puzzling surprise in 1962 was their discovery of a rich infinite-dimensional group (the so-called BMS group) as the asymptotic symmetry group, instead of the finite-dimensional Poincaré group, which is a subgroup of the BMS group. Not only are the Lorentz transformations asymptotic symmetry transformations, there are also additional transformations that are not Lorentz transformations but are asymptotic symmetry transformations. In fact, they found an additional infinity of transformation generators known as supertranslations. This implies the conclusion that General Relativity (GR) does not reduce to special relativity in the case of weak fields at long distances. It turns out that the BMS symmetry, suitably modified, could be seen as a restatement of the universal
soft graviton theorem in
quantum field theory (QFT), which relates universal infrared (soft) QFT with GR asymptotic spacetime symmetries.^{
[154]}
In general relativity, no material body can catch up with or overtake a light pulse. No influence from an event A can reach any other location X before light sent out at A to X. In consequence, an exploration of all light worldlines (
null geodesics) yields key information about the spacetime's causal structure. This structure can be displayed using
Penrose–Carter diagrams in which infinitely large regions of space and infinite time intervals are shrunk ("
compactified") so as to fit onto a finite map, while light still travels along diagonals as in standard
spacetime diagrams.^{
[155]}
Aware of the importance of causal structure,
Roger Penrose and others developed what is known as
global geometry. In global geometry, the object of study is not one particular solution (or family of solutions) to Einstein's equations. Rather, relations that hold true for all geodesics, such as the
Raychaudhuri equation, and additional non-specific assumptions about the nature of matter (usually in the form of
energy conditions) are used to derive general results.^{
[156]}
Using global geometry, some spacetimes can be shown to contain boundaries called
horizons, which demarcate one region from the rest of spacetime. The best-known examples are black holes: if mass is compressed into a sufficiently compact region of space (as specified in the
hoop conjecture, the relevant length scale is the
Schwarzschild radius^{
[157]}), no light from inside can escape to the outside. Since no object can overtake a light pulse, all interior matter is imprisoned as well. Passage from the exterior to the interior is still possible, showing that the boundary, the black hole's horizon, is not a physical barrier.^{
[158]}
Early studies of black holes relied on explicit solutions of Einstein's equations, notably the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild solution (used to describe a
static black hole) and the axisymmetric
Kerr solution (used to describe a rotating,
stationary black hole, and introducing interesting features such as the ergosphere). Using global geometry, later studies have revealed more general properties of black holes. With time they become rather simple objects characterized by eleven parameters specifying: electric charge, mass–energy,
linear momentum,
angular momentum, and location at a specified time. This is stated by the
black hole uniqueness theorem: "black holes have no hair", that is, no distinguishing marks like the hairstyles of humans. Irrespective of the complexity of a gravitating object collapsing to form a black hole, the object that results (having emitted gravitational waves) is very simple.^{
[159]}
Even more remarkably, there is a general set of laws known as
black hole mechanics, which is analogous to the
laws of thermodynamics. For instance, by the second law of black hole mechanics, the area of the event horizon of a general black hole will never decrease with time, analogous to the
entropy of a thermodynamic system. This limits the energy that can be extracted by classical means from a rotating black hole (e.g. by the
Penrose process).^{
[160]} There is strong evidence that the laws of black hole mechanics are, in fact, a subset of the laws of thermodynamics, and that the black hole area is proportional to its entropy.^{
[161]} This leads to a modification of the original laws of black hole mechanics: for instance, as the second law of black hole mechanics becomes part of the second law of thermodynamics, it is possible for the black hole area to decrease as long as other processes ensure that entropy increases overall. As thermodynamical objects with nonzero temperature, black holes should emit
thermal radiation. Semiclassical calculations indicate that indeed they do, with the surface gravity playing the role of temperature in
Planck's law. This radiation is known as
Hawking radiation (cf. the
quantum theory section, below).^{
[162]}
There are many other types of horizons. In an expanding universe, an observer may find that some regions of the past cannot be observed ("
particle horizon"), and some regions of the future cannot be influenced (event horizon).^{
[163]} Even in flat Minkowski space, when described by an accelerated observer (
Rindler space), there will be horizons associated with a semiclassical radiation known as
Unruh radiation.^{
[164]}
Another general feature of general relativity is the appearance of spacetime boundaries known as singularities. Spacetime can be explored by following up on timelike and lightlike geodesics—all possible ways that light and particles in free fall can travel. But some solutions of Einstein's equations have "ragged edges"—regions known as
spacetime singularities, where the paths of light and falling particles come to an abrupt end, and geometry becomes ill-defined. In the more interesting cases, these are "curvature singularities", where geometrical quantities characterizing spacetime curvature, such as the
Ricci scalar, take on infinite values.^{
[165]} Well-known examples of spacetimes with future singularities—where worldlines end—are the Schwarzschild solution, which describes a singularity inside an eternal static black hole,^{
[166]} or the Kerr solution with its ring-shaped singularity inside an eternal rotating black hole.^{
[167]} The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker solutions and other spacetimes describing universes have past singularities on which worldlines begin, namely Big Bang singularities, and some have future singularities (
Big Crunch) as well.^{
[168]}
Given that these examples are all highly symmetric—and thus simplified—it is tempting to conclude that the occurrence of singularities is an artifact of idealization.^{
[169]} The famous
singularity theorems, proved using the methods of global geometry, say otherwise: singularities are a generic feature of general relativity, and unavoidable once the collapse of an object with realistic matter properties has proceeded beyond a certain stage^{
[170]} and also at the beginning of a wide class of expanding universes.^{
[171]} However, the theorems say little about the properties of singularities, and much of current research is devoted to characterizing these entities' generic structure (hypothesized e.g. by the
BKL conjecture).^{
[172]} The
cosmic censorship hypothesis states that all realistic future singularities (no perfect symmetries, matter with realistic properties) are safely hidden away behind a horizon, and thus invisible to all distant observers. While no formal proof yet exists, numerical simulations offer supporting evidence of its validity.^{
[173]}
Each solution of Einstein's equation encompasses the whole history of a universe—it is not just some snapshot of how things are, but a whole, possibly matter-filled, spacetime. It describes the state of matter and geometry everywhere and at every moment in that particular universe. Due to its general covariance, Einstein's theory is not sufficient by itself to determine the
time evolution of the metric tensor. It must be combined with a
coordinate condition, which is analogous to
gauge fixing in other field theories.^{
[174]}
To understand Einstein's equations as partial differential equations, it is helpful to formulate them in a way that describes the evolution of the universe over time. This is done in "3+1" formulations, where spacetime is split into three space dimensions and one time dimension. The best-known example is the
ADM formalism.^{
[175]} These decompositions show that the spacetime evolution equations of general relativity are well-behaved: solutions always
exist, and are uniquely defined, once suitable initial conditions have been specified.^{
[176]} Such formulations of Einstein's field equations are the basis of numerical relativity.^{
[177]}
The notion of evolution equations is intimately tied in with another aspect of general relativistic physics. In Einstein's theory, it turns out to be impossible to find a general definition for a seemingly simple property such as a system's total mass (or energy). The main reason is that the gravitational field—like any physical field—must be ascribed a certain energy, but that it proves to be fundamentally impossible to localize that energy.^{
[178]}
Nevertheless, there are possibilities to define a system's total mass, either using a hypothetical "infinitely distant observer" (
ADM mass)^{
[179]} or suitable symmetries (
Komar mass).^{
[180]} If one excludes from the system's total mass the energy being carried away to infinity by gravitational waves, the result is the
Bondi mass at null infinity.^{
[181]} Just as in
classical physics, it can be shown that these masses are positive.^{
[182]} Corresponding global definitions exist for momentum and angular momentum.^{
[183]} There have also been a number of attempts to define quasi-local quantities, such as the mass of an isolated system formulated using only quantities defined within a finite region of space containing that system. The hope is to obtain a quantity useful for general statements about
isolated systems, such as a more precise formulation of the hoop conjecture.^{
[184]}
Relationship with quantum theory
If general relativity were considered to be one of the two pillars of modern physics, then quantum theory, the basis of understanding matter from elementary particles to
solid-state physics, would be the other.^{
[185]} However, how to reconcile quantum theory with general relativity is still an open question.
Ordinary
quantum field theories, which form the basis of modern elementary particle physics, are defined in flat Minkowski space, which is an excellent approximation when it comes to describing the behavior of microscopic particles in weak gravitational fields like those found on Earth.^{
[186]} In order to describe situations in which gravity is strong enough to influence (quantum) matter, yet not strong enough to require quantization itself, physicists have formulated quantum field theories in curved spacetime. These theories rely on general relativity to describe a curved background spacetime, and define a generalized quantum field theory to describe the behavior of quantum matter within that spacetime.^{
[187]} Using this formalism, it can be shown that black holes emit a blackbody spectrum of particles known as
Hawking radiation leading to the possibility that they
evaporate over time.^{
[188]} As briefly mentioned
above, this radiation plays an important role for the thermodynamics of black holes.^{
[189]}
The demand for consistency between a quantum description of matter and a geometric description of spacetime,^{
[190]} as well as the appearance of singularities (where curvature length scales become microscopic), indicate the need for a full theory of quantum gravity: for an adequate description of the interior of black holes, and of the very early universe, a theory is required in which gravity and the associated geometry of spacetime are described in the language of quantum physics.^{
[191]} Despite major efforts, no complete and consistent theory of quantum gravity is currently known, even though a number of promising candidates exist.^{
[192]}^{
[193]}
Attempts to generalize ordinary quantum field theories, used in elementary particle physics to describe fundamental interactions, so as to include gravity have led to serious problems.^{
[194]} Some have argued that at low energies, this approach proves successful, in that it results in an acceptable
effective (quantum) field theory of gravity.^{
[195]} At very high energies, however, the perturbative results are badly divergent and lead to models devoid of predictive power ("perturbative
non-renormalizability").^{
[196]}
One attempt to overcome these limitations is
string theory, a quantum theory not of
point particles, but of minute one-dimensional extended objects.^{
[197]} The theory promises to be a
unified description of all particles and interactions, including gravity;^{
[198]} the price to pay is unusual features such as six
extra dimensions of space in addition to the usual three.^{
[199]} In what is called the
second superstring revolution, it was conjectured that both string theory and a unification of general relativity and
supersymmetry known as
supergravity^{
[200]} form part of a hypothesized eleven-dimensional model known as
M-theory, which would constitute a uniquely defined and consistent theory of quantum gravity.^{
[201]}
Another approach starts with the
canonical quantization procedures of quantum theory. Using the initial-value-formulation of general relativity (cf.
evolution equations above), the result is the
Wheeler–deWitt equation (an analogue of the
Schrödinger equation) which, regrettably, turns out to be ill-defined without a proper ultraviolet (lattice) cutoff.^{
[202]} However, with the introduction of what are now known as
Ashtekar variables,^{
[203]} this leads to a promising model known as
loop quantum gravity. Space is represented by a web-like structure called a
spin network, evolving over time in discrete steps.^{
[204]}
Depending on which features of general relativity and quantum theory are accepted unchanged, and on what level changes are introduced,^{
[205]} there are numerous other attempts to arrive at a viable theory of quantum gravity, some examples being the lattice theory of gravity based on the Feynman
Path Integral approach and
Regge calculus,^{
[192]}dynamical triangulations,^{
[206]}causal sets,^{
[207]} twistor models^{
[208]} or the path integral based models of
quantum cosmology.^{
[209]}
All candidate theories still have major formal and conceptual problems to overcome. They also face the common problem that, as yet, there is no way to put quantum gravity predictions to experimental tests (and thus to decide between the candidates where their predictions vary), although there is hope for this to change as future data from cosmological observations and particle physics experiments becomes available.^{
[210]}
Current status
General relativity has emerged as a highly successful model of gravitation and cosmology, which has so far passed many unambiguous observational and experimental tests. However, there are strong indications that the theory is incomplete.^{
[211]} The problem of quantum gravity and the question of the reality of spacetime singularities remain open.^{
[212]} Observational data that is taken as evidence for dark energy and dark matter could indicate the need for new physics.^{
[213]}
Even taken as is, general relativity is rich with possibilities for further exploration. Mathematical relativists seek to understand the nature of singularities and the fundamental properties of Einstein's equations,^{
[214]} while numerical relativists run increasingly powerful computer simulations (such as those describing merging black holes).^{
[215]} In February 2016, it was announced that the existence of gravitational waves was directly detected by the Advanced LIGO team on 14 September 2015.^{
[83]}^{
[216]}^{
[217]} A century after its introduction, general relativity remains a highly active area of research.^{
[218]}
See also
Alcubierre drive – Hypothetical FTL transportation by warping space (warp drive)
^
^{a}^{b}Landau & Lifshitz 1975, p. 228 "...the general theory of relativity...was established by Einstein, and represents probably the most beautiful of all existing physical theories."
^Pais 1982, ch. 9 to 15,
Janssen 2005; an up-to-date collection of current research, including reprints of many of the original articles, is
Renn 2007; an accessible overview can be found in
Renn 2005, pp. 110ff. Einstein's original papers are found in
Digital Einstein, volumes 4 and 6. An early key article is
Einstein 1907, cf.
Pais 1982, ch. 9. The publication featuring the field equations is
Einstein 1915, cf.
Pais 1982, ch. 11–15
^Moshe Carmeli (2008).Relativity: Modern Large-Scale Structures of the Cosmos. pp.92, 93.World Scientific Publishing
^Grossmann for the mathematical part and Einstein for the physical part (1913). Entwurf einer verallgemeinerten Relativitätstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation (Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation), Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik, 62, 225–261.
English translate
^Rovelli 2015, pp. 1–6 "General relativity is not just an extraordinarily beautiful physical theory providing the best description of the gravitational interaction we have so far. It is more."
^Rindler 2001, sec. 1.13; for an elementary account, see
Wheeler 1990, ch. 2; there are, however, some differences between the modern version and Einstein's original concept used in the historical derivation of general relativity, cf.
Norton 1985
^Ehlers 1973, pp. 19–22; for similar derivations, see sections 1 and 2 of ch. 7 in
Weinberg 1972. The Einstein tensor is the only divergence-free tensor that is a function of the metric coefficients, their first and second derivatives at most, and allows the spacetime of special relativity as a solution in the absence of sources of gravity, cf.
Lovelock 1972. The tensors on both side are of second rank, that is, they can each be thought of as 4×4 matrices, each of which contains ten independent terms; hence, the above represents ten coupled equations. The fact that, as a consequence of geometric relations known as
Bianchi identities, the Einstein tensor satisfies a further four identities reduces these to six independent equations, e.g.
Schutz 1985, sec. 8.3
^Weinberg, Steven (1972). Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. John Wiley.
ISBN978-0-471-92567-5.
^Cheng, Ta-Pei (2005). Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: a Basic Introduction. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN978-0-19-852957-6.
^For the (conceptual and historical) difficulties in defining a general principle of relativity and separating it from the notion of general covariance, see
Giulini 2007
^GPS is continually tested by comparing atomic clocks on the ground and aboard orbiting satellites; for an account of relativistic effects, see
Ashby 2002 and
Ashby 2003
^Cf.
Kennefick 2005 for the classic early measurements by Arthur Eddington's expeditions. For an overview of more recent measurements, see
Ohanian & Ruffini 1994, ch. 4.3. For the most precise direct modern observations using quasars, cf.
Shapiro et al. 2004
^This is not an independent axiom; it can be derived from Einstein's equations and the Maxwell
Lagrangian using a
WKB approximation, cf.
Ehlers 1973, sec. 5
^From the standpoint of Einstein's theory, these derivations take into account the effect of gravity on time, but not its consequences for the warping of space, cf.
Rindler 2001, sec. 11.11
^For the Sun's gravitational field using radar signals reflected from planets such as
Venus and Mercury, cf.
Shapiro 1964,
Weinberg 1972, ch. 8, sec. 7; for signals actively sent back by space probes (
transponder measurements), cf.
Bertotti, Iess & Tortora 2003; for an overview, see
Ohanian & Ruffini 1994, table 4.4 on p. 200; for more recent measurements using signals received from a
pulsar that is part of a binary system, the gravitational field causing the time delay being that of the other pulsar, cf.
Stairs 2003, sec. 4.4
^Einstein, A (31 January 1918).
"Über Gravitationswellen". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin (part 1): 154–167.
Bibcode:
1918SPAW.......154E. Archived from
the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
^In consequence, in the parameterized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN), measurements of this effect determine a linear combination of the terms β and γ, cf.
Will 2006, sec. 3.5 and
Will 1993, sec. 7.3
^Hobbs, George; Archibald, A.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; et al. (2010), "The international pulsar timing array project: using pulsars as a gravitational wave detector", Classical and Quantum Gravity, 27 (8): 084013,
arXiv:0911.5206,
Bibcode:
2010CQGra..27h4013H,
doi:
10.1088/0264-9381/27/8/084013,
S2CID56073764
^For the basic mechanism, see
Carroll & Ostlie 1996, sec. 17.2; for more about the different types of astronomical objects associated with this, cf.
Robson 1996
^For a review, see
Begelman, Blandford & Rees 1984. To a distant observer, some of these jets even appear to move
faster than light; this, however, can be explained as an optical illusion that does not violate the tenets of relativity, see
Rees 1966
^For stellar end states, cf.
Oppenheimer & Snyder 1939 or, for more recent numerical work,
Font 2003, sec. 4.1; for supernovae, there are still major problems to be solved, cf.
Buras et al. 2003; for simulating accretion and the formation of jets, cf.
Font 2003, sec. 4.2. Also, relativistic lensing effects are thought to play a role for the signals received from
X-ray pulsars, cf.
Kraus 1998
^The evidence includes limits on compactness from the observation of accretion-driven phenomena ("
Eddington luminosity"), see
Celotti, Miller & Sciama 1999, observations of stellar dynamics in the center of our own
Milky Way galaxy, cf.
Schödel et al. 2003, and indications that at least some of the compact objects in question appear to have no solid surface, which can be deduced from the examination of
X-ray bursts for which the central compact object is either a neutron star or a black hole; cf.
Remillard et al. 2006 for an overview,
Narayan 2006, sec. 5. Observations of the "shadow" of the Milky Way galaxy's central black hole horizon are eagerly sought for, cf.
Falcke, Melia & Agol 2000
^Bergström & Goobar 2003, ch. 9–11; use of these models is justified by the fact that, at large scales of around hundred million
light-years and more, our own universe indeed appears to be isotropic and homogeneous, cf.
Peebles et al. 1991
^Evidence for this comes from the determination of cosmological parameters and additional observations involving the dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters cf.
Peebles 1993, ch. 18, evidence from gravitational lensing, cf.
Peacock 1999, sec. 4.6, and simulations of large-scale structure formation, see
Springel et al. 2005
^Namely, some physicists have questioned whether or not the evidence for dark matter is, in fact, evidence for deviations from the Einsteinian (and the Newtonian) description of gravity cf. the overview in
Mannheim 2006, sec. 9
^Carroll 2001; an accessible overview is given in
Caldwell 2004. Here, too, scientists have argued that the evidence indicates not a new form of energy, but the need for modifications in our cosmological models, cf.
Mannheim 2006, sec. 10; aforementioned modifications need not be modifications of general relativity, they could, for example, be modifications in the way we treat the inhomogeneities in the universe, cf.
Buchert 2008
^More concretely, the
potential function that is crucial to determining the dynamics of the
inflaton is simply postulated, but not derived from an underlying physical theory
^Bondi, H.; Van der Burg, M.G.J.; Metzner, A. (1962). "Gravitational waves in general relativity: VII. Waves from axisymmetric isolated systems". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. A269 (1336): 21–52.
Bibcode:
1962RSPSA.269...21B.
doi:
10.1098/rspa.1962.0161.
S2CID120125096.
^Strominger, Andrew (2017). "Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory".
arXiv:1703.05448 [
hep-th]. ...redacted transcript of a course given by the author at Harvard in spring semester 2016. It contains a pedagogical overview of recent developments connecting the subjects of soft theorems, the memory effect and asymptotic symmetries in four-dimensional QED, nonabelian gauge theory and gravity with applications to black holes. To be published Princeton University Press, 158 pages.
^Israel 1987. A more exact mathematical description distinguishes several kinds of horizon, notably event horizons and
apparent horizons cf.
Hawking & Ellis 1973, pp. 312–320 or
Wald 1984, sec. 12.2; there are also more intuitive definitions for isolated systems that do not require knowledge of spacetime properties at infinity, cf.
Ashtekar & Krishnan 2004
^The laws of black hole mechanics were first described in
Bardeen, Carter & Hawking 1973; a more pedagogical presentation can be found in
Carter 1979; for a more recent review, see
Wald 2001, ch. 2. A thorough, book-length introduction including an introduction to the necessary mathematics
Poisson 2004. For the Penrose process, see
Penrose 1969
^The fact that black holes radiate, quantum mechanically, was first derived in
Hawking 1975; a more thorough derivation can be found in
Wald 1975. A review is given in
Wald 2001, ch. 3
^Here one should remind to the well-known fact that the important "quasi-optical" singularities of the so-called
eikonal approximations of many wave equations, namely the "
caustics", are resolved into finite peaks beyond that approximation.
^The restriction to future singularities naturally excludes initial singularities such as the big bang singularity, which in principle be visible to observers at later cosmic time. The cosmic censorship conjecture was first presented in
Penrose 1969; a textbook-level account is given in
Wald 1984, pp. 302–305. For numerical results, see the review
Berger 2002, sec. 2.1
^Gourgoulhon 2007; for a review of the basics of numerical relativity, including the problems arising from the peculiarities of Einstein's equations, see
Lehner 2001
^Komar 1959; for a pedagogical introduction, see
Wald 1984, sec. 11.2; although defined in a totally different way, it can be shown to be equivalent to the ADM mass for stationary spacetimes, cf.
Ashtekar & Magnon-Ashtekar 1979
^For a pedagogical introduction, see
Wald 1984, sec. 11.2
^Wald 1984, p. 295 and refs therein; this is important for questions of stability—if there were
negative mass states, then flat, empty Minkowski space, which has mass zero, could evolve into these states
^Put simply, matter is the source of spacetime curvature, and once matter has quantum properties, we can expect spacetime to have them as well. Cf.
Carlip 2001, sec. 2
^In particular, a perturbative technique known as
renormalization, an integral part of deriving predictions which take into account higher-energy contributions, cf.
Weinberg 1996, ch. 17, 18, fails in this case; cf.
Veltman 1975,
Goroff & Sagnotti 1985; for a recent comprehensive review of the failure of perturbative renormalizability for quantum gravity see
Hamber 2009
^At the energies reached in current experiments, these strings are indistinguishable from point-like particles, but, crucially, different
modes of oscillation of one and the same type of fundamental string appear as particles with different (
electric and other)
charges, e.g.
Ibanez 2000. The theory is successful in that one mode will always correspond to a
graviton, the
messenger particle of gravity, e.g.
Green, Schwarz & Witten 1987, sec. 2.3, 5.3
^A review of the various problems and the techniques being developed to overcome them, see
Lehner 2002
^See
Bartusiak 2000 for an account up to that year; up-to-date news can be found on the websites of major detector collaborations such as
GEO600 and
LIGO
Anderson, J. D.; Campbell, J. K.; Jurgens, R. F.; Lau, E. L. (1992), "Recent developments in solar-system tests of general relativity", in Sato, H.; Nakamura, T. (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Marcel Großmann Meeting on General Relativity, World Scientific, pp. 353–355,
ISBN978-981-02-0950-6
Ashtekar, Abhay (2007), "Loop Quantum Gravity: Four Recent Advances and a Dozen Frequently Asked Questions", The Eleventh Marcel Grossmann Meeting – on Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Gravitation and Relativistic Field Theories – Proceedings of the MG11 Meeting on General Relativity: 126,
arXiv:0705.2222,
Bibcode:
2008mgm..conf..126A,
doi:
10.1142/9789812834300_0008,
ISBN978-981-283-426-3,
S2CID119663169
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ISBN978-981-256-424-5
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ISBN978-0-521-37976-2
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Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1984), "The general theory of relativity – Why 'It is probably the most beautiful of all existing theories'", Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, 5 (1): 3–11,
Bibcode:
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doi:
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S2CID120910934
Ciufolini, Ignazio; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Peron, R. (2006), "Determination of frame-dragging using Earth gravity models from CHAMP and GRACE", New Astron., 11 (8): 527–550,
Bibcode:
2006NewA...11..527C,
doi:
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Coc, A.; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Descouvemont, Pierre; Adahchour, Abderrahim; Angulo, Carmen (2004), "Updated Big Bang Nucleosynthesis confronted to WMAP observations and to the Abundance of Light Elements", Astrophysical Journal, 600 (2): 544–552,
arXiv:astro-ph/0309480,
Bibcode:
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doi:
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S2CID16276658
Cutler, Curt; Thorne, Kip S. (2002), "An overview of gravitational wave sources", in Bishop, Nigel; Maharaj, Sunil D. (eds.), Proceedings of 16th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR16), World Scientific, p. 4090,
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ISBN978-981-238-171-2
Donoghue, John F. (1995), "Introduction to the Effective Field Theory Description of Gravity", in Cornet, Fernando (ed.), Effective Theories: Proceedings of the Advanced School, Almunecar, Spain, 26 June–1 July 1995, Singapore: World Scientific, p. 12024,
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ISBN978-981-02-2908-5
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doi:
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Everitt, C. W. F.; Buchman, S.; DeBra, D. B.; Keiser, G. M. (2001), "Gravity Probe B: Countdown to launch", in Lämmerzahl, C.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Hehl, F. W. (eds.), Gyros, Clocks, and Interferometers: Testing Relativistic Gravity in Space (Lecture Notes in Physics 562), Springer, pp. 52–82,
ISBN978-3-540-41236-6
Gowdy, Robert H. (1974), "Vacuum spacetimes with two-parameter spacelike isometry groups and compact invariant hypersurfaces: Topologies and boundary conditions", Annals of Physics, 83 (1): 203–241,
Bibcode:
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doi:
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Greenstein, J. L.; Oke, J. B.; Shipman, H. L. (1971), "Effective Temperature, Radius, and Gravitational Redshift of Sirius B", Astrophysical Journal, 169: 563,
Bibcode:
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Bibcode:
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Hawking, Stephen W. (1987), "Quantum cosmology", in Hawking, Stephen W.; Israel, Werner (eds.), 300 Years of Gravitation, Cambridge University Press, pp. 631–651,
ISBN978-0-521-37976-2
Isham, Christopher J. (1994), "Prima facie questions in quantum gravity", in Ehlers, Jürgen; Friedrich, Helmut (eds.), Canonical Gravity: From Classical to Quantum, Springer,
ISBN978-3-540-58339-4
Israel, Werner (1987), "Dark stars: the evolution of an idea", in Hawking, Stephen W.; Israel, Werner (eds.), 300 Years of Gravitation, Cambridge University Press, pp. 199–276,
ISBN978-0-521-37976-2
Kennefick, Daniel (2005), "Astronomers Test General Relativity: Light-bending and the Solar Redshift", in Renn, Jürgen (ed.), One hundred authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH, pp. 178–181,
ISBN978-3-527-40574-9
Kenyon, I. R. (1990), General Relativity, Oxford University Press,
ISBN978-0-19-851996-6
Kochanek, C.S.; Falco, E.E.; Impey, C.; Lehar, J. (2007),
CASTLES Survey Website, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, retrieved 21 August 2007
Kraus, Ute (1998), "Light Deflection Near Neutron Stars", Relativistic Astrophysics, Vieweg, pp. 66–81,
ISBN978-3-528-06909-4
Kuchař, Karel (1973), "Canonical Quantization of Gravity", in Israel, Werner (ed.), Relativity, Astrophysics and Cosmology, D. Reidel, pp. 237–288,
ISBN978-90-277-0369-9
MacCallum, M. (2006), "Finding and using exact solutions of the Einstein equations", in Mornas, L.; Alonso, J. D. (eds.), AIP Conference Proceedings (A Century of Relativity Physics: ERE05, the XXVIII Spanish Relativity Meeting), vol. 841, pp. 129–143,
arXiv:gr-qc/0601102,
Bibcode:
2006AIPC..841..129M,
doi:
10.1063/1.2218172,
S2CID13096531
Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; et al. (1994), "Measurement of the cosmic microwave spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument", Astrophysical Journal, 420: 439–444,
Bibcode:
1994ApJ...420..439M,
doi:10.1086/173574
Nordström, Gunnar (1918), "On the Energy of the Gravitational Field in Einstein's Theory", Verhandl. Koninkl. Ned. Akad. Wetenschap., 26: 1238–1245,
Bibcode:
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O'Meara, John M.; Tytler, David; Kirkman, David; Suzuki, Nao; Prochaska, Jason X.; Lubin, Dan; Wolfe, Arthur M. (2001), "The Deuterium to Hydrogen Abundance Ratio Towards a Fourth QSO: HS0105+1619", Astrophysical Journal, 552 (2): 718–730,
arXiv:astro-ph/0011179,
Bibcode:
2001ApJ...552..718O,
doi:
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S2CID14164537
Remillard, Ronald A.; Lin, Dacheng; Cooper, Randall L.; Narayan, Ramesh (2006), "The Rates of Type I X-Ray Bursts from Transients Observed with RXTE: Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons", Astrophysical Journal, 646 (1): 407–419,
arXiv:astro-ph/0509758,
Bibcode:
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doi:
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S2CID14949527
Renn, Jürgen, ed. (2007), The Genesis of General Relativity (4 Volumes), Dordrecht: Springer,
ISBN978-1-4020-3999-7
Renn, Jürgen, ed. (2005), Albert Einstein—Chief Engineer of the Universe: Einstein's Life and Work in Context, Berlin: Wiley-VCH,
ISBN978-3-527-40571-8
Rovelli, Carlo, ed. (2015), General Relativity: The most beautiful of theories (de Gruyter Studies in Mathematical Physics), Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH,
ISBN978-3-11-034042-6
Schwarzschild, Karl (1916a), "Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie", Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. D. Wiss.: 189–196,
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Schwarzschild, Karl (1916b), "Über das Gravitationsfeld einer Kugel aus inkompressibler Flüssigkeit nach der Einsteinschen Theorie", Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. D. Wiss.: 424–434,
Bibcode:
1916skpa.conf..424S
Seidel, Edward (1998), "Numerical Relativity: Towards Simulations of 3D Black Hole Coalescence", in Narlikar, J. V.; Dadhich, N. (eds.), Gravitation and Relativity: At the turn of the millennium (Proceedings of the GR-15 Conference, held at IUCAA, Pune, India, December 16–21, 1997), IUCAA, p. 6088,
arXiv:gr-qc/9806088,
Bibcode:
1998gr.qc.....6088S,
ISBN978-81-900378-3-9
Shapiro, S. S.; Davis, J. L.; Lebach, D. E.; Gregory, J. S. (2004), "Measurement of the solar gravitational deflection of radio waves using geodetic very-long-baseline interferometry data, 1979–1999", Phys. Rev. Lett., 92 (12): 121101,
Bibcode:
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doi:
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PMID15089661
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ISBN978-0-521-46136-8
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Thorne, Kip S. (1972), "Nonspherical Gravitational Collapse—A Short Review", in Klauder, J. (ed.), Magic without Magic, W. H. Freeman, pp. 231–258
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2006gr.qc.....6062T
Veltman, Martinus (1975), "Quantum Theory of Gravitation", in Balian, Roger; Zinn-Justin, Jean (eds.), Methods in Field Theory – Les Houches Summer School in Theoretical Physics., vol. 77, North Holland
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Taylor, Joseph H. (2003), "The Relativistic Binary Pulsar B1913+16"", in Bailes, M.; Nice, D. J.;
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Wald, Robert M. (1992), Space, Time, and Gravity: the Theory of the Big Bang and Black Holes, Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
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Wheeler, John; Ford, Kenneth (1998), Geons, Black Holes, & Quantum Foam: a life in physics, New York: W. W. Norton,
ISBN978-0-393-31991-0
Beginning undergraduate textbooks
Callahan, James J. (2000), The Geometry of Spacetime: an Introduction to Special and General Relativity, New York: Springer,
ISBN978-0-387-98641-8
Taylor, Edwin F.; Wheeler, John Archibald (2000), Exploring Black Holes: Introduction to General Relativity, Addison Wesley,
ISBN978-0-201-38423-9
Advanced undergraduate textbooks
Cheng, Ta-Pei (2005), Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: a Basic Introduction, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press,
ISBN978-0-19-852957-6
Stephani, Hans (1990), General Relativity: An Introduction to the Theory of the Gravitational Field, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
ISBN978-0-521-37941-0